haemophilus infections

Summary

Summary: Infections with bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS.

Top Publications

  1. Olvera A, Pina S, Pérez Simó M, Aragon V, Segales J, Bensaid A. Immunogenicity and protection against Haemophilus parasuis infection after vaccination with recombinant virulence associated trimeric autotransporters (VtaA). Vaccine. 2011;29:2797-802 pubmed publisher
    ..The partial protection achieved with the recombinant VtaA supports their potential as candidates to be included in future vaccine formulations against H. parasuis...
  2. Olvera A, Pina S, Macedo N, Oliveira S, Aragon V, Bensaid A. Identification of potentially virulent strains of Haemophilus parasuis using a multiplex PCR for virulence-associated autotransporters (vtaA). Vet J. 2012;191:213-8 pubmed publisher
    ..When applied to field samples, the PCR confirmed a high prevalence of H. parasuis in conventionally farmed pigs and demonstrated that almost half of the animals carried potentially virulent strains...
  3. Harrison A, Santana E, Szelestey B, Newsom D, White P, Mason K. Ferric uptake regulator and its role in the pathogenesis of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. Infect Immun. 2013;81:1221-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Identification of such pathways will increase our understanding of how this pathogen can persist within host microenvironments, as a common commensal and, importantly, as a pathogen with significant clinical impact...
  4. Engskog M, Deadman M, Li J, Hood D, Schweda E. Detailed structural features of lipopolysaccharide glycoforms in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae strain 2019. Carbohydr Res. 2011;346:1241-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Acetate groups and one glycine residue further substitute HepIII in NTHi 2019...
  5. Anderson R, Wang X, Briere E, Katz L, Cohn A, Clark T, et al. Haemophilus haemolyticus isolates causing clinical disease. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:2462-5 pubmed publisher
    ..All cases had different symptoms and presentations. Our study suggests that a testing scheme that includes reliable PCR assays and standard microbiological methods should be used in order to improve H. haemolyticus identification...
  6. Resman F, Svensjo T, Unal C, Cronqvist J, Brorson H, Odenholt I, et al. Necrotizing myositis and septic shock caused by Haemophilus influenzae type f in a previously healthy man diagnosed with an IgG3 and a mannose-binding lectin deficiency. Scand J Infect Dis. 2011;43:972-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We present here a dramatic case of Hif necrotizing myositis and septic shock. A subsequently diagnosed IgG3 and mannose-binding lectin deficiency possibly contributed to the severe outcome...
  7. Ladhani S. Two decades of experience with the Haemophilus influenzae serotype b conjugate vaccine in the United Kingdom. Clin Ther. 2012;34:385-99 pubmed publisher
  8. Wang Y, Liu C, Fang Y, Liu X, Li W, Liu S, et al. Transcription analysis on response of porcine alveolar macrophages to Haemophilus parasuis. BMC Genomics. 2012;13:68 pubmed publisher
    ..Systematical analysis on host innate immune response to the infection is important for understanding the pathogenesis of the infectious microorganisms...
  9. Shuel M, Hoang L, Law D, Tsang R. Invasive Haemophilus influenzae in British Columbia: non-Hib and non-typeable strains causing disease in children and adults. Int J Infect Dis. 2011;15:e167-73 pubmed publisher
    ..To characterize invasive Haemophilus influenzae and to examine the population at risk for invasive H. influenzae disease in British Columbia, Canada, 2008-2009...

More Information

Publications69

  1. Giufre M, Cardines R, Caporali M, Accogli M, D Ancona F, Cerquetti M. Ten years of Hib vaccination in Italy: prevalence of non-encapsulated Haemophilus influenzae among invasive isolates and the possible impact on antibiotic resistance. Vaccine. 2011;29:3857-62 pubmed publisher
    ..A marked change in the predominant serotype from Hib to ncHi has occurred. Changes in the H. influenzae population moderately affected antibiotic resistance trends...
  2. Laupland K, Schønheyder H, Østergaard C, Knudsen J, Valiquette L, Galbraith J, et al. Epidemiology of Haemophilus influenzae bacteremia: a multi-national population-based assessment. J Infect. 2011;62:142-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Haemophilus influenzae is an important cause of invasive infection but contemporary data in non-selected populations is limited...
