actinobacillus infections

Summary

Summary: Infections with bacteria of the genus ACTINOBACILLUS.

Top Publications

  1. Chiers K, Donné E, Van Overbeke I, Ducatelle R, Haesebrouck F. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infections in closed swine herds: infection patterns and serological profiles. Vet Microbiol. 2002;85:343-52 pubmed
    ..Infection of the upper respiratory tract without lung involvement did not result in development of Apx toxin neutralizing antibodies. Therefore, such serological assays cannot be used for the detection of subclinically infected animals. ..
  2. Velthuis A, de Jong M, Kamp E, Stockhofe N, Verheijden J. Design and analysis of an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae transmission experiment. Prev Vet Med. 2003;60:53-68 pubmed
    ..Although it could not be demonstrated that vaccination has an effect on the susceptibility of pigs, it was demonstrated that nasal excretion of A. pleuropneumoniae is related to the infectivity of pigs...
  3. Vigre H, Ersbøll A, Sørensen V. Decay of acquired colostral antibodies to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in pigs. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health. 2003;50:430-5 pubmed
    ..pleuropneumoniae serotype 2. ..
  4. Baltes N, Hennig Pauka I, Gerlach G. Both transferrin binding proteins are virulence factors in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 7 infection. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2002;209:283-7 pubmed
    ..This result clearly implies that each transferrin binding protein on its own is a virulence factor of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 7...
  5. Moser R, Reverter A, Kerr C, Beh K, Lehnert S. A mixed-model approach for the analysis of cDNA microarray gene expression data from extreme-performing pigs after infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. J Anim Sci. 2004;82:1261-71 pubmed
    ..These results provide evidence that the proposed statistical approach was useful in enhancing the knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the genetics of the immune response. ..
  6. Bei W, He Q, Zhou R, Yan L, Huang H, Chen H. Evaluation of immunogenicity and protective efficacy of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae HB04C(-) mutant lacking a drug resistance marker in the pigs. Vet Microbiol. 2007;125:120-7 pubmed
    ..pleuropneumonia. Taken together, HB04C(-) might serve as a promising vaccine candidate against infection with A. pleuropneumoniae. ..
  7. Hennig Pauka I, Jacobsen I, Blecha F, Waldmann K, Gerlach G. Differential proteomic analysis reveals increased cathelicidin expression in porcine bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection. Vet Res. 2006;37:75-87 pubmed
    ..pleuropneumoniae infection. These results imply that PR-39 might have a potential as a general biomarker to determine porcine respiratory health. ..
  8. Tonpitak W, Baltes N, Hennig Pauka I, Gerlach G. Construction of an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 prototype live negative-marker vaccine. Infect Immun. 2002;70:7120-5 pubmed
    ..The double-mutant contains no foreign DNA, is highly attenuated, protects pigs from homologous challenge upon a single aerosol application, and facilitates the serological discrimination of immunized and infected herds. ..
  9. Bosse J, Janson H, Sheehan B, Beddek A, Rycroft A, Kroll J, et al. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae: pathobiology and pathogenesis of infection. Microbes Infect. 2002;4:225-35 pubmed

More Information

Publications84

  1. Skovgaard K, Mortensen S, Poulsen K, Angen Ø, Heegaard P. Validation of putative reference genes for qRT-PCR normalization in tissues and blood from pigs infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2007;118:140-6 pubmed
    ..01). Based on these results, we recommend to validate putative reference genes before normalization...
  2. Subashchandrabose S, Leveque R, Wagner T, Kirkwood R, Kiupel M, Mulks M. Branched-chain amino acids are required for the survival and virulence of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in swine. Infect Immun. 2009;77:4925-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These results further suggest a potential role for AHAS inhibitors as antimicrobial agents against pulmonary pathogens...
  3. Lin L, Bei W, Sha Y, Liu J, Guo Y, Liu W, et al. Construction and immunogencity of a DeltaapxIC/DeltaapxIIC double mutant of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovar 1. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2007;274:55-62 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the mutant strain SLW03 could be used as a candidate live vaccine that can induce reliable cross-serovar protection following i.n. immunization. ..
