pneumonic pasteurellosis


Summary: Bovine respiratory disease found in animals that have been shipped or exposed to CATTLE recently transported. The major agent responsible for the disease is MANNHEIMIA HAEMOLYTICA and less commonly, PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA or HAEMOPHILUS SOMNUS. All three agents are normal inhabitants of the bovine nasal pharyngeal mucosa but not the LUNG. They are considered opportunistic pathogens following STRESS, PHYSIOLOGICAL and/or a viral infection. The resulting bacterial fibrinous BRONCHOPNEUMONIA is often fatal.

Top Publications

  1. Ewers C, Lübke Becker A, Wieler L. [Mannheimia haemolytica and the pathogenesis of enzootic bronchopneumonia]. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2004;117:97-115 pubmed
    Mannheimia (M.) haemolytica (formerly Pasteurella [P.] haemolytica) is the primary aetiological agent of pneumonic pasteurellosis--one of the most important respiratory diseases in cattle and sheep...
  2. Thumbikat P, Briggs R, Kannan M, Maheswaran S. Biological effects of two genetically defined leukotoxin mutants of Mannheimia haemolytica. Microb Pathog. 2003;34:217-26 pubmed
  3. Goodwin Ray K, Stevenson M, Heuer C. Effect of vaccinating lambs against pneumonic pasteurellosis under New Zealand field conditions on their weight gain and pneumonic lung lesions at slaughter. Vet Rec. 2008;162:9-11 pubmed
  4. Ramirez Romero R, Brogden K. The potential role of the Arthus and Shwartzman reactions in the pathogenesis of pneumonic pasteurellosis. Inflamm Res. 2000;49:98-101 pubmed
    b>Pneumonic pasteurellosis (PP) is an economically important disease in cattle, sheep, and goats. Pasteurella haemolytica is commonly isolated from the severe fibrinopurulent pneumonia that characterize this respiratory syndrome...
  5. Malazdrewich C, Ames T, Abrahamsen M, Maheswaran S. Pulmonary expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 beta, and interleukin-8 in the acute phase of bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis. Vet Pathol. 2001;38:297-310 pubmed
    Inflammatory cytokines are suspected to contribute to the pathogenesis of bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis (BPP) through neutrophil recruitment, leukocyte activation, and the induction of a broad array of soluble inflammatory mediators...
  6. Caswell J, Middleton D, Sorden S, Gordon J. Expression of the neutrophil chemoattractant interleukin-8 in the lesions of bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis. Vet Pathol. 1998;35:124-31 pubmed
    We investigated the expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in pneumonic pasteurellosis of cattle because neutrophils are important mediators of tissue injury in this disease and because IL-8 is a major neutrophil chemoattractant in other ..
  7. Jeyaseelan S, Sreevatsan S, Maheswaran S. Role of Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin in the pathogenesis of bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis. Anim Health Res Rev. 2002;3:69-82 pubmed
    Bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis continues to be a major respiratory disease in feedlot cattle despite the recent advances in our understanding of the underlying complexities of causation...
  8. Katsuda K, Kohmoto M, Mikami O, Uchida I. Antimicrobial resistance and genetic characterization of fluoroquinolone-resistant Mannheimia haemolytica isolates from cattle with bovine pneumonia. Vet Microbiol. 2009;139:74-9 pubmed publisher
    ..All fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates belonged to serotype 6, and their genotype by PFGE analysis was identical. This result indicates that fluoroquinolone-resistant M. haemolytica strains have clonally expanded. ..
  9. Gagea M, Bateman K, Shanahan R, van Dreumel T, McEwen B, Carman S, et al. Naturally occurring Mycoplasma bovis-associated pneumonia and polyarthritis in feedlot beef calves. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2006;18:29-40 pubmed 54 of 99 calves, including 30 with concurrent fibrinosuppurative bronchopneumonia typical of pneumonic pasteurellosis. Mycoplasma bovis was consistently identified in these lesions by culture and immunohistochemistry, but ..

More Information


  1. TerHune T, Skogerboe T, Shostrom V, Weigel D. Comparison of pharmacokinetics of danofloxacin and enrofloxacin in calves challenged with Mannheimia haemolytica. Am J Vet Res. 2005;66:342-9 pubmed
    ..When used to treat pneumonic pasteurellosis in calves, danofloxacin and enrofloxacin can be expected to deliver concentration-dependent bactericidal ..
