q fever

Summary

Summary: An acute infectious disease caused by COXIELLA BURNETII. It is characterized by a sudden onset of FEVER; HEADACHE; malaise; and weakness. In humans, it is commonly contracted by inhalation of infected dusts derived from infected domestic animals (ANIMALS, DOMESTIC).

Top Publications

  1. Morroy G, Peters J, van Nieuwenhof M, Bor H, Hautvast J, van der Hoek W, et al. The health status of Q-fever patients after long-term follow-up. BMC Infect Dis. 2011;11:97 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data emphasise that more attention is needed not only to prevent exposure to Q-fever but also for the prevention and treatment of the long-term consequences of this zoönosis. ..
  2. Scolamacchia F, Handel I, Fèvre E, Morgan K, Tanya V, Bronsvoort B. Serological patterns of brucellosis, leptospirosis and Q fever in Bos indicus cattle in Cameroon. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e8623 pubmed publisher
    Brucellosis, leptospirosis and Q fever are important infections of livestock causing a range of clinical conditions including abortions and reduced fertility...
  3. Lührmann A, Nogueira C, Carey K, Roy C. Inhibition of pathogen-induced apoptosis by a Coxiella burnetii type IV effector protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:18997-9001 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, emergence of an effector protein that interferes with a proapoptotic signaling pathway directed against intracellular bacteria correlates with adaptation of a pathogen to mammalian hosts...
  4. Xiong X, Wang X, Wen B, Graves S, Stenos J. Potential serodiagnostic markers for Q fever identified in Coxiella burnetii by immunoproteomic and protein microarray approaches. BMC Microbiol. 2012;12:35 pubmed publisher
    Coxiella burnetii is the etiological agent of Q fever. The clinical diagnosis of Q fever is mainly based on several serological tests. These tests all need Coxiella organisms which are difficult and hazardous to culture and purify...
  5. Courcoul A, Vergu E, Denis J, Beaudeau F. Spread of Q fever within dairy cattle herds: key parameters inferred using a Bayesian approach. Proc Biol Sci. 2010;277:2857-65 pubmed publisher
    b>Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii...
  6. Munster J, Leenders A, van der Hoek W, Schneeberger P, Rietveld A, Riphagen Dalhuisen J, et al. Cost-effectiveness of a screening strategy for Q fever among pregnant women in risk areas: a clustered randomized controlled trial. BMC Womens Health. 2010;10:32 pubmed publisher
    In The Netherlands the largest human Q fever outbreak ever reported in the literature is currently ongoing with more than 2300 notified cases in 2009...
  7. Gozalan A, Rolain J, Ertek M, Angelakis E, Coplu N, Basbulut E, et al. Seroprevalence of Q fever in a district located in the west Black Sea region of Turkey. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2010;29:465-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii. In Turkey, it has been reported from the late 1940s that Q fever is endemic in humans and animals...
  8. Wever P, Arts C, Groot C, Lestrade P, Koning O, Renders N. [Screening for chronic Q fever in symptomatic patients with an aortic aneurysm or prosthesis]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2010;154:A2122 pubmed
    ..The patient died despite placement of an aortic prosthesis. A hospital screening programme for chronic Q fever in patients with aortic aneurysm revealed chronic Q fever...
  9. Courcoul A, Monod H, Nielen M, Klinkenberg D, Hogerwerf L, Beaudeau F, et al. Modelling the effect of heterogeneity of shedding on the within herd Coxiella burnetii spread and identification of key parameters by sensitivity analysis. J Theor Biol. 2011;284:130-41 pubmed publisher
    Coxiella burnetii is the bacterium responsible for Q fever, a worldwide zoonosis. Ruminants, especially cattle, are recognized as the most important source of human infections...

More Information

Publications98

  1. Taurel A, Guatteo R, Joly A, Beaudeau F. Effectiveness of vaccination and antibiotics to control Coxiella burnetii shedding around calving in dairy cows. Vet Microbiol. 2012;159:432-7 pubmed publisher
    ..to control Coxiella burnetii vaginal shedding at calving in cows was assessed through a 13 months study in 22 Q fever clinically affected commercial dairy herds...
  2. van den Brom R, Schimmer B, Schneeberger P, Swart W, van der Hoek W, Vellema P. Seroepidemiological survey for Coxiella burnetii antibodies and associated risk factors in Dutch livestock veterinarians. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e54021 pubmed publisher
    Since 2007, Q fever has become a major public health problem in the Netherlands and goats were the most likely source of the human outbreaks in 2007, 2008 and 2009...
  3. Boden K, Wagner Wiening C, Seidel T, Baier M, Bischof W, Straube E, et al. Diagnosis of acute Q fever with emphasis on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and nested polymerase chain reaction regarding the time of serum collection. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2010;68:110-6 pubmed publisher
    ..BIOS/Focus [Cypress, CA]), and a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were explored for diagnosis of acute Q fever in reference to time of serum collection...
