ureaplasma infections

Summary

Summary: Infections with bacteria of the genus UREAPLASMA.

Top Publications

  1. Dhawan B, Gupta V, Khanna N, Singh M, Chaudhry R. Evaluation of the diagnostic efficacy of PCR for Ureaplasma urealyticum infection in Indian adults with symptoms of genital discharge. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2006;59:57-8 pubmed
    ..The results confirm the need to use a sensitive and reliable molecular method to prevent the underdiagnosis of ureaplasma infection and to facilitate better clinical management of this infection in India. ..
  2. Schelonka R, Waites K. Ureaplasma infection and neonatal lung disease. Semin Perinatol. 2007;31:2-9 pubmed
  3. Gonzalez Bosquet E, Gene A, Ferrer I, Borras M, Lailla J. Value of endocervical ureaplasma species colonization as a marker of preterm delivery. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2006;61:119-23 pubmed
    ..To study the predictive value for preterm delivery of colonization of the cervix and vagina by ureaplasmas and other potentially pathogenic microorganisms...
  4. Kotecha S, Hodge R, Schaber J, Miralles R, Silverman M, Grant W. Pulmonary Ureaplasma urealyticum is associated with the development of acute lung inflammation and chronic lung disease in preterm infants. Pediatr Res. 2004;55:61-8 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that U. urealyticum colonization is associated with the development of pulmonary inflammation in infants who subsequently develop chronic lung disease...
  5. Volgmann T, Ohlinger R, Panzig B. Ureaplasma urealyticum-harmless commensal or underestimated enemy of human reproduction? A review. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2005;273:133-9 pubmed
    This article reviews the role, diagnosis and treatment of Ureaplasma infections in human reproduction.
  6. Aaltonen R, Heikkinen J, Vahlberg T, Jensen J, Alanen A. Local inflammatory response in choriodecidua induced by Ureaplasma urealyticum. BJOG. 2007;114:1432-5 pubmed
    ..Lower quantities of bacteria failed to induce any response. ..
  7. Kafetzis D, Skevaki C, Skouteri V, Gavrili S, Peppa K, Kostalos C, et al. Maternal genital colonization with Ureaplasma urealyticum promotes preterm delivery: association of the respiratory colonization of premature infants with chronic lung disease and increased mortality. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;39:1113-22 pubmed
    ..Vaginal colonization with Ureaplasma organisms is associated with premature delivery. Colonization of the respiratory tract of infants is associated with the development of CLD and with increased mortality. ..
  8. Biernat Sudolska M, Rojek Zakrzewska D, Rzepecka Weglarz B, Woźniak J, Lauterbach R. [Influence of ureaplasma infection on the clinical state of newborns]. Przegl Epidemiol. 2006;60:53-8 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was the analysis of the clinical state of newborns infected with various species of ureaplasma...
  9. Viscardi R. Ureaplasma species: role in diseases of prematurity. Clin Perinatol. 2010;37:393-409 pubmed publisher
    ..Appropriate methods for detecting these fastidious organisms and potential strategies to prevent or ameliorate the effects of Ureaplasma infection are discussed...

More Information

Publications79

  1. Heggie A, Bar Shain D, Boxerbaum B, Fanaroff A, O Riordan M, Robertson J. Identification and quantification of ureaplasmas colonizing the respiratory tract and assessment of their role in the development of chronic lung disease in preterm infants. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2001;20:854-9 pubmed
  2. Waites K, Schelonka R, Xiao L, Grigsby P, Novy M. Congenital and opportunistic infections: Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2009;14:190-9 pubmed publisher
  3. Pitcher D, Sillis M, Robertson J. Simple method for determining biovar and serovar types of Ureaplasma urealyticum clinical isolates using PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:1840-4 pubmed
  4. Viscardi R, Kaplan J, Lovchik J, He J, Hester L, Rao S, et al. Characterization of a murine model of Ureaplasma urealyticum pneumonia. Infect Immun. 2002;70:5721-9 pubmed
  5. Skerk V, Mareković I, Markovinovic L, Begovac J, Skerk V, Barsić N, et al. Comparative randomized pilot study of azithromycin and doxycycline efficacy and tolerability in the treatment of prostate infection caused by Ureaplasma urealyticum. Chemotherapy. 2006;52:9-11 pubmed
    ..Clinical cure did not significantly differ with regard to the administered azithromycin (22/32) or doxycycline (21/31). ..