  2. Hodgson J, Watkins C, Bayne C. Contribution of respiratory burst activity to innate immune function and the effects of disease status and agent on chemiluminescence responses by ruminant phagocytes in vitro. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2006;112:12-23 pubmed
  3. Rivera Rivas J, Kisiela D, Czuprynski C. Bovine herpesvirus type 1 infection of bovine bronchial epithelial cells increases neutrophil adhesion and activation. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2009;131:167-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that BHV-1 infection of BBE cells triggers cytokine expression that contributes to the recruitment and activation of neutrophils, and amplifies the detrimental effects of M. haemolytica LKT. ..
  4. Shiferaw G, Tariku S, Ayelet G, Abebe Z. Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia and Mannheimia haemolytica-associated acute respiratory disease of goats and sheep in Afar Region, Ethiopia. Rev Sci Tech. 2006;25:1153-63 pubmed
    ..Morbidity was not associated with the species of animals affected (P > 0.05); however, mortality was significantly higher in goats than sheep (P < 0.05). ..
  5. Rajeev S, Kania S, Nair R, McPherson J, Moore R, Bemis D. Bordetella bronchiseptica fimbrial protein-enhanced immunogenicity of a Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin fragment. Vaccine. 2001;19:4842-50 pubmed
    ..This chimeric protein may be a candidate for inclusion in new generation vaccines against shipping fever pneumonia. ..
  6. Leite F, Kuckleburg C, Atapattu D, Schultz R, Czuprynski C. BHV-1 infection and inflammatory cytokines amplify the interaction of Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin with bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2004;99:193-202 pubmed
    ..If such a mechanism occurs in vivo it might explain, in part, the increased susceptibility of BHV-1 infected cattle to bovine pasteurellosis...
  7. Nutsch R, Skogerboe T, Rooney K, Weigel D, Gajewski K, Lechtenberg K. Comparative efficacy of tulathromycin, tilmicosin, and florfenicol in the treatment of bovine respiratory disease in stocker cattle. Vet Ther. 2005;6:167-79 pubmed
    ..Suspected adverse reactions were not reported for any of the study drugs. Tulathromycin proved to be significantly more effective than either florfenicol or tilmicosin in the treatment of BRD in stocker calves. ..
  8. Prado M, Prado T, Payton M, Confer A. Maternally and naturally acquired antibodies to Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida in beef calves. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2006;111:301-7 pubmed
    ..haemolytica and/or P. multocida, it may be best to vaccinate calves around 3 months of age. In contrast, beef calves from unvaccinated herds might benefit from vaccination at 4 months of age...
  9. Lawrence P, Shanthalingam S, Dassanayake R, Subramaniam R, Herndon C, Knowles D, et al. Transmission of Mannheimia haemolytica from domestic sheep (Ovis aries) to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis): unequivocal demonstration with green fluorescent protein-tagged organisms. J Wildl Dis. 2010;46:706-17 pubmed
    ..These results unequivocally demonstrate transmission of M. haemolytica from domestic to bighorn sheep, resulting in pneumonia and death of bighorn sheep...
  10. McNeil H, Miller M, Conlon J, Barker I, Shewen P. Effects of delivery method on serological responses of bighorn sheep to a multivalent Pasteurella haemolytica supernatant vaccine. J Wildl Dis. 2000;36:79-85 pubmed
    ..haemolytica supernatant vaccine. Further evaluation of biobullet vaccination against pneumonic pasteurellosis in free-ranging populations of wild bighorn sheep is warranted.
  11. Hibbard B, Robb E, Chester S, Dame K, Boucher J, Alaniz G. Dose determination and confirmation of a long-acting formulation of ceftiofur (ceftiofur crystalline free acid) administered subcutaneously for the treatment of bovine respiratory disease. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 2002;25:175-80 pubmed
    ..However, this route of administration is no longer being considered for this formulation because of the ceftiofur residues that are present at the injection site for extended periods of time. ..
  12. Wessely Szponder J, Urban Chmiel R, Wernicki A, Bobowiec R. Effect of leukotoxin of Mannheimia haemolytica and LPS of E. coli on secretory response of bovine neutrophils in vitro. Pol J Vet Sci. 2005;8:99-105 pubmed
    ..Toxins introduced to the cultural medium stimulate release of studied constituents from neutrophils by combined activation and lysis of neutrophils. ..
  13. Dileepan T, Kannan M, Walcheck B, Maheswaran S. Integrin-EGF-3 domain of bovine CD18 is critical for Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin species-specific susceptibility. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2007;274:67-72 pubmed
    ..LktA) is the primary virulence factor contributing to the pathogenesis of lung injury in bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis. Results from the authors' previous studies demonstrated that the site required for LktA binding leading ..
  14. Nutsch R, Hart F, Rooney K, Weigel D, Kilgore W, Skogerboe T. Efficacy of tulathromycin injectable solution for the treatment of naturally occurring Swine respiratory disease. Vet Ther. 2005;6:214-24 pubmed
    ..Under field conditions, tulathromycin injectable solution given as a single IM dose of 2.5 mg/kg of body weight was safe and effective in the treatment of SRD. ..