  4. Loftis A, Reeves W, Miller M, Massung R. Coxiella burnetii, the agent of Q fever, in domestic sheep flocks from Wyoming, United States. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2012;12:189-91 pubmed publisher
    Coxiella burnetii, the agent of Q fever, is an intracellular bacterial pathogen. It has a nearly cosmopolitan distribution. We conducted a serological survey of domestic sheep herds for infections with C...
  5. Fariñas M, Collado C. [Infection by Coxiella burnetii (Q fever)]. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2010;28 Suppl 1:29-32 pubmed publisher
    In spite of being described over 60 years, Q fever is still a little known disease. The exact prevalence is also unknown, but probably the number of cases of Q fever is underestimated...
  6. Astobiza I, Barandika J, Ruiz Fons F, Hurtado A, Povedano I, Juste R, et al. Four-year evaluation of the effect of vaccination against Coxiella burnetii on reduction of animal infection and environmental contamination in a naturally infected dairy sheep flock. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:7405-7 pubmed publisher
    ..burnetii infection. Shedding was not detected in ewes and yearlings in the last 2 years, but C. burnetii still persisted in the environment...
  7. Kersh G, Fitzpatrick K, Self J, Priestley R, Kelly A, Lash R, et al. Presence and persistence of Coxiella burnetii in the environments of goat farms associated with a Q fever outbreak. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2013;79:1697-703 pubmed publisher
    b>Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by inhalation of the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Ruminant livestock are common reservoirs for C...
  8. Epelboin L, Chesnais C, Boullé C, Drogoul A, Raoult D, Djossou F, et al. Q fever pneumonia in French Guiana: prevalence, risk factors, and prognostic score. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;55:67-74 pubmed publisher
    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the major manifestation of Q fever, an emerging disease in French Guiana. Consequently, the empirical antibiotherapy used for the treatment of CAP combines doxycycline and the recommended amoxicillin...
  9. de Bruin A, van Alphen P, van der Plaats R, de Heer L, Reusken C, van Rotterdam B, et al. Molecular typing of Coxiella burnetii from animal and environmental matrices during Q fever epidemics in the Netherlands. BMC Vet Res. 2012;8:165 pubmed publisher
    The bacterium Coxiella burnetii has caused unprecedented outbreaks of Q fever in the Netherlands between 2007 and 2010. Since 2007, over 4000 human cases have been reported, with 2354 cases in 2009 alone...
  10. Mediannikov O, Fenollar F, Socolovschi C, Diatta G, Bassene H, Molez J, et al. Coxiella burnetii in humans and ticks in rural Senegal. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4:e654 pubmed publisher
    b>Q fever is a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii. Epidemiologically, animals are considered reservoirs and humans incidental hosts. We investigated Q fever in rural Senegal. Human samples (e.g...
  11. Nielsen K, Nielsen S, Agger J, Christoffersen A, Agerholm J. Association between antibodies to Coxiella burnetii in bulk tank milk and perinatal mortality of Danish dairy calves. Acta Vet Scand. 2011;53:64 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the level of antibodies to C. burnetii in BTM may be associated with perinatal mortality, but the association was not persistent and should be investigated further. ..
  12. Papadioti A, Markoutsa S, Vranakis I, Tselentis Y, Karas M, Psaroulaki A, et al. A proteomic approach to investigate the differential antigenic profile of two Coxiella burnetii strains. J Proteomics. 2011;74:1150-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Q fever is a widespread zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, an obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterium. Current diagnostics of Q fever is based on serological testing of patient serum. Biological distinction among C...
  13. Dijkstra F, van der Hoek W, Wijers N, Schimmer B, Rietveld A, Wijkmans C, et al. The 2007–2010 Q fever epidemic in The Netherlands: characteristics of notified acute Q fever patients and the association with dairy goat farming. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2012;64:3-12 pubmed publisher
    We describe the Q fever epidemic in the Netherlands with emphasis on the epidemiological characteristics of acute Q fever patients and the association with veterinary factors...
  14. Wegdam Blans M, Kampschreur L, Delsing C, Bleeker Rovers C, Sprong T, van Kasteren M, et al. Chronic Q fever: review of the literature and a proposal of new diagnostic criteria. J Infect. 2012;64:247-59 pubmed publisher
    A review was performed to determine clinical aspects and diagnostic tools for chronic Q fever. We present a Dutch guideline based on literature and clinical experience with chronic Q fever patients in The Netherlands so far...