  6. Cultrera R, Seraceni S, Germani R, Contini C. Molecular evidence of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum colonization in preterm infants during respiratory distress syndrome. BMC Infect Dis. 2006;6:166 pubmed
    ..urealyticum or U. parvum infection. The influence of chemotherapy on the clinical course was also evaluated...
  7. Manimtim W, Hasday J, Hester L, Fairchild K, Lovchik J, Viscardi R. Ureaplasma urealyticum modulates endotoxin-induced cytokine release by human monocytes derived from preterm and term newborns and adults. Infect Immun. 2001;69:3906-15 pubmed
  8. Kilic D, Basar M, Kaygusuz S, Yilmaz E, Basar H, Batislam E. Prevalence and treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and Mycoplasma hominis in patients with non-gonococcal urethritis. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2004;57:17-20 pubmed
    ..urealyticum, and against erythromycin with M. hominis. Our results indicated that doxycycline or ofloxacin should be the first choice when empirical treatment is necessary...
  9. Pinna G, Skevaki C, Kafetzis D. The significance of Ureaplasma urealyticum as a pathogenic agent in the paediatric population. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2006;19:283-9 pubmed
    ..It may be transmitted perinatally from the colonized mother to her offspring, often resulting in prematurity and neonatal disease. The microorganism also sustains a causative role for infectious diseases in older children...
  10. Yoder B, Coalson J, Winter V, Siler Khodr T, Duffy L, Cassell G. Effects of antenatal colonization with ureaplasma urealyticum on pulmonary disease in the immature baboon. Pediatr Res. 2003;54:797-807 pubmed
    ..Inherent immune system responses may determine outcome of perinatal Ureaplasma colonization...
  11. Reyes L, Reinhard M, O donell L, Stevens J, Brown M. Rat strains differ in susceptibility to Ureaplasma parvum-induced urinary tract infection and struvite stone formation. Infect Immun. 2006;74:6656-64 pubmed
    ..Based on our results, struvite stone formation is linked to a robust inflammatory response that does not resolve UTI but instead promotes damage to surrounding tissues...
  12. García Castillo M, Morosini M, Galvez M, Baquero F, del Campo R, Meseguer M. Differences in biofilm development and antibiotic susceptibility among clinical Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum isolates. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008;62:1027-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this work was to study the ability of clinical isolates of Ureaplasma spp. to form biofilms in vitro and to compare the antibiotic susceptibility of sessile cells and their planktonic counterparts...
  13. Yoshida T, Deguchi T, Meda S, Kubota Y, Tamaki M, Yokoi S, et al. Quantitative detection of Ureaplasma parvum (biovar 1) and Ureaplasma urealyticum (biovar 2) in urine specimens from men with and without urethritis by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Sex Transm Dis. 2007;34:416-9 pubmed
    ..We also found that the presence of Ureaplasma parvum (biovar 1) in the male urethra might be the result of colonization...
  14. Honma Y, Yada Y, Takahashi N, Momoi M, Nakamura Y. Certain type of chronic lung disease of newborns is associated with Ureaplasma urealyticum infection in utero. Pediatr Int. 2007;49:479-84 pubmed
    ..However, the association of Ureaplasma urealyticum infection and CLD has been controversial. The purpose of the present paper was to determine whether U. urealyticum is associated with chorioamnionitis (CAM) and a certain type of CLD...
  15. Novy M, Duffy L, Axthelm M, Sadowsky D, Witkin S, Gravett M, et al. Ureaplasma parvum or Mycoplasma hominis as sole pathogens cause chorioamnionitis, preterm delivery, and fetal pneumonia in rhesus macaques. Reprod Sci. 2009;16:56-70 pubmed publisher
    ..U parvum or M hominis, as sole pathogens, elicit a robust proinflammatory response which contributes to preterm labor and fetal lung injury...