  15. Hussain R, Mahmood F, Ali H, Siddique A. Bacterial, PCR and clinico-pathological diagnosis of naturally occurring pneumonic pasturellosis (mannheimiosis) during subtropical climate in sheep. Microb Pathog. 2017;112:176-181 pubmed publisher
    Mannheimia haemolytica is causative agent of pneumonic pasteurellosis (mannheimiosis) that causes huge economic losses to livestock farmers...
  16. Diker K, Akan M, Kaya O. Serotypes and electrophoretic protein profiles of Pasteurella haemolytica isolated from pneumonic ovine lungs. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 1999;106:207-9 pubmed
    ..No single cut off level was able to discriminate between each serotype studied and isolates could not be clustered on the basis of their geographic origins. ..
  17. Mavrogianni V, Fthenakis G. Efficacy of difloxacin against respiratory infections of lambs. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 2005;28:325-8 pubmed
  18. Ayalew S, Step D, Montelongo M, Confer A. Intranasal vaccination of calves with Mannheimia haemolytica chimeric protein containing the major surface epitope of outer membrane lipoprotein PlpE, the neutralizing epitope of leukotoxin, and cholera toxin subunit B. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2009;132:295-302 pubmed publisher
    ..haemolytica antigens. ..
  19. Thumbikat P, Dileepan T, Kannan M, Maheswaran S. Mechanisms underlying Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin-induced oncosis and apoptosis of bovine alveolar macrophages. Microb Pathog. 2005;38:161-72 pubmed
    ..LktA-induced apoptosis in alveolar macrophages involves activation of caspase-3 and engages the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis, with the extrinsic pathway being dependent on LFA-1 signaling and TNFalpha...
  20. Youssef S, Clark M, Caswell J. Effect of bovine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on the development of pneumonia caused by Mannheimia haemolytica. Vet Pathol. 2004;41:649-57 pubmed
    ..haemolytica. These results imply that increased numbers of neutrophils may, under some circumstances, protect against severe pneumonia caused by M. haemolytica. ..
  21. Ross R. Pasteurella multocida and its role in porcine pneumonia. Anim Health Res Rev. 2006;7:13-29 pubmed
  22. Boudreaux C, Corstvet R, Cooper R, Enright F. Effects of cecropin B transgene expression on Mannheimia haemolytica serotype 1 colonization of the nasal mucosa of calves. Am J Vet Res. 2005;66:1922-30 pubmed
    ..In vitro, cecropin B has an effective antibacterial activity against M. haemolytica S1 and can prevent colonization of the nasal mucosa after transfection of a vector expressing cecropin B in vivo. ..
  23. Dowling A, Hodgson J, Dagleish M, Eckersall P, Sales J. Pathophysiological and immune cell responses in calves prior to and following lung challenge with formalin-killed Pasteurella multocida biotype A:3 and protection studies involving subsequent homologous live challenge. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2004;100:197-207 pubmed
    b>Pneumonic pasteurellosis is a common respiratory infection in cattle that has major economic and welfare implications world-wide and the incidence in the UK due to Pasteurella multocida, currently the same as that associated with ..
  24. Baszler T, Dubey J, Lohr C, Foreyt W. Toxoplasmic encephalitis in a free-ranging Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep from Washington. J Wildl Dis. 2000;36:752-4 pubmed
    ..The sheep had concurrent pneumonic pasteurellosis and resided in a geographic area with endemic Pasteurella-associated pneumonia and mortality in bighorn ..
  25. Jabeen S, Yong Y, Abdullah F, Zakaria Z, Mat Isa N, Tan Y, et al. Complete Genome Sequence of Pasteurella multocida Serotype A Strain PMTB2.1 Isolated from Buffaloes That Died of Septicemia in Malaysia. Genome Announc. 2017;5: pubmed publisher
    i>Pasteurella multocida causes pneumonic pasteurellosis and hemorrhagic septicemia (HS) in large ruminants. In this study, we determined the complete genome sequence of P. multocida strain PMTB2...