  3. Talbot B, Alexander E, Lewis S, Newport M, Slack M, Litt D, et al. Hepatobiliary infections due to non-capsulated Haemophilus influenzae. J Med Microbiol. 2011;60:1383-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The epidemiology of invasive Haemophilus infections has changed and the number of cases of intra-abdominal and hepatobiliary infection may be underestimated ..
  4. Lowther S, Shinoda N, Juni B, Theodore M, Wang X, Jawahir S, et al. Haemophilus influenzae type b infection, vaccination, and H. influenzae carriage in children in Minnesota, 2008-2009. Epidemiol Infect. 2012;140:566-74 pubmed publisher
    ..In 2009, invasive Hib disease occurred in two children caused by the same strain that circulated in 2008. Hib remains a risk for vulnerable/unvaccinated children, although Hib carriage is not widespread in young children...
  5. MacNeil J, Cohn A, Farley M, Mair R, Baumbach J, Bennett N, et al. Current epidemiology and trends in invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease--United States, 1989-2008. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;53:1230-6 pubmed publisher
    ..With the introduction of Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) conjugate vaccines, there has been a dramatic reduction of Hib disease in young children and the epidemiological trends of invasive H. influenzae have shifted...
  6. Setchanova L, Kostyanev T, Markovska R, Miloshev G, Mitov I. Serotypes, antimicrobial susceptibility, and beta-lactam resistance mechanisms of clinical Haemophilus influenzae isolates from Bulgaria in a pre-vaccination period. Scand J Infect Dis. 2013;45:81-7 pubmed publisher
  7. Martí Lliteras P, López Gómez A, Mauro S, Hood D, Viadas C, Calatayud L, et al. Nontypable Haemophilus influenzae displays a prevalent surface structure molecular pattern in clinical isolates. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21133 pubmed publisher
    ..6% of isolates. Such a genetic profile was associated with a higher bacterial resistance to serum mediated killing and enhanced adherence to human respiratory epithelial cells...
  8. Wong S, Bernui M, Shen H, Akerley B. Genome-wide fitness profiling reveals adaptations required by Haemophilus in coinfection with influenza A virus in the murine lung. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:15413-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The results identify bacterial stress and metabolic adaptations required in an IAV coinfection model, revealing potential targets for treatment or prevention of secondary bacterial pneumonia after viral infection. ..
  9. Zhang B, He Y, Xu C, Xu L, Feng S, Liao M, et al. Cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) of the Haemophilus parasuis SC096 strain contributes to serum resistance and adherence to and invasion of PK-15 and PUVEC cells. Vet Microbiol. 2012;157:237-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that both CDTs in the H. parasuis SC096 strain are involved in serum resistance and adherence and invasion of host cells...
  10. Tsao D, Nelson K, Kim D, Smith A. Infant rat infection modifies phenotypic properties of an invasive nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. Microbes Infect. 2012;14:509-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Selection for strain susceptible to NHS in the infant rat was not antibody mediated. We conclude that the passage of pathogens virulent in humans and animals may select for phenotypes only relevant for the animal species used...
  11. Lagos R, Muñoz A, Levine M, Lepetic A, François N, Yarzabal J, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) in Chilean children. Hum Vaccin. 2011;7:511-22 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the safety profiles of 2 PHiD-CV vaccination schedules (3-dose primary plus booster and 2-dose catch-up) were in line with previous studies and PHiD-CV was immunogenic for all 10 vaccine serotypes and protein D...
  12. Rubach M, Bender J, Mottice S, Hanson K, Weng H, Korgenski K, et al. Increasing incidence of invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease in adults, Utah, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:1645-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The case-fatality rate was 22%. The incidence of invasive H. influenzae in Utah adults appears to be increasing. Invasive H. influenzae infection disproportionately affected the elderly and was associated with a high mortality rate...