  16. Taylor Robinson D, Furr P. Genital mycoplasma infections. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 1997;109:578-83 pubmed
    ..Other mycoplasmas, for example M. fermentans, M. pivum, M. primatum, M. penetrans, M. spermatophilum and even M. pneumoniae have the capacity to cause urogenital tract disease but there is no evidence to indicate that they do so...
  17. Chung H, Chung J, Chun S, Sung H, Kim M, Kim K. [A case of erythromycin-resistant Ureaplasma urealyticum meningitis in a premature infant]. Korean J Lab Med. 2007;27:46-9 pubmed
    ..In acute meningitis of prematures already colonized with U. urealyticum, ureaplasmal cultures and susceptibility test are warranted in Korea...
  18. Gupta A, Gupta A, Gupta S, Mittal A, Chandra P, Gill A. Correlation of mycoplasma with unexplained infertility. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2009;280:981-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of genital mycoplasmas, particularly Ureaplasma urealyticum, in the etiology of infertility has been very controversial. An attempt has been made to explore the role of mycoplasma in unexplained infertility...
  19. Gomez R, Romero R, Nien J, Medina L, Carstens M, Kim Y, et al. Antibiotic administration to patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes does not eradicate intra-amniotic infection. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2007;20:167-73 pubmed
  20. Collins J, Kallapur S, Knox C, Nitsos I, Polglase G, Pillow J, et al. Inflammation in fetal sheep from intra-amniotic injection of Ureaplasma parvum. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2010;299:L852-60 pubmed publisher
    ..002), whereas ?-SMA increased in arteries and bronchioli. U. parvum induced a mild acute inflammatory response and changed elastin and ?-SMA deposition in the lung, which may affect lung structure and subsequent development...
  21. Lee S, Romero R, Kim E, Yoon B. A high Nugent score but not a positive culture for genital mycoplasmas is a risk factor for spontaneous preterm birth. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2009;22:212-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was performed to evaluate the relationship among the Nugent score for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV), the results of vaginal fluid culture for genital mycoplasmas, and the subsequent occurrence of preterm birth...
  22. Breugelmans M, Vancutsem E, Naessens A, Laubach M, Foulon W. Association of abnormal vaginal flora and Ureaplasma species as risk factors for preterm birth: a cohort study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2010;89:256-60 pubmed publisher
    ..To find out whether the presence of Ureaplasma species (U. spp.) in combination with an alteration of the normal vaginal flora is an independent risk factor for preterm delivery...
  23. Okogbule Wonodi A, Gross G, Sun C, Agthe A, Xiao L, Waites K, et al. Necrotizing enterocolitis is associated with ureaplasma colonization in preterm infants. Pediatr Res. 2011;69:442-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Ureaplasma may be a factor in NEC pathogenesis in preterm infants by contributing to intestinal mucosal injury and/or altering systemic or local immune responses...
  24. Miralles R, Hodge R, McParland P, Field D, Bell S, Taylor D, et al. Relationship between antenatal inflammation and antenatal infection identified by detection of microbial genes by polymerase chain reaction. Pediatr Res. 2005;57:570-7 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, we have found that microbial genes are particularly prevalent in pPROM and spontaneous preterm labor groups and that their presence is strongly associated with a marked intrauterine inflammatory response...
  25. Sung T, Xiao L, Duffy L, Waites K, Chesko K, Viscardi R. Frequency of ureaplasma serovars in respiratory secretions of preterm infants at risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30:379-83 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was conducted to determine the distribution of Ureaplasma serovars in respiratory secretions of a prospective cohort of preterm infants and to assess whether any of the serovars are associated with BPD...
  26. Moss T, Nitsos I, Knox C, Polglase G, Kallapur S, Ikegami M, et al. Ureaplasma colonization of amniotic fluid and efficacy of antenatal corticosteroids for preterm lung maturation in sheep. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009;200:96.e1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of the study was to assess the efficacy of maternal betamethasone for improving preterm lung function in the presence of inflammation induced by amniotic fluid Ureaplasma colonization...
