leptospirosis

Summary

Summary: Infections with bacteria of the genus LEPTOSPIRA.

Top Publications

  1. Limmathurotsakul D, Turner E, Wuthiekanun V, Thaipadungpanit J, Suputtamongkol Y, Chierakul W, et al. Fool's gold: Why imperfect reference tests are undermining the evaluation of novel diagnostics: a reevaluation of 5 diagnostic tests for leptospirosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;55:322-31 pubmed publisher
    We observed that some patients with clinical leptospirosis supported by positive results of rapid tests were negative for leptospirosis on the basis of our diagnostic gold standard, which involves isolation of Leptospira species from ..
  2. Helmerhorst H, van Tol E, Tuinman P, de Vries P, Hartskeerl R, Grobusch M, et al. Severe pulmonary manifestation of leptospirosis. Neth J Med. 2012;70:215-21 pubmed
    Based on increasing incidence and the occurrence of worldwide outbreaks, leptospirosis is recognised as an emerging zoonosis...
  3. Perez J, Brescia F, Becam J, Mauron C, Goarant C. Rodent abundance dynamics and leptospirosis carriage in an area of hyper-endemicity in New Caledonia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1361 pubmed publisher
    Widespread but particularly incident in the tropics, leptospirosis is transmitted to humans directly or indirectly by virtually any Mammal species. However, rodents are recognized as the most important reservoir...
  4. Hamond C, Martins G, Lawson Ferreira R, Medeiros M, Lilenbaum W. The role of horses in the transmission of leptospirosis in an urban tropical area. Epidemiol Infect. 2013;141:33-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This is apparently the first report of evidence of leptospires in urban horses. Furthermore, we suggest that these animals can play a role in the transmission of leptospirosis in urban areas.
  5. Srivastava R, Ray S, Vaibhav V, Gollapalli K, Jhaveri T, Taur S, et al. Serum profiling of leptospirosis patients to investigate proteomic alterations. J Proteomics. 2012;76 Spec No.:56-68 pubmed publisher
    b>Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infectious disease of tropical, subtropical and temperate zones, which is caused by the pathogenic spirochetes of genus Leptospira...
  6. Baburaj P, Varma S, Harikrishnan B. Hypokalemic paralysis in leptospirosis. J Assoc Physicians India. 2012;60:53-4 pubmed
    ..The patient had leptospirosis with a non- oliguric renal failure and flaccid weakness secondary to hypokalemia which improved following ..
  7. Lau C, Dobson A, Smythe L, Fearnley E, Skelly C, Clements A, et al. Leptospirosis in American Samoa 2010: epidemiology, environmental drivers, and the management of emergence. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012;86:309-19 pubmed publisher
    b>Leptospirosis has recently been reported as an emerging disease worldwide, and a seroprevalence study was undertaken in American Samoa to better understand the drivers of transmission...
  8. Higino S, Santos F, Costa D, Santos C, Silva M, Alves C, et al. Flock-level risk factors associated with leptospirosis in dairy goats in a semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil. Prev Vet Med. 2013;109:158-61 pubmed publisher
    ..antibodies by MAT using 24 serovars. A structured questionnaire focusing on risk factors for leptospirosis was completed for each flock. Of the 110 flocks 48 (43.6%; 95% CI: 34.2-53...
  9. Yan W, Saleem M, McDonough P, McDonough S, Divers T, Chang Y. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using a recombinant LigA fragment comprising repeat domains 4 to 7.5 as an antigen for diagnosis of equine leptospirosis. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2013;20:1143-9 pubmed publisher
    ..All 7 recombinant Lig proteins were screened using a slot-shaped dot blot assay for the diagnosis of equine leptospirosis. Our results showed that LigACon4-7.5 is the best candidate diagnostic antigen in a slot-shaped dot blot assay...

More Information

Publications87

  1. Simon F, Morand G, Roche C, Coton T, Kraemer P, Fournier P, et al. Leptospirosis in a French traveler returning from Mauritius. J Travel Med. 2012;19:69-71 pubmed publisher
    We report the first case of leptospirosis in a patient with a travel history to Mauritius, where the disease has very occasionally been reported in local populations...