  4. Cho W, Chae C. Expression of nitric oxide synthase 2 and cyclooxygenase-2 in swine experimentally infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Vet Pathol. 2004;41:666-72 pubmed
    ..925, P <0.01). High levels of PGE2 produced by COX-2 are generated in early infection (6 hpi). However, in later stages of infection (12-36 hpi), there is participation of NO and PGE2 accompanied by coinduction of both NOS2 and COX-2...
  5. Fine D, Kaplan J, Kachlany S, Schreiner H. How we got attached to Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans: A model for infectious diseases. Periodontol 2000. 2006;42:114-57 pubmed
  6. Deslandes V, Denicourt M, Girard C, Harel J, Nash J, Jacques M. Transcriptional profiling of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae during the acute phase of a natural infection in pigs. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:98 pubmed publisher
  7. Buettner F, Maas A, Gerlach G. An Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae arcA deletion mutant is attenuated and deficient in biofilm formation. Vet Microbiol. 2008;127:106-15 pubmed
    ..It is hypothesized that the lack of these functions is, at least in part, responsible for the reduction of virulence. ..
  8. Benga L, Hoeltig D, Rehm T, Rothkoetter H, Pabst R, Valentin Weigand P. Expression levels of immune markers in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infected pigs and their relation to breed and clinical symptoms. BMC Vet Res. 2009;5:13 pubmed publisher
    ..Further analyses will have to show whether these markers may serve as correlates of protection against porcine respiratory infections. ..
  9. Buettner F, Bendallah I, Bosse J, Dreckmann K, Nash J, Langford P, et al. Analysis of the Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae ArcA regulon identifies fumarate reductase as a determinant of virulence. Infect Immun. 2008;76:2284-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The mutant was shown to be significantly attenuated, thereby strongly supporting a crucial role for fumarate reductase in the pathogenesis of A. pleuropneumoniae infection. ..
  10. Skovgaard K, Mortensen S, Boye M, Poulsen K, Campbell F, Eckersall P, et al. Rapid and widely disseminated acute phase protein response after experimental bacterial infection of pigs. Vet Res. 2009;40:23 pubmed publisher
  11. Ondrackova P, Nechvatalova K, Kucerova Z, Leva L, Dominguez J, Faldyna M. Porcine mononuclear phagocyte subpopulations in the lung, blood and bone marrow: dynamics during inflammation induced by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Vet Res. 2010;41:64 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, two different MP maturation pathways were suggested in pigs. The use of these pathways differs under inflammatory and noninflammatory conditions. ..
  12. Silin D, Lyubomska V. Overcoming immune tolerance during oral vaccination against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health. 2002;49:169-75 pubmed
    ..Chronic consumption of oral vaccine led to benefits in the quantity of local (not systemic) antibodies. The outcomes of the study can be adapted for practical oral immunization of pigs...
  13. Boekema B, Kamp E, Smits M, Smith H, Stockhofe Zurwieden N. Both ApxI and ApxII of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 are necessary for full virulence. Vet Microbiol. 2004;100:17-23 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that both ApxI and ApxII of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 are necessary for full virulence. ..
  14. Kristensen C, Angen Ø, Andreasen M, Takai H, Nielsen J, Jorsal S. Demonstration of airborne transmission of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 between simulated pig units located at close range. Vet Microbiol. 2004;98:243-9 pubmed
    ..pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 between closely located pig units is rare. ..
  15. Xu F, Chen X, Shi A, Yang B, Wang J, Li Y, et al. Characterization and immunogenicity of an apxIA mutant of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Vet Microbiol. 2006;118:230-9 pubmed
    ..Our work suggests that the mutant strain offers potential as a live attenuated pleuropneumonia vaccine that can provide cross-serovar protection...
  16. Jeannotte M, Abul Milh M, Dubreuil J, Jacques M. Binding of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae to phosphatidylethanolamine. Infect Immun. 2003;71:4657-63 pubmed
    ..This study is, to the best of our knowledge, the first description of A. pleuropneumoniae binding to phospholipids. Our data also suggest that LPS O antigens could be involved in binding to PE...