  27. Maeda S, Deguchi T, Ishiko H, Matsumoto T, Naito S, Kumon H, et al. Detection of Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum (biovar 1) and Ureaplasma urealyticum (biovar 2) in patients with non-gonococcal urethritis using polymerase chain reaction-microtiter plate hybridization. Int J Urol. 2004;11:750-4 pubmed
  28. Gerber S, Vial Y, Hohlfeld P, Witkin S. Detection of Ureaplasma urealyticum in second-trimester amniotic fluid by polymerase chain reaction correlates with subsequent preterm labor and delivery. J Infect Dis. 2003;187:518-21 pubmed
    ..7%) than did the negative women (2.7%; P=.0008). PCR testing of second-trimester amniotic fluid for U. urealyticum can identify women at risk for subsequent preterm labor and delivery...
  29. Cao X, Wang Y, Hu X, Qing H, Wang H. Real-time TaqMan polymerase chain reaction assays for quantitative detection and differentiation of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2007;57:373-8 pubmed
    ..parvum and U. urealyticum can provide important information of the epidemiology of Ureaplasma infections. We developed 2 real-time TaqMan polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays that would allow rapid, specific, ..
  30. Kataoka S, Yamada T, Chou K, Nishida R, Morikawa M, Minami M, et al. Association between preterm birth and vaginal colonization by mycoplasmas in early pregnancy. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:51-5 pubmed
    ..4; 95% CI, 2.7 to 40.5)-were independently associated with late abortion and preterm birth. In conclusion, vaginal colonization with U. parvum, but not U. urealyticum, is associated with late abortion or early preterm birth...
  31. Kemp M, Saito M, Kallapur S, Jobe A, Keelan J, Li S, et al. Inflammation of the fetal ovine skin following in utero exposure to Ureaplasma parvum. Reprod Sci. 2011;18:1128-37 pubmed publisher
    ..These novel findings provide further support for the role of the fetal skin in the development of fetal inflammation and the preterm birth that may follow...
  32. Yoshida T, Maeda S, Deguchi T, Ishiko H. Phylogeny-based rapid identification of mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas from urethritis patients. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:105-10 pubmed
    ..genitalium and U. urealyticum. This phylogeny-based identification of mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas provides not only a powerful tool for rapid diagnosis but also the basis for etiological studies of these pathogens...
  33. Gunyeli I, Abike F, Dunder I, Aslan C, Tapisiz O, Temizkan O, et al. Chlamydia, Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma infections in infertile couples and effects of these infections on fertility. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2011;283:379-85 pubmed publisher
    ..In our study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum infections among infertile couples and effects of these infections on infertility...
  34. Dando S, Nitsos I, Newnham J, Jobe A, Moss T, Knox C. Maternal administration of erythromycin fails to eradicate intrauterine ureaplasma infection in an ovine model. Biol Reprod. 2010;83:616-22 pubmed publisher
    ..pregnancy; however, maternally administered erythromycin may be ineffective at eliminating intra-amniotic ureaplasma infections. We examined whether erythromycin would eradicate intra-amniotic ureaplasma infections in pregnant sheep...
  35. Cheah F, Anderson T, Darlow B, Murdoch D. Comparison of the Mycoplasma Duo test with PCR for detection of ureaplasma species in endotracheal aspirates from premature infants. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:509-10 pubmed
    ..in endotracheal aspirates from 60 premature neonates. The overall agreement between the two tests was 96%. The Mycoplasma Duo assay is a useful alternative to culture and PCR for detection of neonatal Ureaplasma infection...
  36. Kasper D, Mechtler T, Reischer G, Witt A, Langgartner M, Pollak A, et al. The bacterial load of Ureaplasma parvum in amniotic fluid is correlated with an increased intrauterine inflammatory response. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2010;67:117-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We postulate that the bacterial load of Ureaplasma spp. measured by qPCR should be determined in studies investigating the potential clinical impact of intrauterine Ureaplasma spp. on the outcome of preterm infants...