  13. Goodman S, Obergfell K, Jurcisek J, Novotny L, Downey J, Ayala E, et al. Biofilms can be dispersed by focusing the immune system on a common family of bacterial nucleoid-associated proteins. Mucosal Immunol. 2011;4:625-37 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss the prospects for targeting DNABII family members as a potential universal strategy for treating biofilm diseases...
  14. Frandoloso R, Martínez Martínez S, Gutiérrez Martín C, Rodríguez Ferri E. Haemophilus parasuis serovar 5 Nagasaki strain adheres and invades PK-15 cells. Vet Microbiol. 2012;154:347-52 pubmed publisher
    ..parasuis Nagasaki strain in this organ...
  15. Agrawal A, Murphy T. Haemophilus influenzae infections in the H. influenzae type b conjugate vaccine era. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:3728-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The introduction of vaccines for otitis media and global shifts in antimicrobial susceptibility emphasize the importance of continued surveillance of H. influenzae colonization and disease patterns...
  16. Micol R, Kayal S, Mahlaoui N, Beauté J, Brosselin P, Dudoit Y, et al. Protective effect of IgM against colonization of the respiratory tract by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae in patients with hypogammaglobulinemia. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;129:770-7 pubmed publisher
    ..It is not known whether patients able to secrete IgM (eg, those with hyper-IgM [HIgM] syndrome) are as susceptible to these infections as patients who lack IgM production (eg, those with panhypogammaglobulinemia [PHG])...
  17. Martinez Moliner V, Soler Llorens P, Moleres J, Garmendia J, Aragon V. Distribution of genes involved in sialic acid utilization in strains of Haemophilus parasuis. Microbiology. 2012;158:2117-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are needed to clarify the role of sialic acid in the pathogenicity of H. parasuis...
  18. Ganesan S, Faris A, Comstock A, Sonstein J, Curtis J, Sajjan U. Elastase/LPS-exposed mice exhibit impaired innate immune responses to bacterial challenge: role of scavenger receptor A. Am J Pathol. 2012;180:61-72 pubmed publisher
    ..These data validate the suitability of elastase/LPS model for investigating NTHi pathogenesis and progression of disease in COPD...
  19. Armbruster C, Pang B, Murrah K, Juneau R, Perez A, Weimer K, et al. RbsB (NTHI_0632) mediates quorum signal uptake in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae strain 86-028NP. Mol Microbiol. 2011;82:836-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these data, we conclude that in NTHI 86-028NP, RbsB is a LuxS/AI-2 regulated protein that is required for uptake of and response to AI-2...
  20. Shelton C, Raffel F, Beatty W, Johnson S, Mason K. Sap transporter mediated import and subsequent degradation of antimicrobial peptides in Haemophilus. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002360 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support a mechanism of Sap mediated import of AMPs, a novel strategy to reduce periplasmic and inner membrane accumulation of these host defense peptides...
  21. McCormick D, Molyneux E. Bacterial meningitis and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine, Malawi. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:688-90 pubmed publisher
    ..influenzae type b meningitis in children in Blantyre, Malawi. Among young bacterial meningitis patients, HIV prevalence was high (36.7% during 1997-2009), and pneumococcus was the most common etiologic agent (57% in 2009). ..
  22. Yu J, Wu J, Zhang Y, Guo L, Cong X, Du Y, et al. Concurrent highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection accelerates Haemophilus parasuis infection in conventional pigs. Vet Microbiol. 2012;158:316-21 pubmed publisher
    ..7)copies/?l at 9 dpi with HPS in pigs of group III. The HPS loads in hearts and lungs were much higher than in other tissues. The study showed that HP-PRRSV was able to accelerate HPS infection and loads...
  23. Wong S, St Michael F, Cox A, Ram S, Akerley B. ArcA-regulated glycosyltransferase lic2B promotes complement evasion and pathogenesis of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. Infect Immun. 2011;79:1971-83 pubmed publisher
  24. Morton D, Hempel R, Seale T, Whitby P, Stull T. A functional tonB gene is required for both virulence and competitive fitness in a chinchilla model of Haemophilus influenzae otitis media. BMC Res Notes. 2012;5:327 pubmed publisher
    ..Haemophilus influenzae requires heme for aerobic growth and possesses multiple mechanisms to obtain this essential nutrient...