  15. Jado I, Carranza Rodriguez C, Barandika J, Toledo A, García Amil C, Serrano B, et al. Molecular method for the characterization of Coxiella burnetii from clinical and environmental samples: variability of genotypes in Spain. BMC Microbiol. 2012;12:91 pubmed publisher
    ..Spain among 90 samples tested, detecting 10 different genotypes, being those adaA negative associated with acute Q fever cases presenting as fever of intermediate duration with liver involvement and with chronic cases...
  16. Lai C, Chang L, Lin J, Chen W, Kuo L, Lin H, et al. High seroprevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae IgM in acute Q fever by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e77640 pubmed publisher
    b>Q fever is serologically cross-reactive with other intracellular microorganisms. However, studies of the serological status of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae during Q fever are rare...
  17. Limonard G, Thijsen S, Bossink A, Asscheman A, Bouwman J. Developing a new clinical tool for diagnosing chronic Q fever: the Coxiella ELISPOT. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2012;64:57-60 pubmed publisher
    Definitively establishing a clinical diagnosis of chronic Q fever remains challenging, as the diagnostic performance of both conventional serological tests and PCR is limited...
  18. Runge M, Binder A, Schotte U, Ganter M. Investigations concerning the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii and Chlamydia abortus in sheep in correlation with management systems and abortion rate in Lower Saxony in 2004. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2012;125:138-43 pubmed
    ..While Chl. abortus only infrequently infects humans, C burnetii is the aetiological agent of numerous Q fever outbreaks during the last decades...
  19. van der Hoek W, Morroy G, Renders N, Wever P, Hermans M, Leenders A, et al. Epidemic Q fever in humans in the Netherlands. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2012;984:329-64 pubmed publisher
    In 2005, Q fever was diagnosed on two dairy goat farms and 2 years later it emerged in the human population in the south of the Netherlands. From 2007 to 2010, more than 4,000 human cases were notified with an annual seasonal peak...
  20. Schneeberger P, Hermans M, van Hannen E, Schellekens J, Leenders A, Wever P. Real-time PCR with serum samples is indispensable for early diagnosis of acute Q fever. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010;17:286-90 pubmed publisher
    The world's largest Q fever outbreak is ongoing in The Netherlands with around 3,000 confirmed cases since the first half of 2007. Increased awareness has resulted in early referral of patients for diagnostics...
  21. Kersh G, Lambourn D, Self J, Akmajian A, Stanton J, Baszler T, et al. Coxiella burnetii infection of a Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) found in Washington State. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:3428-31 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first description of coxiellosis in a sea lion and suggests that exposure to sea lions may be a risk factor for contracting Q fever.
  22. van der Hoek W, Hogema B, Dijkstra F, Rietveld A, Wijkmans C, Schneeberger P, et al. Relation between Q fever notifications and Coxiella burnetii infections during the 2009 outbreak in The Netherlands. Euro Surveill. 2012;17:20058 pubmed
    Large outbreaks of Q fever in the Netherlands from 2007 to 2009 were monitored using notification data of acute clinical Q fever...
  23. Roest H, Tilburg J, van der Hoek W, Vellema P, van Zijderveld F, Klaassen C, et al. The Q fever epidemic in The Netherlands: history, onset, response and reflection. Epidemiol Infect. 2011;139:1-12 pubmed publisher
    The 2007-2009 human Q fever epidemic in The Netherlands attracted attention due to its magnitude and duration...
  24. Hackert V, van der Hoek W, Dukers Muijrers N, de Bruin A, Al Dahouk S, Neubauer H, et al. Q fever: single-point source outbreak with high attack rates and massive numbers of undetected infections across an entire region. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;55:1591-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our investigation may serve as an essential case study for risk assessment in public health and related fields such as bioterrorism response and preparedness. ..
  25. Mazokopakis E, Karefilakis C, Starakis I. Q fever endocarditis. Infect Disord Drug Targets. 2010;10:27-31 pubmed
    Coxiella burnetii, the agent of Q fever, produces a variety of clinical syndromes. The most frequent and serious chronic presentation is endocarditis, which presents unspecifically as a blood-culture negative endocarditis...
  26. Oyston P, Davies C. Q fever: the neglected biothreat agent. J Med Microbiol. 2011;60:9-21 pubmed publisher
    Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q fever, a disease with a spectrum of presentations from the mild to fatal, including chronic sequelae...
  27. van der Hoek W, Dijkstra F, Wijers N, Rietveld A, Wijkmans C, van Steenbergen J, et al. [Three years of Q fever in the Netherlands: faster diagnosis]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2010;154:A1845 pubmed
    ..rapid diagnosis and treatment is possible and to assess if this could be improved, since the first outbreak of Q fever in 2007. Retrospective study of secondary data...