  37. Reyes L, Reinhard M, Brown M. Different inflammatory responses are associated with Ureaplasma parvum-induced UTI and urolith formation. BMC Infect Dis. 2009;9:9 pubmed publisher
    ..Animals were inoculated with sterile broth, 10(1), 10(3), 10(5), 10(7), or 10(9) log CFU of a rat-adapted strain of Ureaplasma parvum...
  38. Reyes L, Alvarez S, Allam A, Reinhard M, Brown M. Complicated urinary tract infection is associated with uroepithelial expression of proinflammatory protein S100A8. Infect Immun. 2009;77:4265-74 pubmed publisher
    ..i. time points. Based on these results, we surmise that invasive colonization of the bladder triggers chronic inflammation and immune dysregulation, which may be critical to struvite formation...
  39. Kirchner L, Helmer H, Heinze G, Wald M, Brunbauer M, Weninger M, et al. Amnionitis with Ureaplasma urealyticum or other microbes leads to increased morbidity and prolonged hospitalization in very low birth weight infants. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2007;134:44-50 pubmed
    ..To investigate the influence of culture proven intrauterine infection on preterm morbidity and to test the effect of antimicrobial treatment...
  40. Moss T, Nitsos I, Ikegami M, Jobe A, Newnham J. Experimental intrauterine Ureaplasma infection in sheep. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005;192:1179-86 pubmed
    ..We hypothesized that intra-amniotic ureaplasmas would cause lung inflammation and alter fetal lung development...
  41. Yoshida T, Maeda S, Deguchi T, Miyazawa T, Ishiko H. Rapid detection of Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum, and Ureaplasma urealyticum organisms in genitourinary samples by PCR-microtiter plate hybridization assay. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:1850-5 pubmed
    ..Based on these results, this PCR-microtiter plate hybridization assay can be considered an effective tool for the diagnosis of genitourinary infections with mycoplasmas or ureaplasmas...
  42. Zheng X, Teng L, Watson H, Glass J, Blanchard A, Cassell G. Small repeating units within the Ureaplasma urealyticum MB antigen gene encode serovar specificity and are associated with antigen size variation. Infect Immun. 1995;63:891-8 pubmed
    ..are invasive and that perhaps antigen variability and host factors are more important determinants of ureaplasma infections than are different serotypes per se...
  43. Giannakopoulos S, Alivizatos G, Deliveliotis C, Skolarikos A, Kastriotis J, Sofras F. Encrusted cystitis and pyelitis. Eur Urol. 2001;39:446-8 pubmed
    ..We report 4 cases of EC and 1 case of EP. In 1 case of EC Ureaplasma urealyticum was isolated as the microorganism responsible. To the best of our knowledge, U. urealyticum-induced EC has never been reported previously...
  44. Wang Y, Liang C, Wu J, Xu C, Qin S, Gao E. Do Ureaplasma urealyticum infections in the genital tract affect semen quality?. Asian J Androl. 2006;8:562-8 pubmed
    ..To investigate the relationship between Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) infection and semen quality...
  45. De Francesco M, Negrini R, Pinsi G, Peroni L, Manca N. Detection of Ureaplasma biovars and polymerase chain reaction-based subtyping of Ureaplasma parvum in women with or without symptoms of genital infections. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2009;28:641-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These preliminary data show the possibility of distinguishing between the more or less virulent strains of Ureaplasma, with important consequences for therapeutic treatment...
  46. Cheah F, Winterbourn C, Darlow B, Mocatta T, Vissers M. Nuclear factor kappaB activation in pulmonary leukocytes from infants with hyaline membrane disease: associations with chorioamnionitis and Ureaplasma urealyticum colonization. Pediatr Res. 2005;57:616-23 pubmed
    ..Together, these observations suggest that NF-kappaB activation in pulmonary leukocytes may be involved in the lung inflammatory process in infants with HMD...
  47. Bayraktar M, Ozerol I, Gucluer N, Celik O. Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in pregnant women. Int J Infect Dis. 2010;14:e90-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to study the role of these pathogens in symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant women and determine their clinical significance and antibiotic susceptibility...