  17. Mortensen S, Skovgaard K, Hedegaard J, Bendixen C, Heegaard P. Transcriptional profiling at different sites in lungs of pigs during acute bacterial respiratory infection. Innate Immun. 2011;17:41-53 pubmed publisher
  18. Maas A, Jacobsen I, Meens J, Gerlach G. Use of an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae multiple mutant as a vaccine that allows differentiation of vaccinated and infected animals. Infect Immun. 2006;74:4124-32 pubmed
    ..pleuropneumoniae serotype 9 challenge strain and allowed the serological discrimination between infected and vaccinated groups...
  19. Carpintero R, Pineiro M, Andres M, Iturralde M, Alava M, Heegaard P, et al. The concentration of apolipoprotein A-I decreases during experimentally induced acute-phase processes in pigs. Infect Immun. 2005;73:3184-7 pubmed
    ..Decreases in the concentrations of ApoA-I, two to five times lower than the initial values, were observed at 2 to 4 days. It is concluded that ApoA-I is a negative acute-phase protein in pigs...
  20. Losinger W. Economic impacts of reduced pork production associated with the diagnosis of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae on grower/finisher swine operations in the United States. Prev Vet Med. 2005;68:181-93 pubmed
    ..The estimate of the price elasticity of demand for pork also contributed towards a lot of the uncertainty in the estimated change in producer surplus...
  21. Ramjeet M, Deslandes V, Goure J, Jacques M. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae vaccines: from bacterins to new insights into vaccination strategies. Anim Health Res Rev. 2008;9:25-45 pubmed publisher
    ..pleuropneumoniae vaccines as well as the newly available genomic tools and vaccination strategies that could be useful in the design of an efficient vaccine against A. pleuropneumoniae infection...
  22. Hoeltig D, Hennig Pauka I, Thies K, Rehm T, Beyerbach M, Strutzberg Minder K, et al. A novel Respiratory Health Score (RHS) supports a role of acute lung damage and pig breed in the course of an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection. BMC Vet Res. 2009;5:14 pubmed publisher
    ..pleuropneumoniae...
  23. Rehm T, Benga L, Danilowicz E, Drungowski M, Hoeltig D, Kahlisch D, et al. [Functional genome analysis investigating resistance to respiratory tract disease in a porcine Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection model]. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2008;115:260-4 pubmed
    ..The intention is to identify genetic markers for increased resistance to infection thereby providing additional tools for the estimation of breeding values to the pig industry...
  24. Sjolund M, de la Fuente A, Fossum C, Wallgren P. Responses of pigs to a re-challenge with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae after being treated with different antimicrobials following their initial exposure. Vet Rec. 2009;164:550-5 pubmed
    ..The previously uninoculated control group and the enrofloxacin-treated group developed severe disease, but the three seropositive groups remained unaffected...
  25. Cho W, Jung K, Kim J, Ha Y, Chae C. Expression of mRNA encoding interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12p35 and IL-12p40 in lungs from pigs experimentally infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Vet Res Commun. 2005;29:111-22 pubmed
    ..pleuropneumoniae and these cytokines in pleuropneumonia. The results suggest that the expression of IL-10 and IL-12 play a role in pathogenesis of A. pleuropneumoniae infection...
  26. Garside L, Collins M, Langford P, Rycroft A. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 carrying the defined aroA mutation is fully avirulent in the pig. Res Vet Sci. 2002;72:163-7 pubmed
    ..However, the residence time of the mutant in the respiratory tract of the pig may be too short for it to be useful in generating a protective immune response...
  27. Kelk P, Johansson A, Claesson R, Hänström L, Kalfas S. Caspase 1 involvement in human monocyte lysis induced by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin. Infect Immun. 2003;71:4448-55 pubmed
    ..Monocytes are the most lysis-sensitive leukocytes for A. actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin. Their lysis by this toxin depends on caspase 1 activation and proceeds through a process that differs from classical apoptosis...
  28. Tumamao J, Bowles R, van den Bosch H, Klaasen H, Fenwick B, Storie G, et al. Comparison of the efficacy of a subunit and a live streptomycin-dependent porcine pleuropneumonia vaccine. Aust Vet J. 2004;82:370-4 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the efficacy of two new-generation porcine pleuropneumonia vaccines when challenged with Australian isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae of serovars 1 and 15...