  25. Raffel F, Szelestey B, Beatty W, Mason K. The Haemophilus influenzae Sap transporter mediates bacterium-epithelial cell homeostasis. Infect Immun. 2013;81:43-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Epithelial cell invasion and modulation of host inflammatory cytokine responses may promote NTHI colonization and access to essential nutrients...
  26. Von Gottberg A, Cohen C, Whitelaw A, Chhagan M, Flannery B, Cohen A, et al. Invasive disease due to Haemophilus influenzae serotype b ten years after routine vaccination, South Africa, 2003-2009. Vaccine. 2012;30:565-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Following initial declines in Hib disease, national surveillance has identified increasing numbers of Hib disease episodes in fully vaccinated children...
  27. Liu X, Chen H, Tong Q, Li X, Zhu M, Wu Z, et al. Molecular characterization of caveolin-1 in pigs infected with Haemophilus parasuis. J Immunol. 2011;186:3031-46 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, our results suggest that Cav1 may be implicated in the pathogenesis of Glasser's disease, which is caused by H. parasuis...
  28. Martínez Martínez S, Frandoloso R, Gutiérrez Martín C, Lampreave F, García Iglesias M, Perez Martinez C, et al. Acute phase protein concentrations in colostrum-deprived pigs immunized with subunit and commercial vaccines against Glässer's disease. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2011;144:61-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, APPs could be used as useful biomarkers for both evaluating disease progression and determining vaccination effectiveness...
  29. Barbosa A, Giufre M, Cerquetti M, Bajanca Lavado M. Polymorphism in ftsI gene and {beta}-lactam susceptibility in Portuguese Haemophilus influenzae strains: clonal dissemination of beta-lactamase-positive isolates with decreased susceptibility to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2011;66:788-96 pubmed publisher
  30. Kelly L, Tsang R, Morgan A, Jamieson F, Ulanova M. Invasive disease caused by Haemophilus influenzae type a in Northern Ontario First Nations communities. J Med Microbiol. 2011;60:384-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data along with some published studies by others suggest an increased susceptibility to this infection among North American indigenous populations...
  31. van Wessel K, Rodenburg G, Veenhoven R, Spanjaard L, van der Ende A, Sanders E. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae invasive disease in The Netherlands: a retrospective surveillance study 2001-2008. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;53:e1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The epidemiology, the course of disease, and the outcome of ntHi invasive disease are not well established. For prevention, risk groups that might benefit from vaccination have to be defined...
  32. Costa Hurtado M, Ballester M, Galofre Mila N, Darji A, Aragon V. VtaA8 and VtaA9 from Haemophilus parasuis delay phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages. Vet Res. 2012;43:57 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results indicate that VtaA8 and VtaA9 are surface proteins that play a role in phagocytosis resistance of H. parasuis...
  33. White K, Pabst L, Cullen K. Up-to-date Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination coverage during a vaccine shortage. Pediatrics. 2011;127:e707-12 pubmed publisher
  34. Twelkmeyer B, Deadman M, Haque E, Li J, Hood D, Schweda E. The role of lic2B in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis in Haemophilus influenzae strain Eagan. Carbohydr Res. 2011;346:1262-6 pubmed publisher
  35. Nakamura S, Shchepetov M, Dalia A, Clark S, Murphy T, Sethi S, et al. Molecular basis of increased serum resistance among pulmonary isolates of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1001247 pubmed publisher
  36. Ochoa C, Mirabolfathinejad S, Ruiz V, Evans S, Gagea M, Evans C, et al. Interleukin 6, but not T helper 2 cytokines, promotes lung carcinogenesis. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2011;4:51-64 pubmed publisher
    ..6-fold). We conclude that there is a clear specificity for the nature of inflammation in lung cancer promotion, and IL-6 has an essential role in lung cancer promotion...
  37. Gardenier J, Sawyer R, Sifri C, Brayman K, Wispelway B, Bonatti H. Peritonitis caused by Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Leifsonia aquatica, and Gordonia spp. in a patient undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Surg Infect (Larchmt). 2012;13:409-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In most cases, these infections are monomicrobial, and the pathogens involved most commonly are Staphylococci. Recently, polymicrobial infections with rare organisms have been reported more often...