  2. Andre Fontaine G. Diagnosis algorithm for leptospirosis in dogs: disease and vaccination effects on the serological results. Vet Rec. 2013;172:502 pubmed publisher
    b>Leptospirosis is a common disease in dogs, despite their current vaccination. Vet surgeons may use a serological test to verify their clinical observations. The gold standard is the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT)...
  3. Musso D, La Scola B. Laboratory diagnosis of leptospirosis: a challenge. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2013;46:245-52 pubmed publisher
    b>Leptospirosis is caused by pathogenic bacteria called leptospires that are transmitted directly or indirectly from animals to humans. It occurs worldwide but is most common in tropical and subtropical areas...
  4. Subharat S, Wilson P, Heuer C, Collins Emerson J. Longitudinal serological survey and herd-level risk factors for Leptospira spp. serovars Hardjo-bovis and Pomona on deer farms with sheep and/or beef cattle. N Z Vet J. 2012;60:215-22 pubmed publisher
    ..was widely distributed in deer, sheep and beef cattle in the lower North Island of New Zealand. Co-grazing of deer with sheep that were seropositive was a potential risk factor for deer herds to be seropositive. ..
  5. Thaipadungpanit J, Thaipadunpanit J, Chierakul W, Wuthiekanun V, Limmathurotsakul D, Amornchai P, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of real-time PCR assays targeting 16S rRNA and lipL32 genes for human leptospirosis in Thailand: a case-control study. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16236 pubmed publisher
    Rapid PCR-based tests for the diagnosis of leptospirosis can provide information that contributes towards early patient management, but these have not been adopted in Thailand...
  6. Lupi O, Netto M, Avelar K, Romero C, Bruniera R, Brasil P. Cluster of leptospirosis cases among military personnel in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Int J Infect Dis. 2013;17:e129-31 pubmed publisher
    We report two cases of leptospirosis in military personnel in southeastern Brazil. The cases were hospitalized following field training exercises, and presented with acute meningoencephalitis, respiratory illnesses, and skin rash...
  7. Wojcik Fatla A, Zajac V, Cisak E, Sroka J, Sawczyn A, Dutkiewicz J. Leptospirosis as a tick-borne disease? Detection of Leptospira spp. in Ixodes ricinus ticks in eastern Poland. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2012;19:656-9 pubmed
    ..This finding has significant epidemiological implications by indicating the possibility of the transmission of leptospirosis by Ixodes ricinus, the commonest tick species in Europe and most important vector of numerous pathogens.
  8. Tubiana S, Mikulski M, Becam J, Lacassin F, Lefèvre P, Gourinat A, et al. Risk factors and predictors of severe leptospirosis in New Caledonia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e1991 pubmed publisher
    b>Leptospirosis is a major public health concern in New Caledonia (NC) and in other tropical countries...
  9. Castiblanco Valencia M, Fraga T, Silva L, Monaris D, Abreu P, Strobel S, et al. Leptospiral immunoglobulin-like proteins interact with human complement regulators factor H, FHL-1, FHR-1, and C4BP. J Infect Dis. 2012;205:995-1004 pubmed publisher
    Leptospira, the causative agent of leptospirosis, interacts with several host molecules, including extracellular matrix components, coagulation cascade proteins, and human complement regulators...
  10. Gunaratna R, Handunnetti S, Bulathsinghalage M, Somaratne P, Jayanaga A, de Silva H, et al. Serum nitrite levels in Sri Lankan patients with leptospirosis. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2012;5:75-8 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether blood nitrite levels are elevated in patients with leptospirosis.
  11. Cerdas Quesada C. Potential benefits of plasma exchange by apheresis on the treatment of severe Icteric Leptospirosis: case report and literature review. Transfus Apher Sci. 2011;45:191-4 pubmed publisher
    The role of plasmapheresis on the treatment of Leptospirosis has not been define, although it has already been used with beneficial effects in the reported case mentioned above, where was possible to contribute to the resolution of the ..