  29. Baltes N, N diaye M, Jacobsen I, Maas A, Buettner F, Gerlach G. Deletion of the anaerobic regulator HlyX causes reduced colonization and persistence of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in the porcine respiratory tract. Infect Immun. 2005;73:4614-9 pubmed
    ..pleuropneumoniae in epithelial lining fluid...
  30. Baltes N, Hennig Pauka I, Jacobsen I, Gruber A, Gerlach G. Identification of dimethyl sulfoxide reductase in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and its role in infection. Infect Immun. 2003;71:6784-92 pubmed
    ..A. pleuropneumoniae DeltadmsA was attenuated in acute disease, which suggests that genes involved in oxidative metabolism under anaerobic conditions might contribute significantly to A. pleuropneumoniae virulence...
  31. Baltes N, Tonpitak W, Hennig Pauka I, Gruber A, Gerlach G. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 7 siderophore receptor FhuA is not required for virulence. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2003;220:41-8 pubmed
  32. Maas A, Meens J, Baltes N, Hennig Pauka I, Gerlach G. Development of a DIVA subunit vaccine against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection. Vaccine. 2006;24:7226-37 pubmed
  33. Faldyna M, Nechvatalova K, Sinkora J, Knotigova P, Leva L, Krejci J, et al. Experimental Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection in piglets with different types and levels of specific protection: immunophenotypic analysis of lymphocyte subsets in the circulation and respiratory mucosal lymphoid tissue. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2005;107:143-52 pubmed
  34. Cho W, Chae C. Expression of the apxIV gene in pigs naturally infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. J Comp Pathol. 2001;125:34-40 pubmed
    ..Thus, the study demonstrated the presence of the apxIV gene in pleuropneumonic lesions caused by A. pleuropneumoniae...
  35. Ramjeet M, Cox A, Hancock M, Mourez M, Labrie J, Gottschalk M, et al. Mutation in the LPS outer core biosynthesis gene, galU, affects LPS interaction with the RTX toxins ApxI and ApxII and cytolytic activity of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1. Mol Microbiol. 2008;70:221-35 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study suggests that a lack of binding between LPS and ApxI/II affects the cytotoxicity and virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae...
  36. Maes D, Chiers K, Haesebrouck F, Laevens H, Verdonck M, de Kruif A. Seroprevalence of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovars 2, 3 and 9 in slaughter pigs from Belgian fattening farms. Vet Rec. 2002;151:206-10 pubmed
    ..30; P < 0.10) and with herds in which the finishing houses were not divided into separate compartments (OR = 2.99; P < 0.05)...
  37. Seo K, Kim D, Kim A, Yoo H, Lee K, Jang Y. Characterization of antigenic determinants in ApxIIA exotoxin capable of inducing protective immunity to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae challenge. Immunol Invest. 2011;40:465-80 pubmed publisher
    ..pleuropneumoniae challenge, since the small antigen peptide is easier to handle than is the full-length protein and can be expressed efficiently in heterologous expression systems...
  38. Negrete Abascal E, Reyes M, García R, Vaca S, Giron J, Garcia O, et al. Flagella and Motility in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:664-8 pubmed
    ..pleuropneumoniae was observed in tryptic soy or brain heart infusion soft agar media, and it is influenced by temperature. Flagella and motility may be involved in the survival and pathogenesis of A. pleuropneumoniae in pigs...
  39. Fraile L, Alegre A, López Jiménez R, Nofrarias M, Segales J. Risk factors associated with pleuritis and cranio-ventral pulmonary consolidation in slaughter-aged pigs. Vet J. 2010;184:326-33 pubmed publisher
    ..59) that cranio-ventral pulmonary consolidation lesions (EP-like lesions) were affected by the type of farm ventilation, the presence of respiratory symptoms during the fattening period and Mhyo and SIV H1N2 herd seroprevalence...