  28. van den Wijngaard C, Dijkstra F, van Pelt W, van Asten L, Kretzschmar M, Schimmer B, et al. In search of hidden Q-fever outbreaks: linking syndromic hospital clusters to infected goat farms. Epidemiol Infect. 2011;139:19-26 pubmed publisher
    ..We assessed whether these were plausibly caused by Q fever, using patients' age, discharge diagnoses, indications for other causes, and overlap with reported Q fever in ..
  29. VIGIL A, Chen C, Jain A, Nakajima Sasaki R, Jasinskas A, Pablo J, et al. Profiling the humoral immune response of acute and chronic Q fever by protein microarray. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2011;10:M110.006304 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to assess the antibody repertoire of acute and chronic Q fever patients we have constructed a protein microarray containing 93% of the proteome of Coxiella burnetii, the ..
  30. Whelan J, Schimmer B, de Bruin A, van Beest Holle M, van der Hoek W, Ter Schegget R. Visits on 'lamb-viewing days' at a sheep farm open to the public was a risk factor for Q fever in 2009. Epidemiol Infect. 2012;140:858-64 pubmed publisher
    Between February and May 2009, 347 laboratory-confirmed cases of acute Q fever were reported in a southern municipal health service region in The Netherlands...
  31. de Bruin A, Janse I, Koning M, De Heer L, van der Plaats R, van Leuken J, et al. Detection of Coxiella burnetii DNA in the environment during and after a large Q fever epidemic in the Netherlands. J Appl Microbiol. 2013;114:1395-404 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the Coxiella burnetii DNA content in environmental samples that may contribute to the transmission of C. burnetii...
  32. Frankel D, Richet H, Renvoise A, Raoult D. Q fever in France, 1985-2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:350-6 pubmed publisher
    To assess Q fever in France, we analyzed data for 1985-2009 from the French National Reference Center. A total of 179,794 serum samples were analyzed; 3,723 patients (one third female patients) had acute Q fever...
  33. Bernard H, Brockmann S, Kleinkauf N, Klinc C, Wagner Wiening C, Stark K, et al. High seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii antibodies in veterinarians associated with cattle obstetrics, Bavaria, 2009. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2012;12:552-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Q fever is a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii. Infection can result in severe disease. However, little is known about the risk of infection in veterinarians...
  34. Gefenaite G, Munster J, Van Houdt R, Hak E. Effectiveness of the Q fever vaccine: a meta-analysis. Vaccine. 2011;29:395-8 pubmed publisher
    In the Netherlands, the number of notified human Q fever cases showed a steep increase over the last three years and is not expected to disappear in the next few years...
  35. Emery M, Ostlund E, Schmitt B. Comparison of Q fever serology methods in cattle, goats, and sheep. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2012;24:379-82 pubmed publisher
    Coxiella burnetii is an obligate intracellular bacterium that is responsible for the zoonotic disease Q fever. The distribution of this agent is worldwide except for New Zealand, and infection can be asymptomatic in both human beings and ..
  36. Ruiz Fons F, Astobiza I, Barandika J, Hurtado A, Atxaerandio R, Juste R, et al. Seroepidemiological study of Q fever in domestic ruminants in semi-extensive grazing systems. BMC Vet Res. 2010;6:3 pubmed publisher
    b>Q fever, a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, is endemic in northern Spain where it has been reported as responsible for large series of human pneumonia cases and domestic ruminants' reproductive disorders...
  37. De Lange M, Schimmer B, Vellema P, Hautvast J, Schneeberger P, VAN Duijnhoven Y. Coxiella burnetii seroprevalence and risk factors in sheep farmers and farm residents in The Netherlands. Epidemiol Infect. 2014;142:1231-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Subtyping human, cattle, goat, and sheep C. burnetii strains might elucidate their role in the infection risk of sheep farm residents...
  38. Schoffelen T, Herremans T, Sprong T, Nabuurs Franssen M, Wever P, Joosten L, et al. Limited humoral and cellular responses to Q fever vaccination in older adults with risk factors for chronic Q fever. J Infect. 2013;67:565-73 pubmed publisher
    In the Netherlands, people at risk for chronic Q fever were vaccinated against Coxiella burnetii with the inactivated whole cell vaccine Q-vax®. We aimed to measure the immune responses to C...
  39. Kantsø B, Svendsen C, Jørgensen C, Krogfelt K. Comparison of two commercially available ELISA antibody test kits for detection of human antibodies against Coxiella burnetii. Scand J Infect Dis. 2012;44:489-94 pubmed publisher
    b>Q fever is a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii. The disease is emerging in many parts of the world, likely in part due to increased awareness and the availability of better diagnostic tests...
  40. Cohn A, Prebble J, Robson J, Nourse C. Q fever as a cause of recurrent soft-tissue nodules and abscesses in a child. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2012;31:525-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A 3-year-old boy from a cattle property in Queensland, Australia developed chronic, multifocal, recurrent subcutaneous nodules and abscesses during a period of 2 years. Serologic and histologic findings and management options are discussed...