  26. Sacco R, Waters W, Rudolph K, Drew M. Comparative nitric oxide production by LPS-stimulated monocyte-derived macrophages from Ovis canadensis and Ovis aries. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2006;29:1-11 pubmed
  27. George J, Martin D, Lukacs P, Miller M. Epidemic pasteurellosis in a bighorn sheep population coinciding with the appearance of a domestic sheep. J Wildl Dis. 2008;44:388-403 pubmed
  28. Liu W, Brayton K, Davis W, Mansfield K, Lagerquist J, Foreyt W, et al. Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica leukotoxin utilizes CD18 as its receptor on bighorn sheep leukocytes. J Wildl Dis. 2007;43:75-81 pubmed
  29. Dagleish M, Bayne C, Moon G, Finlayson J, Sales J, Williams J, et al. Differences in Virulence Between Bovine-Derived Clinical Isolates of Pasteurella multocida Serotype A from the UK and the USA in a Model of Bovine Pneumonic Pasteurellosis. J Comp Pathol. 2016;155:62-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Results overall showed that two isolates, distinct geographically and genetically (by PFGE), caused pneumonic pasteurellosis in a single host with significantly different severity of pathology...
  30. Potter A, Schryvers A, Ogunnariwo J, Hutchins W, Lo R, Watts T. Protective capacity of the Pasteurella haemolytica transferrin-binding proteins TbpA and TbpB in cattle. Microb Pathog. 1999;27:197-206 pubmed
    ..Sera from the TbpB-immunized animals was cross-reactive with TbpBs from other P. haemolytica serotypes. ..
  31. Sakya S, Bertinato P, Pratt B, Suarez Contreras M, Lundy K, Minich M, et al. Azalide 3,6-ketals: antibacterial activity and structure-activity relationships of aryl and hetero aryl substituted analogues. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2003;13:1373-5 pubmed
  32. Lin X, O Reilly K, Storz J. Antibody responses of cattle with respiratory coronavirus infections during pathogenesis of shipping fever pneumonia are lower with antigens of enteric strains than with those of a respiratory strain. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2002;9:1010-3 pubmed
    ..0001 to 0.0483. The IN and HAI antibody responses against the two EBCV strains did not differ significantly, but the lowest titers were detected with EBCV strain L9-81...
  33. Lakritz J, Tyler J, Marsh A, Romesburg Cockrell M, Smith K, Holle J. Tilmicosin reduces lipopolysaccharide-stimulated bovine alveolar macrophage prostaglandin E(2) production via a mechanism involving phospholipases. Vet Ther. 2002;3:7-21 pubmed
    ..Tilmicosin (in vivo and in vitro) appears to reduce the PGE(2) eicosanoid response of LPS-stimulated alveolar macrophages by reducing the in vitro substrate availability without altering in vitro COX-2 mRNA expression...
  34. Radi Z, Caverly J, Dixon R, Brogden K, Ackermann M. Effects of the synthetic selectin inhibitor TBC1269 on tissue damage during acute Mannheimia haemolytica-induced pneumonia in neonatal calves. Am J Vet Res. 2001;62:17-22 pubmed
    ..To determine effects of the selectin inhibitor TBC1269 on neutrophil-mediated pulmonary damage during acute Mannheimia haemolytica-induced pneumonia in newborn calves...
  35. Al Haddawi M, Mitchell G, Clark M, Wood R, Caswell J. Impairment of innate immune responses of airway epithelium by infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2007;116:153-62 pubmed
  36. Hodgson J, Moon G, Quirie M, Donachie W. Association of LPS chemotype of Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica A1 with disease virulence in a model of ovine pneumonic pasteurellosis. J Endotoxin Res. 2003;9:25-32 pubmed
    Host responses during pneumonic pasteurellosis were compared in sheep infected with strains of Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica A1 differing in their O-antigen type...
  37. Brogden K, Lehmkuhl H, Cutlip R. Pasteurella haemolytica complicated respiratory infections in sheep and goats. Vet Res. 1998;29:233-54 pubmed
    ..In lambs and kids, pneumonic pasteurellosis can be acute, characterized by fever, listlessness, poor appetite and sudden death...
  38. Fajt V, Apley M, Roth J, Frank D, Brogden K, Skogerboe T, et al. The effects of danofloxacin and tilmicosin on neutrophil function and lung consolidation in beef heifer calves with induced Pasteurella (Mannheimia) haemolytica pneumonia. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 2003;26:173-9 pubmed
    ..Significant differences were found between the NCH calves and the challenged saline-treated calves in several neutrophil assays, which were attributed to effects of P. haemolytica infection...
  39. Gazquez A, Redondo E, Martinez S, Gomez L. Ultrastructural study of ovine pulmonary pasteurellosis: involvement of neutrophils and macrophages. Histol Histopathol. 2001;16:855-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The final phase of the experiment was characterised by a mild interseptal infiltrate and by clear alveolar lumina...
  40. Kelley S, Cassirer E, Weiser G, Safaee S. Phylogenetic diversity of Pasteurellaceae and horizontal gene transfer of leukotoxin in wild and domestic sheep. Infect Genet Evol. 2007;7:13-23 pubmed
    ..haemolytica isolated from domestic sheep in the UK. This extremely high degree of sequence similarity of lktA sequences among distinct bacterial species suggests that HGT has played a role in the evolution of lktA in wild hosts...