  40. van den Bosch H, Frey J. Interference of outer membrane protein PalA with protective immunity against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infections in vaccinated pigs. Vaccine. 2003;21:3601-7 pubmed
  41. Chiers K, De Waele T, Pasmans F, Ducatelle R, Haesebrouck F. Virulence factors of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae involved in colonization, persistence and induction of lesions in its porcine host. Vet Res. 2010;41:65 pubmed publisher
    ..Information on virulence factors involved in tonsillar and nasal cavity colonization and persistence is scarce, but it can be speculated that similar features as demonstrated for the lung may play a role...
  42. Baltes N, Gerlach G. Identification of genes transcribed by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in necrotic porcine lung tissue by using selective capture of transcribed sequences. Infect Immun. 2004;72:6711-6 pubmed
    ..In total, 46 genes were identified, 20 of which have been previously reported to be associated with in vivo expression or virulence in A. pleuropneumoniae or in other organisms...
  43. Gutiérrez Martín C, del Blanco N, Blanco M, Navas J, Rodríguez Ferri E. Changes in antimicrobial susceptibility of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolated from pigs in Spain during the last decade. Vet Microbiol. 2006;115:218-22 pubmed
    ..Vadillo, S., Rodríguez Ferri, E.F., 1993. In vitro susceptibility of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae strains to 42 antimicrobial agents. Am. J. Vet. Res. 54, 546-550); this finding was also observed for gentamicin in minor percentage...
  44. Blackall P, Klaasen H, van den Bosch H, Kuhnert P, Frey J. Proposal of a new serovar of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae: serovar 15. Vet Microbiol. 2002;84:47-52 pubmed
    ..On the basis of the serological characterisation results and the toxin gene profiles, we propose that these isolates represent a new serovar of A. pleuropneumoniae--serovar 15--with HS143 being the reference strain for the new serovar...
  45. Cho W, Chae C. Expression of nitric oxide synthase 2 and tumor necrosis factor alpha in swine naturally infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Vet Pathol. 2002;39:27-32 pubmed
    ..In situ hybridization of serial sections of lung tissue revealed numerous cells positive for NOS2 and TNF-alpha, suggesting that NOS2 and TNF-alpha expression may play a role in the pathophysiology of pleuropneumonia...
  46. Shao M, Wang Y, Wang C, Guo Y, Peng Y, Liu J, et al. Evaluation of multicomponent recombinant vaccines against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in mice. Acta Vet Scand. 2010;52:52 pubmed publisher
    ..In the development of an efficacious vaccine against APP, the immunogenicities of multicomponent recombinant subunit vaccines were evaluated...
  47. Kachlany S. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin: from threat to therapy. J Dent Res. 2010;89:561-70 pubmed publisher
  48. Jacques M. Surface polysaccharides and iron-uptake systems of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Can J Vet Res. 2004;68:81-5 pubmed
    ..The aim of this short review is to present recent data concerning important surface molecules of A. pleuropneumoniae; namely, lipopolysaccharides, capsular polysaccharides, and a subset of outer membrane proteins involved in iron uptake...
  49. Lauritzen B, Lykkesfeldt J, Skaanild M, Angen Ø, Nielsen J, Friis C. Putative biomarkers for evaluating antibiotic treatment: an experimental model of porcine Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection. Res Vet Sci. 2003;74:261-70 pubmed
    ..The present model provides a valuable tool in the evaluation of antibiotic treatments, offering the advantage of clinical and pathological examinations combined with the use of biochemical infection markers...
  50. Myers M, Baarsch M, Murtaugh M. Effects of pentoxifylline on inflammatory cytokine expression and acute pleuropneumonia in swine. Immunobiology. 2002;205:17-34 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that pentoxifylline is an effective pharmacological tool for the dissection of cytokine regulation in vitro, but inhibitory concentrations may not be achievable for in vivo pharmacological use in swine...
  51. Wagner T, Mulks M. A subset of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in vivo induced promoters respond to branched-chain amino acid limitation. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2006;48:192-204 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that limitation of branched-chain amino acids may be one of an array of environmental cues responsible for the induction of virulence-associated genes in A. pleuropneumoniae...