  41. Schimmer B, Lenferink A, Schneeberger P, Aangenend H, Vellema P, Hautvast J, et al. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) seropositivity in dairy goat farmers' households in The Netherlands, 2009-2010. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42364 pubmed publisher
    Community Q fever epidemics occurred in The Netherlands in 2007-2009, with dairy goat and dairy sheep farms as the implicated source...
  42. Cooper A, Hedlefs R, Ketheesan N, Govan B. Serological evidence of Coxiella burnetii infection in dogs in a regional centre. Aust Vet J. 2011;89:385-7 pubmed publisher
    OBJECTIVE Investigate the seroprevalence of the causative agent of Q fever, Coxiella burnetii in domestic dogs in the Townsville region, North Queensland, Australia...
  43. Wilson L, Couper S, Prempeh H, Young D, Pollock K, Stewart W, et al. Investigation of a Q fever outbreak in a Scottish co-located slaughterhouse and cutting plant. Zoonoses Public Health. 2010;57:493-8 pubmed publisher
    Outbreaks of Q fever are rare in the UK. In 2006, the largest outbreak of Q fever in Scotland occurred at a co-located slaughterhouse and cutting plant with 110 cases...
  44. Vardi M, Petersil N, Keysary A, Rzotkiewicz S, Laor A, Bitterman H. Immunological arousal during acute Q fever infection. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2011;30:1527-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this investigation was to characterise the serological overlap between acute Q fever and other infectious and immunological diseases...
  45. Muskens J, van Engelen E, van Maanen C, Bartels C, Lam T. Prevalence of Coxiella burnetii infection in Dutch dairy herds based on testing bulk tank milk and individual samples by PCR and ELISA. Vet Rec. 2011;168:79 pubmed publisher
    ..7 per cent) lactating cows; bacterial DNA was not detected in any of the faecal samples obtained from youngstock. The blood and milk samples were taken from the cattle in the period January to April 2008...
  46. Deringer J, Chen C, Samuel J, Brown W. Immunoreactive Coxiella burnetii Nine Mile proteins separated by 2D electrophoresis and identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Microbiology. 2011;157:526-42 pubmed publisher
    Coxiella burnetii is a Gram-negative obligate intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of Q fever in humans. Q fever causes acute flu-like symptoms and may develop into a chronic disease leading to endocarditis...
  47. Ben Amara A, Ghigo E, Le Priol Y, Lépolard C, Salcedo S, Lemichez E, et al. Coxiella burnetii, the agent of Q fever, replicates within trophoblasts and induces a unique transcriptional response. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15315 pubmed publisher
    b>Q fever is a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, an obligate intracellular bacterium typically found in myeloid cells...
  48. Reusken C, van der Plaats R, Opsteegh M, de Bruin A, Swart A. Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) in Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus at livestock farms and urban locations in the Netherlands; could Rattus spp. represent reservoirs for (re)introduction?. Prev Vet Med. 2011;101:124-30 pubmed publisher
    The Q fever outbreak in the Netherlands in 2007-2010 prompted government interventions to reduce the human incidence by reduction of Q fever shedding at dairy goat farms...
  49. Zhang Y, Zhang G, Hendrix L, Tesh V, Samuel J. Coxiella burnetii induces apoptosis during early stage infection via a caspase-independent pathway in human monocytic THP-1 cells. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30841 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that both intracellular C. burnetii replication and secreted TNF-? contribute to NMII infection-triggered apoptosis during an early stage of infection...
  50. van der Hoek W, Hunink J, Vellema P, Droogers P. Q fever in The Netherlands: the role of local environmental conditions. Int J Environ Health Res. 2011;21:441-51 pubmed publisher
    The Netherlands is facing a Q fever epidemic in which dairy goats are implicated. People living close to an affected farm have an increased risk...
  51. Wielders C, Wijnbergen P, Renders N, Schellekens J, Schneeberger P, Wever P, et al. High Coxiella burnetii DNA load in serum during acute Q fever is associated with progression to a serologic profile indicative of chronic Q fever. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51:3192-8 pubmed publisher
    PCR is very effective in diagnosing acute Q fever in the early stages of infection, when bacterial DNA is present in the bloodstream but antibodies have not yet developed...
  52. Vranakis I, De Bock P, Papadioti A, Samoilis G, Tselentis Y, Gevaert K, et al. Unraveling persistent host cell infection with Coxiella burnetii by quantitative proteomics. J Proteome Res. 2011;10:4241-51 pubmed publisher
    ..burnetii orchestrates a vast number of different bacterial and eukaryotic host cell processes to persist within its host...