  38. Szelestey B, Heimlich D, Raffel F, Justice S, Mason K. Haemophilus responses to nutritional immunity: epigenetic and morphological contribution to biofilm architecture, invasion, persistence and disease severity. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003709 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that nutritional immunity, may, in fact, foster long-term phenotypic changes that better equip bacteria for survival at infectious sites. ..
  39. Rosadini C, Gawronski J, Raimunda D, ARGUELLO J, Akerley B. A novel zinc binding system, ZevAB, is critical for survival of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae in a murine lung infection model. Infect Immun. 2011;79:3366-76 pubmed publisher
    ..influenzae under conditions where zinc is limiting. Furthermore, evidence presented here suggests that zinc limitation is likely an important mechanism for host defense against pathogens during lung infection...
  40. Xu Q, Casey J, Chang A, Pichichero M. When co-colonizing the nasopharynx haemophilus influenzae predominates over Streptococcus pneumoniae except serotype 19A strains to cause acute otitis media. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2012;31:638-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae both predominated over Moraxella catarrhalis to cause AOM...
  41. Xu X, Woo C, Steere R, Lee B, Huang Y, Wu J, et al. EVI1 acts as an inducible negative-feedback regulator of NF-?B by inhibiting p65 acetylation. J Immunol. 2012;188:6371-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our study provides important insights into the novel role for EVI1 in negatively regulating NF-?B-dependent inflammation, and it may also shed light on the future development of novel anti-inflammatory strategies...
  42. Vogel A, Szelestey B, Raffel F, Sharpe S, Gearinger R, Justice S, et al. SapF-mediated heme-iron utilization enhances persistence and coordinates biofilm architecture of Haemophilus. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2012;2:42 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the multiple essential functions provided by the Sap transporter, this complex could prove to be an effective therapeutic target for the treatment of NTHI diseases...
  43. Prymula R, Hanovcova I, Splino M, Kriz P, Motlova J, Lebedova V, et al. Impact of the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae Protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) on bacterial nasopharyngeal carriage. Vaccine. 2011;29:1959-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Primary and booster vaccination with PHiD-CV reduced NPC of VT in the second year of life and tended to slightly increase that of NVT in line with previous experience with the 7-valent PCV...
  44. Chen H, Lunney J, Cheng L, Li X, Cao J, Zhu M, et al. Porcine S100A8 and S100A9: molecular characterizations and crucial functions in response to Haemophilus parasuis infection. Dev Comp Immunol. 2011;35:490-500 pubmed publisher
    ..A pS100A8/pS100A9-CASP3-SLC1A2 pathway regulating lipid metabolism was found. Both of their pro- and anti-inflammatory functions in response to HPS infection are highlighted...
  45. Leichtle A, Hernandez M, Lee J, Pak K, WEBSTER N, Wollenberg B, et al. The role of DNA sensing and innate immune receptor TLR9 in otitis media. Innate Immun. 2012;18:3-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that DNA sensing via TLR9 plays a role in OM pathogenesis and recovery. Alternative forms of DNA sensing may also contribute to OM...
  46. Thanavala Y, Lugade A. Role of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae in otitis media and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Adv Otorhinolaryngol. 2011;72:170-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This article provides a brief summary of the role of NTHI in disease and the work that has been accomplished by us and several other investigators...
  47. Yokota S, Ohkoshi Y, Sato K, Fujii N. Emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Haemophilus influenzae strains among elderly patients but not among children. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:361-5 pubmed
    ..These were isolated from patients over 58 years of age. Several fluoroquinolone-resistant clones appeared to have invaded the population of elderly patients in a particular area, Sapporo city. ..
  48. Leichtle A, Hernandez M, Ebmeyer J, Yamasaki K, Lai Y, Radek K, et al. CC chemokine ligand 3 overcomes the bacteriocidal and phagocytic defect of macrophages and hastens recovery from experimental otitis media in TNF-/- mice. J Immunol. 2010;184:3087-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Manipulation of CCL3 and/or TNF may prove to be effective therapeutic approaches in OM or other conditions associated with defective TNF generation. ..