  41. Kilgore W, Spensley M, Sun F, Nutsch R, Rooney K, Skogerboe T. Clinical effectiveness of tulathromycin, a novel triamilide antimicrobial, for the control of respiratory disease in cattle at high risk for developing bovine respiratory disease. Vet Ther. 2005;6:136-42 pubmed
    ..Under conditions of this study, tulathromycin, given to calves at high risk of developing BRD, was significantly more effective in reducing BRD morbidity when compared to both saline- and tilmicosin-treated calves...
  42. McNeil H, Shewen P, Lo R, Conlon J, Miller M. Novel protease produced by a Pasteurella trehalosi serotype 10 isolate from a pneumonic bighorn sheep: characteristics and potential relevance to protection. Vet Microbiol. 2003;93:145-52 pubmed
    ..of Pasteurella trehalosi serotype 10, E(CO)-100, isolated from a bighorn sheep that had succumbed to pneumonic pasteurellosis during an epizootic, was compared to well-characterized strains of P...
  43. Fajt V, Apley M, Brogden K, Skogerboe T, Shostrom V, Chin Y. Effect of danofloxacin and tilmicosin on body temperatures of beef calves with pneumonia experimentally induced by inoculation with Mannheimia haemolytica. Am J Vet Res. 2004;65:610-5 pubmed
    ..To examine effects of danofloxacin and tilmicosin on continuously recorded body temperature in beef calves with pneumonia experimentally induced by inoculation of Mannheimia haemolytica...
  44. Poumarat F, Le Grand D, Philippe S, Calavas D, Schelcher F, Cabanie P, et al. Efficacy of spectinomycin against Mycoplasma bovis induced pneumonia in conventionally reared calves. Vet Microbiol. 2001;80:23-35 pubmed
    ..However, M. bovis and P. multocida counts in the lungs of the treated group were significantly lower than in the untreated group (p=0.003 and 0.009, respectively)...
  45. Ramirez Romero R, Brogden K, Gallup J, Sonea I, Ackermann M. Mast cell density and substance P-like immunoreactivity during the initiation and progression of lung lesions in ovine Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica pneumonia. Microb Pathog. 2001;30:325-35 pubmed
    ..mast cells (MCs) and the extent of substance P (SP) immunoreactivity during initiation and progression of pneumonic pasteurellosis (PP), 18 lambs were inoculated intrabronchially with Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica or saline, and ..
  46. Lawrence P, Dassanayake R, Knowles D, Srikumaran S. Transfection of non-susceptible cells with Ovis aries recombinant lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 renders susceptibility to Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin. Vet Microbiol. 2007;125:91-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Exposure of LFA-1 transfectants to low concentrations of Lkt resulted in elevation of intracellular [Ca(2+)](i). Taken together, these results indicate that DS LFA-1 serves as a receptor for M. haemolytica Lkt...
  47. Schimmel D, Erler W. [The significance of the dermonecrotic toxin of P. multocida serovar D in the pathogenesis of pneumonia in swine]. Zentralbl Veterinarmed B. 1991;38:382-4 pubmed
    ..The intratracheal application of crude and purified toxin of P. multocida serovar D in primary SPF-piglets resulted, apart from turbinate atrophies, in lobular to lobularly confluent catarrhalic pneumonias...
  48. De la Mora A, Trigo F, Jaramillo L, Garfias Y, Solorzano C, Agundis C, et al. The N-acetyl-D-glucosamine specific adhesin from Mannheimia haemolytica activates bovine neutrophils oxidative burst. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2006;113:148-56 pubmed
    ..05). Our findings suggest that among bovine leukocytes, neutrophils are the main target for MhA, inducing production of oxidative radicals by non-opsonic mechanism that seem to play an important role in tissue damage during mannheimiosis...
  49. Lee R, Strommer J, Hodgins D, Shewen P, Niu Y, Lo R. Towards development of an edible vaccine against bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis using transgenic white clover expressing a Mannheimia haemolytica A1 leukotoxin 50 fusion protein. Infect Immun. 2001;69:5786-93 pubmed
    ..haemolytica antigen in plants and paves the way for the development of transgenic plants expressing M. haemolytica antigens as an edible vaccine against bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis.
  50. Dowling A. Respiratory disease in lambs. Vet Rec. 2008;162:324 pubmed
  51. Kilgore W, Spensley M, Sun F, Nutsch R, Rooney K, Skogerboe T. Therapeutic efficacy of tulathromycin, a novel triamilide antimicrobial, against bovine respiratory disease in feeder calves. Vet Ther. 2005;6:143-53 pubmed
    ..9%). No adverse events related to tulathromycin were reported. Under the conditions of this study, tulathromycin administered as a single-dose treatment was efficacious in the treatment of undifferentiated BRD...