  53. Schimmer B, Ter Schegget R, Wegdam M, Züchner L, de Bruin A, Schneeberger P, et al. The use of a geographic information system to identify a dairy goat farm as the most likely source of an urban Q-fever outbreak. BMC Infect Dis. 2010;10:69 pubmed publisher
    ..A generic geographic information system (GIS) was used to develop a method for source detection in the still evolving major epidemic of Q-fever in the Netherlands...
  54. Healy B, van Woerden H, Raoult D, Graves S, Pitman J, Lloyd G, et al. Chronic Q fever: different serological results in three countries--results of a follow-up study 6 years after a point source outbreak. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52:1013-9 pubmed publisher
    Acute and chronic Q fever/Coxiella burnetii infection is diagnosed principally by serology. The management of patients who have serological evidence of chronic Q fever but no other manifestation of chronic infection is challenging.
  55. Horigan M, Bell M, Pollard T, Sayers A, Pritchard G. Q fever diagnosis in domestic ruminants: comparison between complement fixation and commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2011;23:924-31 pubmed publisher
    b>Q fever is an important zoonotic disease caused by infection with the bacterium Coxiella burnetii...
  56. Huijsmans C, Schellekens J, Wever P, Toman R, Savelkoul P, Janse I, et al. Single-nucleotide-polymorphism genotyping of Coxiella burnetii during a Q fever outbreak in The Netherlands. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:2051-7 pubmed publisher
    Coxiella burnetii is the etiological agent of Q fever. Currently, the Netherlands is facing the largest Q fever epidemic ever, with almost 4,000 notified human cases...
  57. Hogerwerf L, Borlée F, Still K, Heederik D, Van Rotterdam B, de Bruin A, et al. Detection of Coxiella burnetii DNA in inhalable airborne dust samples from goat farms after mandatory culling. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78:5410-2 pubmed publisher
    ..burnetii DNA are present in inhalable size fractions...
  58. Amitai Z, Bromberg M, Bernstein M, Raveh D, Keysary A, David D, et al. A large Q fever outbreak in an urban school in central Israel. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50:1433-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Subsequent investigation identified a large outbreak of Q fever which started 2 weeks earlier. We describe the investigation of this outbreak and its possible implications...
  59. Kampschreur L, Oosterheert J, de Vries Feyens C, Delsing C, Hermans M, van Sluisveld I, et al. Chronic Q fever-related dual-pathogen endocarditis: case series of three patients. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:1692-4 pubmed publisher
    Following Coxiella burnetii infection, there is a 1 to 5% risk of chronic Q fever. Endocarditis, mycotic aneurysm, and vascular prosthesis infection are common manifestations. We present three patients with endocarditis by C...
  60. Czopowicz M, Kaba J, Szalus Jordanow O, Nowicki M, Witkowski L, Nowicka D, et al. Prevalence of antibodies against Chlamydophila abortus and Coxiella burnetii in goat herds in Poland. Pol J Vet Sci. 2010;13:175-9 pubmed
    ..abortus infection occurs infrequently in Polish goats. As no antibodies against C. burnetii were detected in the screened sample the risk of goat-to-human transmission of both bacteria in Poland seems to be very low...
  61. Alsaleh A, Pellerin J, Rodolakis A, Larrat M, Cochonneau D, Bruyas J, et al. Detection of Coxiella burnetii, the agent of Q fever, in oviducts and uterine flushing media and in genital tract tissues of the non pregnant goat. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2011;34:355-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The infection of genital tract flushing media and tissues is a risk factor for the transmission of C. burnetii from donor to recipient during embryo transfer or to the embryo and fetus when gestation is pursued to term...
  62. Sukocheva O, Marmion B, Storm P, Lockhart M, Turra M, Graves S. Long-term persistence after acute Q fever of non-infective Coxiella burnetii cell components, including antigens. QJM. 2010;103:847-63 pubmed publisher
    Previous studies of inciting factors for a prolonged post-infection fatigue syndrome after Q fever (variously termed QFS or Q fever associated CFS/ME in the literature) showed that after the acute infection a high proportion of ..
  63. Million M, Thuny F, Richet H, Raoult D. Long-term outcome of Q fever endocarditis: a 26-year personal survey. Lancet Infect Dis. 2010;10:527-35 pubmed publisher
    b>Q fever endocarditis caused by Coxiella burnetii is a potentially fatal disease characterised by a chronic evolution...
  64. Jager M, Weers Pothoff G, Hermans M, Meekelenkamp J, Schellekens J, Renders N, et al. Evaluation of a diagnostic algorithm for acute Q fever in an outbreak setting. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2011;18:963-8 pubmed publisher
    In the peak of the 2009 Q fever outbreak in the Netherlands, we introduced a diagnostic algorithm for acute Q fever with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for immunoglobulin M antibodies to Coxiella burnetii phase II antigens (MII ..