  12. van de Werve C, Perignon A, Jaureguiberry S, Bricaire F, Bourhy P, Caumes E. Travel-related leptospirosis: a series of 15 imported cases. J Travel Med. 2013;20:228-31 pubmed publisher
    b>Leptospirosis belongs to the spectrum of travel-related infections. We retrospectively studied all the consecutive cases of travel-related leptospirosis seen in our department between January 2008 and September 2011...
  13. Midence J, Leutenegger C, Chandler A, Goldstein R. Effects of recent Leptospira vaccination on whole blood real-time PCR testing in healthy client-owned dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2012;26:149-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent vaccination could induce positive results if the targeted DNA fragment is present within the vaccine and in the blood of the recently vaccinated dog...
  14. Chadsuthi S, Modchang C, Lenbury Y, Iamsirithaworn S, Triampo W. Modeling seasonal leptospirosis transmission and its association with rainfall and temperature in Thailand using time-series and ARIMAX analyses. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2012;5:539-46 pubmed publisher
    To study the number of leptospirosis cases in relations to the seasonal pattern, and its association with climate factors. Time series analysis was used to study the time variations in the number of leptospirosis cases...
  15. Kalugalage T, Rodrigo C, Vithanage T, Somaratne P, de Silva H, Handunnetti S, et al. Low serum total nitrite and nitrate levels in severe leptospirosis. BMC Infect Dis. 2013;13:206 pubmed publisher
    The relationship between inducible nitric oxide synthatase activity and disease severity in leptospirosis is unclear...
  16. Reller M, Bodinayake C, Nagahawatte A, Devasiri V, Kodikara Arachichi W, Strouse J, et al. Leptospirosis as frequent cause of acute febrile illness in southern Sri Lanka. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:1678-84 pubmed publisher
    To determine the proportion of fevers caused by leptospirosis, we obtained serum specimens and epidemiologic and clinical data from patients in Galle, Sri Lanka, March-October 2007...
  17. Hochedez P, Escher M, Decoussy H, Pasgrimaud L, Martinez R, Rosine J, et al. Outbreak of leptospirosis among canyoning participants, Martinique, 2011. Euro Surveill. 2013;18:20472 pubmed
    ..participated in canyoning activities on 27 June 2011 on the Caribbean island of Martinique were diagnosed with leptospirosis using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), 9 and 12 days after the event...
  18. Ivanova S, Herbreteau V, Blasdell K, Chaval Y, Buchy P, Guillard B, et al. Leptospira and rodents in Cambodia: environmental determinants of infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012;86:1032-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Rodents (Rattus exulans) and shrews (Suncus murinus) inhabiting households showed significantly low levels of infections, whereas rodents living in and near to forests (shrubby wasteland, orchards) showed high levels of infection...
  19. Wilson M, Naccache S, Samayoa E, Biagtan M, Bashir H, Yu G, et al. Actionable diagnosis of neuroleptospirosis by next-generation sequencing. N Engl J Med. 2014;370:2408-17 pubmed publisher
    ..016%) corresponding to leptospira infection. Clinical assays for leptospirosis were negative...
  20. Goris M, Boer K, Duarte T, Kliffen S, Hartskeerl R. Human leptospirosis trends, the Netherlands, 1925-2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19:371-8 pubmed publisher
    To increase knowledge of leptospirosis in the Netherlands and identify changing trends of this disease over time, we analyzed historical passive surveillance reports for an 84-year period (1925-2008)...
  21. Koizumi N, Muto M, Akachi S, Okano S, Yamamoto S, Horikawa K, et al. Molecular and serological investigation of Leptospira and leptospirosis in dogs in Japan. J Med Microbiol. 2013;62:630-6 pubmed publisher
    Canine leptospirosis, which is caused by infection with pathogenic Leptospira species, occurs worldwide, but information regarding the causative Leptospira serotypes and genotypes and their effects on virulence in dogs remains limited...
  22. Skerk V, Markotic A, Puljiz I, Kuzman I, Celjuska Tosev E, Habus J, et al. Electrocardiographic changes in hospitalized patients with leptospirosis over a 10-year period. Med Sci Monit. 2011;17:CR369-75 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and type of ECG changes in patients with leptospirosis regardless of clinical evidence of cardiac involvement.