  48. Schelonka R, Katz B, Waites K, Benjamin D. Critical appraisal of the role of Ureaplasma in the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia with metaanalytic techniques. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005;24:1033-9 pubmed
  49. Normann E, Lacaze Masmonteil T, Eaton F, Schwendimann L, Gressens P, Thebaud B. A novel mouse model of Ureaplasma-induced perinatal inflammation: effects on lung and brain injury. Pediatr Res. 2009;65:430-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, antenatal UP-induced inflammation alone is sufficient to disturb brain development. This model may be helpful in exploring the pathophysiology of perinatal lung and brain injury to develop new protective strategies...
  50. Aaltonen R, Vahlberg T, Lehtonen L, Alanen A. Ureaplasma urealyticum: no independent role in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2006;85:1354-9 pubmed
    ..We wanted to analyze if it has an independent role in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia if prenatal history with possible exposure to intrauterine infection is taken into account...
  51. Moss T, Knox C, Kallapur S, Nitsos I, Theodoropoulos C, Newnham J, et al. Experimental amniotic fluid infection in sheep: effects of Ureaplasma parvum serovars 3 and 6 on preterm or term fetal sheep. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008;198:122.e1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of the study was to determine the effects in late gestation of Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3 colonization and the effects, preterm, of U. parvum serovar 6...
  52. Lukic A, Canzio C, Patella A, Giovagnoli M, Cipriani P, Frega A, et al. Determination of cervicovaginal microorganisms in women with abnormal cervical cytology: the role of Ureaplasma urealyticum. Anticancer Res. 2006;26:4843-9 pubmed
  53. Matlow A, Th ng C, Kovach D, Quinn P, Dunn M, Wang E. Susceptibilities of neonatal respiratory isolates of Ureaplasma urealyticum to antimicrobial agents. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998;42:1290-2 pubmed
    ..parvum. Chloramphenicol, doxycycline, and azithromycin had the lowest MICs. This data may be useful when designing prophylactic or therapeutic trials of antibiotics for chronic lung disease of the newborn...
  54. Hashimoto O, Yoshida T, Ishiko H, Ido M, Deguchi T. Quantitative detection and phylogeny-based identification of mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas from human immunodeficiency virus type 1-positive patients. J Infect Chemother. 2006;12:25-30 pubmed
    ..8 x 10 copies/ml to 7.2 x 10(3) copies/ml. Overall, this study demonstrates that real-time PCR and phylogenetic analysis are the fastest available methods for the detection of mycoplasmas in the urogenital tract...
  55. Dammann O, Allred E, Genest D, Kundsin R, Leviton A. Antenatal mycoplasma infection, the fetal inflammatory response and cerebral white matter damage in very-low-birthweight infants. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2003;17:49-57 pubmed
    ..Our finding that M. hominis in the placenta was associated with a not quite significant threefold risk increase for echolucency deserves further investigation...
  56. Katz B, Patel P, Duffy L, Schelonka R, Dimmitt R, Waites K. Characterization of ureaplasmas isolated from preterm infants with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:4852-4 pubmed
    ..urealyticum. U. parvum was detected more often than U. urealyticum. There was no significant difference or trend in the prevalence of either species between infants with or without bronchopulmonary dysplasia when isolated alone...
  57. Ekiel A, Friedek D, Romanik M, Jóźwiak J, Martirosian G. Occurrence of Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum in women with cervical dysplasia in Katowice, Poland. J Korean Med Sci. 2009;24:1177-81 pubmed publisher
    ..urealyticum DNA-only in 9 (4.9%). Predominance of 3/14 serovars of U. parvum was demonstrated. U. urealyticum biovar 2 was present more often in women with squamous intraepithelial lesions...
  58. Yokoi S, Maeda S, Kubota Y, Tamaki M, Mizutani K, Yasuda M, et al. The role of Mycoplasma genitalium and Ureaplasma urealyticum biovar 2 in postgonococcal urethritis. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45:866-71 pubmed
    ..Thus, we conducted a study to determine the prevalence of coinfection with genital mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas among men with GU and to assess the role of these pathogens in PGU...