  52. Cudd L, Clarke C, Clinkenbeard K. Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin-induced increase in leukotriene B4 production by bovine neutrophils is mediated by a sustained and excessive increase in intracellular calcium concentration. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2003;224:85-90 pubmed
    ..haemolytica infection...
  53. Rooney K, Nutsch R, Skogerboe T, Weigel D, Gajewski K, Kilgore W. Efficacy of tulathromycin compared with tilmicosin and florfenicol for the control of respiratory disease in cattle at high risk of developing bovine respiratory disease. Vet Ther. 2005;6:154-66 pubmed
    ..014) in all three studies. Tulathromycin demonstrated superior efficacy compared with tilmicosin and florfenicol when treating groups of high-risk cattle before the onset of signs of BRD...
  54. Sheehan M, Cassidy J, Brady J, Ball H, Doherty M, Quinn P, et al. An aetiopathological study of chronic bronchopneumonia in lambs in Ireland. Vet J. 2007;173:630-7 pubmed
    ..These findings illustrate the complex aetiopathogenesis of this disease and highlight the requirement to use a combination of diagnostic criteria in its laboratory diagnosis...
  55. Skogerboe T, Rooney K, Nutsch R, Weigel D, Gajewski K, Kilgore W. Comparative efficacy of tulathromycin versus florfenicol and tilmicosin against undifferentiated bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle. Vet Ther. 2005;6:180-96 pubmed
    ..05). Tulathromycin was more efficacious in the treatment of undifferentiated BRD compared with florfenicol and, in one study, compared with tilmicosin...
  56. Wernicki A, Mikucki P, Urban Chmiel R, Puchalski A. Comparison of immunogenic properties of native and inactivated Mannheimia haemolytica Lkt in calves. Pol J Vet Sci. 2008;11:83-8 pubmed
    ..Analysis of the MTT assay results revealed the greatest Lkt-neutralizing properties of antibodies in the sera of calves immunized with two doses of a vaccine containing native Lkt and Lkt inactivated with formaldehyde...
  57. Godinho K, Keane S, Nanjiani I, Benchaoui H, Sunderland S, Jones M, et al. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of tulathromycin against respiratory bacterial pathogens isolated from clinical cases in European cattle and swine and variability arising from changes in in vitro methodology. Vet Ther. 2005;6:113-21 pubmed
    ..Isolates were retested in the presence of serum. The activity of tulathromycin against fastidious organisms was affected by culture conditions, and MICs were reduced in the presence of serum...
  58. Sustronck B, Deprez P, van Loon G, Coghe J, Muylle E. Efficacy of the combination sodium ceftiofur-flumethasone in the treatment of experimental Pasteurella haemolytica bronchopneumonia in calves. Zentralbl Veterinarmed A. 1997;44:179-87 pubmed
  59. Aubry P, Warnick L, Guard C, Hill B, Witt M. Health and performance of young dairy calves vaccinated with a modified-live Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida vaccine. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2001;219:1739-42 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the health and performance of young dairy calves vaccinated with a commercial Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida vaccine...
  60. Radi Z, Register K, Lee E, Kehrli M, Brogden K, Gallup J, et al. In situ expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mRNA in calves with acute Pasteurella haemolytica pneumonia. Vet Pathol. 1999;36:437-44 pubmed
    ..The extent of ICAM-1 expression in P. haemolytica-inoculated calves with BLAD was initially enhanced but otherwise similar to that in non-BLAD calves...
  61. Highlander S, Fedorova N, Dusek D, Panciera R, Alvarez L, Rinehart C. Inactivation of Pasteurella (Mannheimia) haemolytica leukotoxin causes partial attenuation of virulence in a calf challenge model. Infect Immun. 2000;68:3916-22 pubmed
    ..The wild-type and mutant strains were equally capable of colonizing the upper respiratory tracts of the calves. In this study, the P. haemolytica lktC mutant was shown to be less virulent than the parent strain...
  62. Zamri Saad M, Mera H. The effect of Pasteurella haemolytica A2 infection on phagocytosis efficiency of caprine broncho-alveolar macrophages. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health. 2001;48:513-8 pubmed
    ..haemolytica A2. There were weak correlations between the extent of pneumonic lesion and the phagocytic activity. Thus, goats with poor phagocytic activity were likely to develop more extensive lung lesions...