  23. Grassmann A, Félix S, dos Santos C, Amaral M, Seixas Neto A, Fagundes M, et al. Protection against lethal leptospirosis after vaccination with LipL32 coupled or coadministered with the B subunit of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012;19:740-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Leptospirosis, a worldwide zoonosis, lacks an effective, safe, and cross-protective vaccine...
  24. Oliveira Lavinsky M, Said R, Strenzel G, Langoni H. Seroprevalence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in dogs in Bahia, Brazil. Prev Vet Med. 2012;106:79-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Knowledge of the serovars present in this environment is important for understanding the epidemiology of leptospirosis and establishing public health policies aimed at its control.
  25. Guerrier G, D Ortenzio E. The Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction in leptospirosis: a systematic review. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e59266 pubmed publisher
    b>Leptospirosis is an endemo-epidemic zoonotic disease associated with potentially fatal renal, cardiovascular or pulmonary failure. Recommended treatment includes antibiotics, which may induce a Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (JHR)...
  26. Desvars A, Gigan J, Hoarau G, Gerardin P, Favier F, Michault A. Short report: Seroprevalence of human leptospirosis in Reunion Island (Indian Ocean) assessed by microscopic agglutination test on paper disc-absorbed whole blood. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011;85:1097-9 pubmed publisher
    In the last decade, leptospirosis has emerged as a globally important infectious disease...
  27. Adesiyun A, Baboolal S, Suepaul S, Dookeran S, Stewart Johnson A. Human leptospirosis in the Caribbean, 1997-2005: characteristics and serotyping of clinical samples from 14 countries. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2011;29:350-7 pubmed
    To determine the frequency of human leptospirosis in the sera of suspected clinical cases sent by 14 Caribbean countries for diagnosis to a regional laboratory in 1997-2005.
  28. Mahajan S, Babu S, Singh D, Kanga A, Kaushal S. Scrub typhus and leptospirosis co-infection in Himalayan region. Trop Doct. 2012;42:176-7 pubmed publisher
    Scrub typhus and leptospirosis are both zoonosis and systemic febrile illnesses with diverse clinical manifestations and they may present with similar signs and symptoms...
  29. Pavan M, Brihuega B, Pettinari M, Cairó F. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis of reference strains used for the diagnosis of leptospirosis in Argentina. Rev Argent Microbiol. 2011;43:251-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by a spirochete that belongs to the genus Leptospira...
  30. Guerra M. Leptospirosis: public health perspectives. Biologicals. 2013;41:295-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Leptospirosis, caused by a spirochete of genus Leptospira, is considered the most widespread zoonosis in the world...
  31. Hamond C, Martins G, Loureiro A, Pestana C, Lawson Ferreira R, Medeiros M, et al. Urinary PCR as an increasingly useful tool for an accurate diagnosis of leptospirosis in livestock. Vet Res Commun. 2014;38:81-5 pubmed publisher
    ..was to consider the wide usage of urinary PCR as an increasingly useful tool for an accurate diagnosis of leptospirosis in livestock...
  32. Martins G, Penna B, Hamond C, Leite R, Silva A, Ferreira A, et al. Leptospirosis as the most frequent infectious disease impairing productivity in small ruminants in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2012;44:773-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Infectious diseases, such as leptospirosis, brucellosis, and small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs), contribute to this scenario...
  33. Agampodi S, Matthias M, Moreno A, Vinetz J. Utility of quantitative polymerase chain reaction in leptospirosis diagnosis: association of level of leptospiremia and clinical manifestations in Sri Lanka. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;54:1249-55 pubmed publisher
    ..qPCR), despite cost and logistical challenges, has the potential to provide accurate and timely diagnosis for leptospirosis at the point-of-care in endemic areas...
  34. Fraune C, Schweighauser A, Francey T. Evaluation of the diagnostic value of serologic microagglutination testing and a polymerase chain reaction assay for diagnosis of acute leptospirosis in dogs in a referral center. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2013;242:1373-80 pubmed publisher
    To determine the diagnostic value of a serologic microagglutination test (MAT) and a PCR assay on urine and blood for the diagnosis of leptospirosis in dogs with acute kidney injury (AKI).