  52. Tegetmeyer H, Fricke K, Baltes N. An isogenic Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae AasP mutant exhibits altered biofilm formation but retains virulence. Vet Microbiol. 2009;137:392-6 pubmed publisher
    ..No significant differences between AP76 wild-type and AP76DeltaaasP were observed upon experimental infection of pigs, indicating that AasP does not play a crucial role in A. pleuropneumoniae virulence...
  53. Liu J, Chen X, Tan C, Guo Y, Chen Y, Fu S, et al. In vivo induced RTX toxin ApxIVA is essential for the full virulence of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Vet Microbiol. 2009;137:282-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicated that the pathogenicity of A. pleuropnuemoniae was greater when ApxIVA was present, suggesting that ApxIVA is essential for expression of the full virulence of A. pleuropnuemoniae...
  54. Boekema B, Stockhofe Zurwieden N, Smith H, Kamp E, van Putten J, Verheijden J. Adherence of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae to primary cultures of porcine lung epithelial cells. Vet Microbiol. 2003;93:133-44 pubmed
    ..pleuropneumoniae may carry different, cell type-specific adhesins and that primary cultures of lower respiratory epithelium are valuable infection models in studying A. pleuropneumoniae pathogenesis...
  55. Marois C, Gottschalk M, Morvan H, Fablet C, Madec F, Kobisch M. Experimental infection of SPF pigs with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 9 alone or in association with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Vet Microbiol. 2009;135:283-91 pubmed publisher
    ..pleuropneumoniae 4 weeks later. Our results show that the presence of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 9 in a pig herd may be clinically unnoticed and that M. hyopneumoniae may potentiate A. pleuropneumoniae infection...
  56. Cho W, Choi C, Chae C. In situ hybridization for the detection of the apxIV gene in the lungs of pigs experimentally infected with twelve Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotypes. Vet Res. 2002;33:653-60 pubmed
    ..pleuropneumoniae when only formalin-fixed tissues are submitted for diagnosis...
  57. Wang C, Wang Y, Shao M, Si W, Liu H, Chang Y, et al. Positive role for rApxIVN in the immune protection of pigs against infection by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Vaccine. 2009;27:5816-21 pubmed publisher
    ..pleuropneumoniae...
  58. Balaji R, Wright K, Turner J, Hill C, Dritz S, Fenwick B, et al. Circulating cortisol, tumor necrosis factor-alpha interleukin-1beta, and interferon-gamma in pigs infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. J Anim Sci. 2002;80:202-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, in this experimental model of pneumonia, weaned pigs demonstrated expected behavioral and endocrine characteristics of disease in the absence of significant changes in circulating inflammatory cytokines...
  59. Dalai B, Zhou R, Wan Y, Kang M, Li L, Li T, et al. Histone-like protein H-NS regulates biofilm formation and virulence of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Microb Pathog. 2009;46:128-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that H-NS plays important roles in regulating biofilm formation and virulence in A. pleuropneumoniae...
  60. Tobias T, Bouma A, Klinkenberg D, Daemen A, Stegeman J, Wagenaar J, et al. Detection of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in pigs by real-time quantitative PCR for the apxIVA gene. Vet J. 2012;193:557-60 pubmed publisher
    ..0. The qPCR showed consistent results in repeatedly sampled conventional pigs. Tonsillar brush samples and apxIVA qPCR analysis may be useful for further epidemiological studies and monitoring for A. pleuropneumoniae...
  61. Maes D, Chiers K, Haesebrouck F, Laevens H, Verdonck M, de Kruif A. Herd factors associated with the seroprevalences of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovars 2, 3 and 9 in slaughter pigs from farrow-to-finish pig herds. Vet Res. 2001;32:409-19 pubmed
    ..The purchase policy of gilts and biosecurity measures are risk factors that can be improved fairly easily on pig farms...
  62. Lee K, Kim D, Kang T, Kim J, Chung G, Yoo H, et al. Induction of protective immune responses against the challenge of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae by the oral administration of transgenic tobacco plant expressing ApxIIA toxin from the bacteria. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2006;48:381-9 pubmed
    ..pleuropneumoniae. These results support that the transgenic plant may be a suitable candidate for an oral vaccine that could be used effectively against A. pleuropneumoniae infection...