  63. Hibbard B, Robb E, Chester S, Dame K, Moseley W, Bryson W. Dose determination and confirmation for ceftiofur crystalline-free acid administered in the posterior aspect of the ear for control and treatment of bovine respiratory disease. Vet Ther. 2002;3:22-30 pubmed
    ..Administration in an inedible tissue results in a short withdrawal time and no injection-site trimming at slaughter...
  64. Li F, Zhang X, Mizzi C, Gordon J. CXCL8((3-73))K11R/G31P antagonizes the neutrophil chemoattractants present in pasteurellosis and mastitis lesions and abrogates neutrophil influx into intradermal endotoxin challenge sites in vivo. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2002;90:65-77 pubmed
    ..This data thus encourages further investigation of the potential impact of this novel antagonist on ELR-CXC chemokine-driven inflammatory disorders...
  65. Odugbo M, Okpara J, Abechi S, Kumbish P. An outbreak of pneumonic pasteurellosis in sheep due to Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica serotype 7. Vet J. 2004;167:214-5 pubmed
  66. Storz J, Lin X, Purdy C, Chouljenko V, Kousoulas K, Enright F, et al. Coronavirus and Pasteurella infections in bovine shipping fever pneumonia and Evans' criteria for causation. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:3291-8 pubmed
    ..cattle with a majority of pneumonic lung lobes exhibiting fibronecrotic and exudative changes typical of pneumonic pasteurellosis, but other lung lobules had histological changes consisting of bronchiolitis and alveolitis typical of ..
  67. Aulik N, Hellenbrand K, Klos H, Czuprynski C. Mannheimia haemolytica and its leukotoxin cause neutrophil extracellular trap formation by bovine neutrophils. Infect Immun. 2010;78:4454-66 pubmed publisher
    ..haemolytica cells in bovine NETs. Understanding NET formation in response to M. haemolytica and its LKT provides a new perspective on how neutrophils contribute to the pathogenesis of bovine respiratory disease...
  68. Shanthalingam S, Norimine J, Brown W, Srikumaran S. Molecular cloning of CD18 of bison, deer and elk, and comparison with that of other ruminants and non-ruminants. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2010;136:163-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetic analysis based on amino acid sequences showed that CD18 of bison is most closely related to that of cattle while CD18 of deer and elk are more closely related to each other...
  69. Cassirer E, Rudolph K, Fowler P, Coggins V, Hunter D, Miller M. Evaluation of ewe vaccination as a tool for increasing bighorn lamb survival following pasteurellosis epizootics. J Wildl Dis. 2001;37:49-57 pubmed
    ..None of the captive-born lambs survived. These data suggest that, using existing technology, vaccinating bighorn ewes following pneumonia epidemics has little chance of increasing neonatal survival and population recovery...
  70. Clarke J, Morton R, Clarke C, Fulton R, Saliki J. Development of an ex vivo model to study adherence of Mannheimia haemolytica serovar 1 to mucosal tissues of the respiratory tract of cattle. Am J Vet Res. 2001;62:805-11 pubmed
  71. Lafleur R, Malazdrewich C, Jeyaseelan S, Bleifield E, Abrahamsen M, Maheswaran S. Lipopolysaccharide enhances cytolysis and inflammatory cytokine induction in bovine alveolar macrophages exposed to Pasteurella (Mannheimia) haemolytica leukotoxin. Microb Pathog. 2001;30:347-57 pubmed
    ..LPS) are the primary virulence factors contributing to the pathogenesis of lung injury in bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis. Previous studies have characterized in vitro responses of bovine alveolar macrophages (AMs) to Lkt and ..
  72. Lo R. Genetic analysis of virulence factors of Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica A1. Vet Microbiol. 2001;83:23-35 pubmed
    ..Though incomplete, analysis of the adhesin showed that it exhibits characteristics of autotransporter (AT) proteins. The role of this high-molecular-weight adhesin in infection is being investigated...
  73. Lee R, Cornelisse M, Ziauddin A, Slack P, Hodgins D, Strommer J, et al. Expression of a modified Mannheimia haemolytica GS60 outer membrane lipoprotein in transgenic alfalfa for the development of an edible vaccine against bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis. J Biotechnol. 2008;135:224-31 pubmed publisher
    ..A high antibody titer to GS60 has been shown to be significantly correlated with resistance to pneumonic pasteurellosis. Calves vaccinated with a commercial vaccine (Presponse) and demonstrating protection against M...
  74. Prado M, Dabo S, Confer A. Immunogenicity of iron-regulated outer membrane proteins of Pasteurella multocida A:3 in cattle: molecular characterization of the immunodominant heme acquisition system receptor (HasR) protein. Vet Microbiol. 2005;105:269-80 pubmed
    ..056). These results indicate that antibody responses in cattle are induced by P. multocida IROMPs, and that the 96 kDa HasR protein is an immunodominant IROMP...