  35. Romero E, Blanco R, Galloway R. Analysis of multilocus sequence typing for identification of Leptospira isolates in Brazil. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:3940-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Two isolates failed to generate products for some genes by MLST. MLST was less discriminatory than serotyping for uncommonly occurring isolates from humans in Brazil...
  36. Daher E, Silva G, de Abreu K, Mota R, Batista D, Rocha N, et al. Leptospirosis-associated acute kidney injury: penicillin at the late stage is still controversial. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2012;37:420-5 pubmed publisher
    Some antimicrobial agents are active in vitro against Leptospiras. The use of penicillins at the late stage of leptospirosis is still controversial...
  37. Mendes R, Von Atzingen M, de Morais Z, Gonçales A, Serrano S, Asega A, et al. The novel leptospiral surface adhesin Lsa20 binds laminin and human plasminogen and is probably expressed during infection. Infect Immun. 2011;79:4657-67 pubmed publisher
    b>Leptospirosis is an emerging infectious disease caused by pathogenic species of Leptospira...
  38. Signorini M, Lottersberger J, Tarabla H, Vanasco N. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to diagnose human leptospirosis: a meta-analysis of the published literature. Epidemiol Infect. 2013;141:22-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Negative ELISAs (IgG or IgM) applied in the acute phase do not rule out leptospirosis due to the possibility of false-negative results...
  39. Desvars A, Naze F, Benneveau A, Cardinale E, Michault A. Endemicity of leptospirosis in domestic and wild animal species from Reunion Island (Indian Ocean). Epidemiol Infect. 2013;141:1154-65 pubmed publisher
    b>Leptospirosis is the major infectious disease on Reunion Island but little is known about the animal reservoir. We conducted a wide-ranging survey that included samples from 574 animals belonging to 12 species...
  40. Theuerkauf J, Perez J, Taugamoa A, Niutoua I, Labrousse D, Gula R, et al. Leptospirosis risk increases with changes in species composition of rat populations. Naturwissenschaften. 2013;100:385-8 pubmed publisher
    Rats are major reservoirs of leptospirosis and considered as a main threat to biodiversity...
  41. Dellagostin O, Grassmann A, Hartwig D, Félix S, da Silva E, McBride A. Recombinant vaccines against leptospirosis. Hum Vaccin. 2011;7:1215-24 pubmed publisher
    b>Leptospirosis is an important neglected infectious disease that occurs in urban environments, as well as in rural regions worldwide. Rodents, the principal reservoir hosts of pathogenic Leptospira spp...
  42. Bourhy P, Collet L, Lernout T, Zinini F, Hartskeerl R, van der Linden H, et al. Human leptospira isolates circulating in Mayotte (Indian Ocean) have unique serological and molecular features. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:307-11 pubmed publisher
    b>Leptospirosis is one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world. However, there is a lack of information on circulating Leptospira strains in remote parts of the world...
  43. Sapian M, Khair M, How S, Rajalingam R, Sahhir K, Norazah A, et al. Outbreak of melioidosis and leptospirosis co-infection following a rescue operation. Med J Malaysia. 2012;67:293-7 pubmed
    ..Ten cases were confirmed melioidosis, six melioidosis alone and four coinfected with leptospirosis. There were eight deaths in this outbreak, seven were villagers and one professional rescuer...
  44. Gamage C, Amarasekera J, PALIHAWADANA P, Samaraweera S, Mendis D, Janakan N, et al. Analysis of hospital-based sentinel surveillance data on leptospirosis in Sri Lanka, 2005-2008. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2012;65:157-61 pubmed
    In Sri Lanka, leptospirosis is a notifiable disease. In addition to having a routine disease reporting system, Sri Lanka has implemented a hospital-based sentinel surveillance system since 2004...
  45. Matsui M, Rouleau V, Bruyère Ostells L, Goarant C. Gene expression profiles of immune mediators and histopathological findings in animal models of leptospirosis: comparison between susceptible hamsters and resistant mice. Infect Immun. 2011;79:4480-92 pubmed publisher
    b>Leptospirosis is a widespread zoonosis characterized by multiple organ failure and variable host susceptibility toward pathogenic Leptospira strains...