  59. Manhas A, Sethi S, Sharma M, Wanchu A, Kanwar A, Kaur K, et al. Association of genital mycoplasmas including Mycoplasma genitalium in HIV infected men with nongonococcal urethritis attending STD & HIV clinics. Indian J Med Res. 2009;129:305-10 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to determine the isolation pattern/detection of genital mycoplasma including M. genitalium in HIV infected men with NGU and to compare it with non HIV infected individuals...
  60. Rao R, Ghanayem N, Kaufman B, Kehl K, Gregg D, Chusid M. Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma species brain abscess in a neonate. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2002;21:1083-5 pubmed
  61. Polglase G, Dalton R, Nitsos I, Knox C, Pillow J, Jobe A, et al. Pulmonary vascular and alveolar development in preterm lambs chronically colonized with Ureaplasma parvum. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2010;299:L232-41 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that chronic exposure to U. parvum does not cause sustained effects on air space or vascular development in premature lambs...
  62. Viscardi R, Atamas S, Luzina I, Hasday J, He J, Sime P, et al. Antenatal Ureaplasma urealyticum respiratory tract infection stimulates proinflammatory, profibrotic responses in the preterm baboon lung. Pediatr Res. 2006;60:141-6 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these data suggest that a prolonged proinflammatory response initiated by intrauterine Ureaplasma infection contributes to early fibrosis and altered developmental signaling in the immature lung...
  63. Zdrodowska Stefanow B, Kłosowska W, Ostaszewska Puchalska I, Bułhak Kozioł V, Kotowicz B. Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis infection in women with urogenital diseases. Adv Med Sci. 2006;51:250-3 pubmed
    ..The aim of the study was to assess the incidence of Ureaplasma urealyticum (U. urealyticum) and Mycoplasma hominis (M. hominis) infection in women with urogenital diseases...
  64. Kim M, Kim G, Romero R, Shim S, Kim E, Yoon B. Biovar diversity of Ureaplasma urealyticum in amniotic fluid: distribution, intrauterine inflammatory response and pregnancy outcomes. J Perinat Med. 2003;31:146-52 pubmed
  65. Denks K, Spaeth E, Jõers K, Randoja R, Talpsep T, Ustav M, et al. Coinfection of Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma urealyticum and human papillomavirus among patients attending STD clinics in Estonia. Scand J Infect Dis. 2007;39:714-8 pubmed
    ..urealyticum-free patients (OR=2.6, p=0.02). U. urealyticum infection did not associate with HPV status. The clinical significance of the association between C. trachomatis and U. urelyticum infection remains to be elucidated...
  66. Olomu I, Hecht J, Onderdonk A, Allred E, Leviton A. Perinatal correlates of Ureaplasma urealyticum in placenta parenchyma of singleton pregnancies that end before 28 weeks of gestation. Pediatrics. 2009;123:1329-36 pubmed publisher
  67. Viscardi R, Manimtim W, He J, Hasday J, Sun C, Joyce B, et al. Disordered pulmonary myofibroblast distribution and elastin expression in preterm infants with Ureaplasma urealyticum pneumonitis. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2006;9:143-51 pubmed
  68. Dando S, Nitsos I, Kallapur S, Newnham J, Polglase G, Pillow J, et al. The role of the multiple banded antigen of Ureaplasma parvum in intra-amniotic infection: major virulence factor or decoy?. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29856 pubmed publisher
    ..This host response may be important in the pathogenesis of inflammation-mediated adverse pregnancy outcomes...
  69. Waites K, Xiao L, Paralanov V, Viscardi R, Glass J. Molecular methods for the detection of Mycoplasma and ureaplasma infections in humans: a paper from the 2011 William Beaumont Hospital Symposium on molecular pathology. J Mol Diagn. 2012;14:437-50 pubmed publisher
    ..This review provides a summary and critical review of methods suitable for detection and characterization of mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas of humans, with emphasis on molecular genotypic techniques...
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