  65. Schoffelen T, Joosten L, Herremans T, de Haan A, Ammerdorffer A, Rumke H, et al. Specific interferon ? detection for the diagnosis of previous Q fever. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;56:1742-51 pubmed publisher
    Current practice for diagnosis of Q fever, caused by the intracellular pathogen Coxiella burnetii, relies mainly on serology and, in prevaccination assessment, on skin tests (STs), which both have drawbacks. In this study, C...
  66. Koene R, Schimmer B, Rensen H, Biesheuvel M, de Bruin A, Lohuis A, et al. A Q fever outbreak in a psychiatric care institution in The Netherlands. Epidemiol Infect. 2011;139:13-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The patients had been hospitalized and had laboratory confirmation of acute Q fever infection. The MHS started active case finding among in-patients, employees of and visitors to the institution...
  67. van der Hoek W, Meekelenkamp J, Leenders A, Wijers N, Notermans D, Hukkelhoven C. Antibodies against Coxiella burnetii and pregnancy outcome during the 2007-2008 Q fever outbreaks in The Netherlands. BMC Infect Dis. 2011;11:44 pubmed publisher
    b>Q fever has become a major public health problem in The Netherlands. Infection with Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) during pregnancy has resulted in adverse pregnancy outcome in the majority of reported cases...
  68. Schimmer B, Luttikholt S, Hautvast J, Graat E, Vellema P, Duynhoven Y. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Q fever in goats on commercial dairy goat farms in the Netherlands, 2009-2010. BMC Vet Res. 2011;7:81 pubmed publisher
    ..We approached 334 eligible farms with more than 100 goats for serum sampling and a farm questionnaire. Per farm, median 21 goats were sampled. A farm was considered positive when at least one goat tested ELISA positive...
  69. de Rooij M, Schimmer B, Versteeg B, Schneeberger P, Berends B, Heederik D, et al. Risk factors of Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) seropositivity in veterinary medicine students. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32108 pubmed publisher
    b>Q fever is an occupational risk for veterinarians, however little is known about the risk for veterinary medicine students...
  70. Tilburg J, Rossen J, van Hannen E, Melchers W, Hermans M, van de Bovenkamp J, et al. Genotypic diversity of Coxiella burnetii in the 2007-2010 Q fever outbreak episodes in The Netherlands. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:1076-8 pubmed publisher
    The genotypic diversity of Coxiella burnetii in clinical samples obtained from the Dutch Q fever outbreak episodes of 2007-2010 was determined by using a 6-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis panel...
  71. Guatteo R, Seegers H, Taurel A, Joly A, Beaudeau F. Prevalence of Coxiella burnetii infection in domestic ruminants: a critical review. Vet Microbiol. 2011;149:1-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Reliable detection of Coxiella burnetii is a critical point for the control of the spread of this zoonotic disease (Q fever), ruminants being considered as the main source for human infection as confirmed by the recent human outbreak in ..
  72. Koch A, Svendsen C, Christensen J, Bundgaard H, Vindfeld L, Christiansen C, et al. Q fever in Greenland. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:511-3 pubmed publisher
    We report a patient with Q fever endocarditis in a settlement in eastern Greenland (Isortoq, Ammassalik area). Likely animal sources include sled dogs and seals...
  73. Gikas A, Kokkini S, Tsioutis C. Q fever: clinical manifestations and treatment. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2010;8:529-39 pubmed publisher
    Public awareness and advances in the diagnostic approach to Q fever have provided important information on epidemiological and clinical aspects of this zoonosis...
  74. Guatteo R, Joly A, Beaudeau F. Shedding and serological patterns of dairy cows following abortions associated with Coxiella burnetii DNA detection. Vet Microbiol. 2012;155:430-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Lastly, serological results indicating a lack of sensitivity to detect Cb shedder cows (especially for cows for which Ct values were high) suggest that ELISA is not a useful tool to diagnose abortions at the individual level...
  75. Eibach R, Bothe F, Runge M, Fischer S, Philipp W, Ganter M. Q fever: baseline monitoring of a sheep and a goat flock associated with human infections. Epidemiol Infect. 2012;140:1939-49 pubmed
    ..In this outbreak human and animal infection were temporally related suggesting that one was caused by the other...
  76. Pan L, Zhang L, Fan D, Zhang X, Liu H, Lu Q, et al. Rapid, simple and sensitive detection of Q fever by loop-mediated isothermal amplification of the htpAB gene. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2231 pubmed publisher
    b>Q fever is the most widespread zoonosis, and domestic animals are the most common sources of transmission...