  46. Picardeau M, Bertherat E, Jancloes M, Skouloudis A, Durski K, Hartskeerl R. Rapid tests for diagnosis of leptospirosis: current tools and emerging technologies. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2014;78:1-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Leptospirosis is an emerging zoonosis with a worldwide distribution but is more commonly found in impoverished populations in developing countries and tropical regions with frequent flooding...
  47. Brett Major D, Coldren R. Antibiotics for leptospirosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;:CD008264 pubmed publisher
    b>Leptospirosis has a wide-ranging clinical and public health impact. Leptospira are globally distributed. Case attack rates are as high as 1:4 to 2:5 persons in exposed populations...
  48. Sun A, Wang Y, Du P, Wu S, Yan J. A sensitive and specific IgM-ELISA for the serological diagnosis of human leptospirosis using a rLipL32/1-LipL21-OmpL1/2 fusion protein. Biomed Environ Sci. 2011;24:291-9 pubmed publisher
    ..system, and to establish an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using the rLipL32/1-LipL21-OmpL1/2 fusion antigen of Leptospira interrogans for sensitive and specific detection of IgM in the serum of patients with leptospirosis.
  49. Wang H, Wu Y, Ojcius D, Yang X, Zhang C, Ding S, et al. Leptospiral hemolysins induce proinflammatory cytokines through Toll-like receptor 2-and 4-mediated JNK and NF-?B signaling pathways. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42266 pubmed publisher
  50. Klaasen H, van der Veen M, Molkenboer M, Sutton D. A novel tetravalent Leptospira bacterin protects against infection and shedding following challenge in dogs. Vet Rec. 2013;172:181 pubmed publisher
    Recent evidence based on the current epidemiological situation suggests that vaccines against canine leptospirosis in Europe should be directed against infection with Leptospira interrogans (sensu lato) serogroups Canicola, ..
  51. Socolovschi C, Angelakis E, Renvoise A, Fournier P, Marié J, Davoust B, et al. Strikes, flooding, rats, and leptospirosis in Marseille, France. Int J Infect Dis. 2011;15:e710-5 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to examine the mechanisms by which weather conditions, the incidence of Leptospira in reservoir populations, and various socio-ecological factors are driving the emergence of leptospirosis in Marseille, France.
  52. Samarakoon Y, Gunawardena N. Knowledge and self-reported practices regarding leptospirosis among adolescent school children in a highly endemic rural area in Sri Lanka. Rural Remote Health. 2013;13:2360 pubmed
    b>Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease, which has become a major public health threat in Sri Lanka. A majority of patients are farmers in rural endemic areas...
  53. Schreier S, Doungchawee G, Chadsuthi S, Triampo D, Triampo W. Leptospirosis: current situation and trends of specific laboratory tests. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2013;9:263-80 pubmed publisher
    b>Leptospirosis is re-emerging as a worldwide zoonosis and is caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira. Human leptospirosis is associated with high temperature and humidity...
  54. Boonsilp S, Thaipadungpanit J, Amornchai P, Wuthiekanun V, Chierakul W, Limmathurotsakul D, et al. Molecular detection and speciation of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in blood from patients with culture-negative leptospirosis. BMC Infect Dis. 2011;11:338 pubmed publisher
    Pathogenic Leptospira spp. present in the blood of patients with leptospirosis during the first week of symptoms can be detected using culture or PCR. A proportion of patients who are positive by PCR are negative by culture...
  55. Del Carlo Bernardi F, Ctenas B, da Silva L, Nicodemo A, Saldiva P, Dolhnikoff M, et al. Immune receptors and adhesion molecules in human pulmonary leptospirosis. Hum Pathol. 2012;43:1601-10 pubmed publisher
    Pulmonary involvement in leptospirosis has been increasingly reported in the last 20 years, being related to the severity and mortality of the disease. The pathogenesis of pulmonary hemorrhage in leptospirosis is not understood...
  56. Garvey P, Connell J, O Flanagan D, McKeown P. Leptospirosis in Ireland: annual incidence and exposures associated with infection. Epidemiol Infect. 2014;142:847-55 pubmed publisher
    Human leptospirosis is found throughout the world, albeit with a higher incidence in tropical regions. In temperate regions it is associated with certain occupational and recreational activities...