  75. Caswell J, Middleton D, Gordon J. The importance of interleukin-8 as a neutrophil chemoattractant in the lungs of cattle with pneumonic pasteurellosis. Can J Vet Res. 2001;65:229-32 pubmed
    ..and in vivo neutrophil chemoattractant, is expressed at high levels in the lesions observed in bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis. Because of the role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of pneumonic pasteurellosis, we investigated the ..
  76. Godinho K, Wolf R, Sherington J, Rowan T, Sunderland S, Evans N. Efficacy of tulathromycin in the treatment and prevention of natural outbreaks of bovine respiratory disease in European cattle. Vet Ther. 2005;6:122-35 pubmed
    ..7%) or saline-treated (63.7%) cattle, and this was maintained through day 60 (tulathromycin 85.4% versus tilmicosin 75.1% and saline 56.2%). Tulathromycin was highly effective in the treatment and prevention of BRD...
  77. Schunicht O, Booker C, Guichon P, Jim G, Wildman B, Pittman T, et al. An evaluation of the relative efficacy of tulathromycin for the treatment of undifferentiated fever in feedlot calves in Nebraska. Can Vet J. 2007;48:600-6 pubmed
    ..50 USD/animal in the TULA group due to lower first UF relapse and overall mortality rates, even though the occurrence of yield grade USDA-4 carcasses increased and the initial UF treatment cost was higher...
  78. Ito S, Hobo S, Eto D, Sato H. Bronchoalveolar lavage for the diagnosis and treatment of pneumonia associated with transport in Thoroughbred racehorses. J Vet Med Sci. 2001;63:1263-9 pubmed
    ..8%, 28/36). Eight (22.2%) never raced because of lameness or other considerations...
  79. Davies R, Lee I. Diversity of temperate bacteriophages induced in bovine and ovine Mannheimia haemolytica isolates and identification of a new P2-like phage. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2006;260:162-70 pubmed
    ..1), representative of the RE type A phages, was identified from the incomplete M. haemolytica genome sequence. The phiPHL213.1 genome contains previously unidentified genes and represents a new member of the P2 phage family...
  80. Davies R, Whittam T, Selander R. Sequence diversity and molecular evolution of the leukotoxin (lktA) gene in bovine and ovine strains of Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:1394-404 pubmed
    ..In contrast, there is limited allelic diversity of lktA in bovine strains, suggesting that transmission of strains from sheep to cattle has been less important in leukotoxin evolution...
  81. Grubor B, Gallup J, Ramirez Romero R, Bailey T, Crouch E, Brogden K, et al. Surfactant protein D expression in normal and pneumonic ovine lung. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2004;101:235-42 pubmed
  82. Lee W, Flynn A, LeBlanc J, Merrill J, Dick P, Morck D, et al. Tilmicosin-induced bovine neutrophil apoptosis is cell-specific and downregulates spontaneous LTB4 synthesis without increasing Fas expression. Vet Res. 2004;35:213-24 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, tilmicosin-induced apoptosis is specific to PMN, inhibits spontaneous LTB4 production, and occurs through a pathway independent of Fas upregulation...
  83. Czuprynski C, Leite F, Sylte M, Kuckleburg C, Schultz R, Inzana T, et al. Complexities of the pathogenesis of Mannheimia haemolytica and Haemophilus somnus infections: challenges and potential opportunities for prevention?. Anim Health Res Rev. 2004;5:277-82 pubmed
    ..A more thorough understanding of M. haemolytica and H. somnus virulence factors and their interactions with the host might identify new targets for prevention of bovine respiratory disease...
  84. Dassanayake R, Liu W, Davis W, Foreyt W, Srikumaran S. Bighorn sheep beta2-integrin LFA-1 serves as a receptor for Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin. J Wildl Dis. 2008;44:743-7 pubmed
    ..More importantly, the transfectants were efficiently lysed by Lkt in a concentration-dependent manner. Collectively, these results indicate that BHS LFA-1 serves as a functional receptor for M. haemolytica Lkt...
  85. Ytrehus B, Bretten T, Bergsjø B, Isaksen K. Fatal pneumonia epizootic in musk ox (Ovibos moschatus) in a period of extraordinary weather conditions. Ecohealth. 2008;5:213-23 pubmed publisher
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  87. van der Vinne A, Lo R, Shewen P. Construction and analysis of a Mannheimia haemolytica A1 luxS mutant. Vet Microbiol. 2005;110:53-66 pubmed
    Mannheimia haemolytica A1 is the causative agent of bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis, a major cause of sickness, death, and economic loss to the feedlot cattle industry. M...