  63. Jacobsen I, Gerstenberger J, Gruber A, Bosse J, Langford P, Hennig Pauka I, et al. Deletion of the ferric uptake regulator Fur impairs the in vitro growth and virulence of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Infect Immun. 2005;73:3740-4 pubmed
    ..pleuropneumoniae Deltafur. This mutant showed constitutive expression of transferrin-binding proteins, growth deficiencies in vitro, and reduced virulence in an aerosol infection model...
  64. Sthitmatee N, Sirinarumitr T, Makonkewkeyoon L, Sakpuaram T, Tesaprateep T. Identification of the Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype using PCR based-apx genes. Mol Cell Probes. 2003;17:301-5 pubmed
    ..The results from both PCR and GID techniques were in accordance. Thus, the PCR typing system may provide a rapid and useful tool for typing the serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae...
  65. Sheehan B, Bosse J, Beddek A, Rycroft A, Kroll J, Langford P. Identification of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae genes important for survival during infection in its natural host. Infect Immun. 2003;71:3960-70 pubmed
    ..The results highlight the importance of genes involved in energy metabolism, nutrient uptake and stress responses for the survival of A. pleuropneumoniae in its natural host: the pig...
  66. Vigre H, Angen Ø, Barfod K, Lavritsen D, Sørensen V. Transmission of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in pigs under field-like conditions: emphasis on tonsillar colonisation and passively acquired colostral antibodies. Vet Microbiol. 2002;89:151-9 pubmed
    ..The median duration of tonsillar colonisation was estimated to approximately 7-8 weeks...
  67. Höltig D, Hennig Pauka I, Beyerbach M, Thies K, Rehm T, Gerlach G, et al. [Comparison of the diagnostic significance of clinical, radiographic and ultrasonographic results after an experimental aerosol infection of pigs with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae]. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2008;121:422-31 pubmed
    ..Particularly during the acute phase of the disease the extent of lung tissue damage can be estimated more precisely than by clinical examination alone...
  68. Bernardy J, Nechvatalova K, Krejci J, Kudlackova H, Brazdova I, Kucerova Z, et al. Comparison of different doses of antigen for intradermal administration in pigs: the Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae model. Vaccine. 2008;26:6368-72 pubmed publisher
  69. Kaplan J, Mulks M. Biofilm formation is prevalent among field isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Vet Microbiol. 2005;108:89-94 pubmed
    ..Biofilm formation may have relevance to the colonization, pathogenesis and transmission of this bacterium...
  70. Shin S, Bae J, Cho Y, Lee D, Kim D, Yang M, et al. Induction of antigen-specific immune responses by oral vaccination with Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae ApxIIA. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2005;43:155-64 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that feeding animals the yeast expressing the antigen can be an effective strategy to induce protective immune responses against A. pleuropneumoniae infection...
  71. Hultén C, Johansson E, Fossum C, Wallgren P. Interleukin 6, serum amyloid A and haptoglobin as markers of treatment efficacy in pigs experimentally infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Vet Microbiol. 2003;95:75-89 pubmed
  72. Velthuis A, de Jong M, Stockhofe N, Vermeulen T, Kamp E. Transmission of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in pigs is characterized by variation in infectivity. Epidemiol Infect. 2002;129:203-14 pubmed
    ..In this study it is shown that it is possible to measure the bacterial transmission of A. pleuropneumoniae under controlled circumstances if variation in infectivity is taken into account...
  73. Dubreuil J, Jacques M, Mittal K, Gottschalk M. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae surface polysaccharides: their role in diagnosis and immunogenicity. Anim Health Res Rev. 2000;1:73-93 pubmed
    ..Here, we review current knowledge on CPS and LPS of A. pleuropneumoniae used as diagnostic tools to monitor the infection and as immunogens for inclusion in vaccine preparations for animal protection...
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    ..These findings suggest a role of ApxI in AP infection as it might impair the host defense system through the induction of apoptosis in PAMs...
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    ..In pig protection studies, none of the proteins was individually capable of protecting pigs from colonization and infection with the homologous A. pleuropneumoniae strain, despite a detectable specific antibody response being induced...