  57. Tangeman L, Littman M. Clinicopathologic and atypical features of naturally occurring leptospirosis in dogs: 51 cases (2000-2010). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2013;243:1316-22 pubmed publisher
    To determine clinicopathologic features, percentage of atypical abnormalities, antibody titers against Leptospira serogroups, and importance of convalescent titers in dogs with leptospirosis.
  58. Agampodi S, Karunarathna D, Jayathilala N, Rathnayaka H, Agampodi T, Karunanayaka L. Outbreak of leptospirosis after white-water rafting: sign of a shift from rural to recreational leptospirosis in Sri Lanka?. Epidemiol Infect. 2014;142:843-6 pubmed publisher
    This paper reports the first recreation-related leptospirosis outbreak in Sri Lanka in 20 office workers who were involved in white-water rafting during a staff outing...
  59. Natarajaseenivasan K, Vedhagiri K, Sivabalan V, Prabagaran S, Sukumar S, Artiushin S, et al. Seroprevalence of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar javanica infection among dairy cattle, rats and humans in the Cauvery river valley of southern India. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2011;42:679-86 pubmed
    b>Leptospirosis is a major problem of dairy farms in Tamilnadu, India, resulting in abortions, stillbirths and infertility...
  60. Wuthiekanun V, Amornchai P, Paris D, Langla S, Thaipadunpanit J, Chierakul W, et al. Rapid isolation and susceptibility testing of Leptospira spp. using a new solid medium, LVW agar. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013;57:297-302 pubmed publisher
    Pathogenic Leptospira spp., the causative agents of leptospirosis, are slow-growing Gram-negative spirochetes. Isolation of Leptospira from clinical samples and testing of antimicrobial susceptibility are difficult and time-consuming...
  61. Hin H, Ramalingam R, Chunn K, Ahmad N, Ab Rahman J, Mohamed M. Fatal co-infection--melioidosis and leptospirosis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012;87:737-40 pubmed publisher
    Co-infection of melioidosis and leptospirosis is uncommon...
  62. Lambert A, Picardeau M, Haake D, Sermswan R, Srikram A, Adler B, et al. FlaA proteins in Leptospira interrogans are essential for motility and virulence but are not required for formation of the flagellum sheath. Infect Immun. 2012;80:2019-25 pubmed publisher
    ..This study shows that FlaA subunits contribute to leptospiral translational motility, cellular shape, and virulence...
  63. Zhang C, Wang H, Yan J. Leptospirosis prevalence in Chinese populations in the last two decades. Microbes Infect. 2012;14:317-23 pubmed publisher
    b>Leptospirosis is a common zoonotic disease in China. From 1991 to 2010, its average annual incidence was 0.70 cases per 100,000 population...
  64. Picardeau M. Diagnosis and epidemiology of leptospirosis. Med Mal Infect. 2013;43:1-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Leptospirosis is a zoonosis found worldwide, the main reservoir of which is the rat. Human infection generally results from exposure to contaminated river or lake water or animals. Around 600 cases are diagnosed per year in France...
  65. Costa F, Martinez Silveira M, Hagan J, Hartskeerl R, dos Reis M, Ko A. Surveillance for leptospirosis in the Americas, 1996-2005: a review of data from ministries of health. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2012;32:169-77 pubmed
    To characterize current leptospirosis reporting practices in the Americas.
  66. King A, Bartpho T, Sermswan R, Bulach D, Eshghi A, Picardeau M, et al. Leptospiral outer membrane protein LipL41 is not essential for acute leptospirosis but requires a small chaperone protein, lep, for stable expression. Infect Immun. 2013;81:2768-76 pubmed publisher
    b>Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by pathogenic Leptospira spp., but knowledge of leptospiral pathogenesis remains limited...
  67. Agampodi S, Peacock S, Thevanesam V, Nugegoda D, Smythe L, Thaipadungpanit J, et al. Leptospirosis outbreak in Sri Lanka in 2008: lessons for assessing the global burden of disease. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011;85:471-8 pubmed publisher
    Global leptospirosis disease burden estimates are hampered by the lack of scientifically sound data from countries with probable high endemicity and limited diagnostic capacities...