  49. Forsgren A, Riesbeck K, Janson H. Protein D of Haemophilus influenzae: a protective nontypeable H. influenzae antigen and a carrier for pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46:726-31 pubmed publisher
    ..influenzae. This may have great clinical implications, because PD is the first NT H. influenzae antigen that has induced protective responses in humans. ..
  50. Metcalf D, MacInnes J. Differential expression of Haemophilus parasuis genes in response to iron restriction and cerebrospinal fluid. Can J Vet Res. 2007;71:181-8 pubmed
    ..The hydrolase homologue, however, was expressed only in representative H. parasuis strains associated with a high virulence potential, suggesting that this enzyme may play a role in pathogenesis...
  51. Massa H, Cripps A, Lehmann D. Otitis media: viruses, bacteria, biofilms and vaccines. Med J Aust. 2009;191:S44-9 pubmed
    ..Vaccine development is a key future direction for reducing the world burden of otitis media, but requires polymicrobial formulation and ongoing monitoring and modification to ensure sustained reduction in disease burden. ..
  52. Chen H, Li C, Fang M, Zhu M, Li X, Zhou R, et al. Understanding Haemophilus parasuis infection in porcine spleen through a transcriptomics approach. BMC Genomics. 2009;10:64 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provide new clues to the nature of the immune response in mammals, and we have identified candidate genes that are related to resistance to HPS. ..
  53. de la Fuente A, Gutiérrez Martín C, Rodriguez Barbosa J, Martinez Martinez S, Frandoloso R, Tejerina F, et al. Blood cellular immune response in pigs immunized and challenged with Haemophilus parasuis. Res Vet Sci. 2009;86:230-4 pubmed publisher
    ..parasuis infection; in addition, the blood cellular response developed by the different groups was not relevant to protection...
  54. Kalies H, Siedler A, Gröndahl B, Grote V, Milde Busch A, Von Kries R. Invasive Haemophilus influenzae infections in Germany: impact of non-type b serotypes in the post-vaccine era. BMC Infect Dis. 2009;9:45 pubmed publisher
  55. Morris S, Moss W, Halsey N. Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine use and effectiveness. Lancet Infect Dis. 2008;8:435-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Even with new funding support, there are many ongoing challenges and vaccine use remains suboptimal, particularly in developing countries...
  56. Trotter C, McVernon J, Ramsay M, Whitney C, Mulholland E, Goldblatt D, et al. Optimising the use of conjugate vaccines to prevent disease caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b, Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Vaccine. 2008;26:4434-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this paper is to review the state of the current evidence on conjugate vaccines and to identify important areas for further study, in order to inform the debate regarding the best use of these vaccines...
  57. Kofteridis D, Samonis G, Mantadakis E, Maraki S, Chrysofakis G, Alegakis D, et al. Lower respiratory tract infections caused by Haemophilus influenzae: clinical features and predictors of outcome. Med Sci Monit. 2009;15:CR135-9 pubmed
    ..We studied clinical features and predictors of outcome of lower respiratory tract infections caused by Haemophilus influenzae in hospitalized adults in a general hospital...
  58. Abdeldaim G, Stralin K, Kirsebom L, Olcen P, Blomberg J, Herrmann B. Detection of Haemophilus influenzae in respiratory secretions from pneumonia patients by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2009;64:366-73 pubmed publisher
    ..influenzae in respiratory secretions. Quantification facilitates discrimination between disease-causing H. influenzae strains and commensal colonization...
  59. Bender J, Cox C, Mottice S, She R, Korgenski K, Daly J, et al. Invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease in Utah children: an 11-year population-based study in the era of conjugate vaccine. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50:e41-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to report the epidemiology and serotypes of invasive H. influenzae disease in children from Utah in the post-Hib vaccine era...
  60. Juliao P, Marrs C, Xie J, Gilsdorf J. Histidine auxotrophy in commensal and disease-causing nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:4994-5001 pubmed
    ..Those isolates lacking the histidine pathway were still able to survive well in the throat, which suggests that histidine is readily available in the throat environment...