  77. Million M, Walter G, Thuny F, Habib G, Raoult D. Evolution from acute Q fever to endocarditis is associated with underlying valvulopathy and age and can be prevented by prolonged antibiotic treatment. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;57:836-44 pubmed publisher
    The prevention of Q fever endocarditis through the use of systematic echocardiography and antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with acute Q fever and valvulopathy has never been validated in a cohort study.
  78. Roest H, Post J, van Gelderen B, van Zijderveld F, Rebel J. Q fever in pregnant goats: humoral and cellular immune responses. Vet Res. 2013;44:67 pubmed publisher
    b>Q fever is a zoonosis caused by the intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Both humoral and cellular immunity are important in the host defence against intracellular bacteria. Little is known about the immune response to C...
  79. Read A, Erickson S, Harmsen A. Role of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in clearance of primary pulmonary infection with Coxiella burnetii. Infect Immun. 2010;78:3019-26 pubmed publisher
    ..However, compared to CD4+ T-cell-dependent protection, CD8+ T-cell-dependent protection resulted in less inflammation in the lungs and less growth of bacteria in the spleens...
  80. Boden K, Brueckmann A, Wagner Wiening C, Hermann B, Henning K, Junghanss T, et al. Maternofetal consequences of Coxiella burnetii infection in pregnancy: a case series of two outbreaks. BMC Infect Dis. 2012;12:359 pubmed publisher
    A high complication rate of Q fever in pregnancy is described on the basis of a limited number of cases. All pregnant women with proven Q fever regardless of clinical symptoms should therefore receive long-term cotrimoxazole therapy...
  81. Roest H, Ruuls R, Tilburg J, Nabuurs Franssen M, Klaassen C, Vellema P, et al. Molecular epidemiology of Coxiella burnetii from ruminants in Q fever outbreak, the Netherlands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:668-75 pubmed publisher
    b>Q fever is a zoonosis caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii...
  82. De Crémoux R, Rousset E, Touratier A, Audusseau G, Nicollet P, Ribaud D, et al. Assessment of vaccination by a phase I Coxiella burnetii-inactivated vaccine in goat herds in clinical Q fever situation. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2012;64:104-6 pubmed publisher
    ..using a phase I Coxiella burnetii-inactivated vaccine (Coxevac®; CEVA), within three goat herds experiencing Q fever abortions waves...
  83. Tamrakar S, Haluska A, Haas C, Bartrand T. Dose-response model of?Coxiella burnetii?(Q fever). Risk Anal. 2011;31:120-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by the intracellular gram-negative bacterium?Coxiella burnetii?(C. burnetii), which only multiplies within the phagolysosomal vacuoles. Q fever may manifest as acute or chronic disease...
  84. Wei Y, Wang X, Xiong X, Wen B. Coxiella burnetii antigen-stimulated dendritic cells mediated protection against Coxiella burnetii in BALB/c mice. J Infect Dis. 2011;203:283-91 pubmed publisher
    Coxiella burnetii is the etiological agent of human Q fever. In this study, adaptive transfer of mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) stimulated with C...
  85. Chmielewski T, Tylewska Wierzbanowska S. Q fever at the turn of the century. Pol J Microbiol. 2012;61:81-93 pubmed
    b>Q fever is an infectious zoonotic disease characterized by sudden fever, headache, and atypical pneumonia, caused by Coxiella burneti--an obligatory intracellular parasite...
  86. Mahamat A, Edouard S, Demar M, Abboud P, Patrice J, La Scola B, et al. Unique clone of Coxiella burnetii causing severe Q fever, French Guiana. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19:1102-4 pubmed publisher
    Acute Q fever is an emergent and severe disease in French Guiana. We obtained 5 Coxiella burnetii isolates from samples of patients from Cayenne and found an epidemic clone circulating in Cayenne...
  87. Ruiz Seco M, Lopez Rodriguez M, Estébanez Muñoz M, PAGAN B, Gomez Cerezo J, Barbado Hernández F. [Q fever: 54 new cases from a tertiary hospital in Madrid]. Rev Clin Esp. 2011;211:240-4 pubmed publisher
    To describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of Q fever in an urban zone of the Community of Madrid (Spain).
  88. van den Brom R, van Engelen E, Luttikholt S, Moll L, van Maanen K, Vellema P. Coxiella burnetii in bulk tank milk samples from dairy goat and dairy sheep farms in The Netherlands in 2008. Vet Rec. 2012;170:310 pubmed publisher
    In 2007, a human Q fever epidemic started, mainly in the south eastern part of The Netherlands with a suspected indirect relation to dairy goats, and, to a lesser degree, to dairy sheep...
  89. Omsland A, Heinzen R. Life on the outside: the rescue of Coxiella burnetii from its host cell. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2011;65:111-28 pubmed publisher
    For over seven decades, Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of human Q fever, has been considered a prototypical obligate intracellular bacterium that relies exclusively on a eukaryotic cell for growth...