  68. Yang H, Yen T, Lin C, Chen Y, Pan M, Lee C, et al. Early identification of leptospirosis as an ignored cause of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Shock. 2012;38:24-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Leptospirosis is the most common zoonosis in the world but remains underreported, owing to protean manifestations and ignorance about the disease among health care providers in Taiwan...
  69. Lau C, Skelly C, Smythe L, Craig S, Weinstein P. Emergence of new leptospiral serovars in American Samoa - ascertainment or ecological change?. BMC Infect Dis. 2012;12:19 pubmed publisher
    b>Leptospirosis has recently been discussed as an emerging infectious disease in many contexts, including changes in environmental drivers of disease transmission and the emergence of serovars...
  70. Goris M, Leeflang M, Lodén M, Wagenaar J, Klatser P, Hartskeerl R, et al. Prospective evaluation of three rapid diagnostic tests for diagnosis of human leptospirosis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2290 pubmed publisher
    Diagnosis of leptospirosis by the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) or by culture is confined to specialized laboratories. Although ELISA techniques are more common, they still require laboratory facilities...
  71. Souza V, Arsky M, Castro A, Araújo W. Years of potential life lost and hospitalization costs associated with leptospirosis in Brazil. Rev Saude Publica. 2011;45:1001-8 pubmed
    To estimate costs of hospitalization and years of potential life lost associated with leptospirosis.
  72. Subharat S, Wilson P, Heuer C, Collins Emerson J. Growth response and shedding of Leptospira spp. in urine following vaccination for leptospirosis in young farmed deer. N Z Vet J. 2012;60:14-20 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the effect of vaccination against Leptospira serovars Hardjo-bovis and Pomona on growth rate and shedding of leptospires in urine in rising 1-year-old farmed red deer...
  73. Lourdault K, Cerqueira G, Wunder E, Picardeau M. Inactivation of clpB in the pathogen Leptospira interrogans reduces virulence and resistance to stress conditions. Infect Immun. 2011;79:3711-7 pubmed publisher
    Leptospira interrogans is the causative agent of leptospirosis, which is an emerging zoonotic disease. Resistance to stress conditions is largely uncharacterized for this bacterium...
  74. Bourhy P, Vray M, Picardeau M. Evaluation of an in-house ELISA using the intermediate species Leptospira fainei for diagnosis of leptospirosis. J Med Microbiol. 2013;62:822-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Leptospirosis is recognized as an emerging zoonotic disease generally affecting urban slums in developing countries and tropical regions...
  75. Mughini Gras L, Bonfanti L, Natale A, Comin A, Ferronato A, La Greca E, et al. Application of an integrated outbreak management plan for the control of leptospirosis in dairy cattle herds. Epidemiol Infect. 2014;142:1172-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Vaccination together with proper biosecurity measures and chemoprophylaxis are an affordable insurance to control bovine leptospirosis.
  76. Amilasan A, Ujiie M, Suzuki M, Salva E, Belo M, Koizumi N, et al. Outbreak of leptospirosis after flood, the Philippines, 2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:91-4 pubmed publisher
    After a typhoon in September 2009, an outbreak of leptospirosis occurred in Metro Manila, the Philippines; 471 patients were hospitalized and 51 (10.8%) died...
  77. Souza N, Vieira M, Alves I, de Morais Z, Vasconcellos S, Nascimento A. Lsa30, a novel adhesin of Leptospira interrogans binds human plasminogen and the complement regulator C4bp. Microb Pathog. 2012;53:125-34 pubmed publisher
    Pathogenic Leptospira is the etiological agent of leptospirosis, a life-threatening disease that affects populations worldwide. Surface proteins have the potential to promote several activities, including adhesion...
  78. Lagi F, Corti G, Meli M, Pinto A, Bartoloni A. Leptospirosis acquired by tourists in Venice, Italy. J Travel Med. 2013;20:128-30 pubmed publisher
    ..of two Australian tourists aged 25 and 26? years who, after immersion in a canal in Venice, developed severe leptospirosis. After a 1-week history of fever, headache, myalgia, and vomiting they developed jaundice and renal failure...