flavobacteriaceae infections

Summary

Summary: Infections with bacteria of the family FLAVOBACTERIACEAE.

Top Publications

  1. Suomalainen L, Tiirola M, Valtonen E. Effect of Pseudomonas sp. MT5 baths on Flavobacterium columnare infection of rainbow trout and on microbial diversity on fish skin and gills. Dis Aquat Organ. 2005;63:61-8 pubmed
    ..Again, the antagonistic bacteria had no effect on fish mortality, which reached 95 % in both control and antagonist-treated groups in 7 d...
  2. Moyer T, Hunnicutt D. Susceptibility of zebra fish Danio rerio to infection by Flavobacterium columnare and F. johnsoniae. Dis Aquat Organ. 2007;76:39-44 pubmed
    ..2 x 10(6) cfu injected and 1.1 x 10(6) cfu ml(-1) in bath experiments, including skin damage. The LD50 of F. columnare in zebra fish without skin damage was > 1 x 10(8), indicating an important effect of skin damage...
  3. Duchaud E, Boussaha M, Loux V, Bernardet J, Michel C, Kerouault B, et al. Complete genome sequence of the fish pathogen Flavobacterium psychrophilum. Nat Biotechnol. 2007;25:763-9 pubmed
    ..It also allows for a better understanding of the physiology and evolution of a significant representative of the family Flavobacteriaceae, whose members are associated with an interesting diversity of lifestyles and habitats...
  4. Klesius P, Shoemaker C, Evans J. Flavobacterium columnare chemotaxis to channel catfish mucus. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2008;288:216-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the role that chemotaxis plays in the virulence of F. columnare is not fully defined, the chemotactic response of genomovar ll isolates suggests that chemotaxis is associated with virulence. ..
  5. Bader J, Shoemaker C, Klesius P. Production, characterization and evaluation of virulence of an adhesion defective mutant of Flavobacterium columnare produced by beta-lactam selection. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2005;40:123-7 pubmed
    ..columnare and the effects of altered adhesion on columnaris disease. This mutant has considerable potential as a tool to study the role of adhesion in columnaris disease. ..
  6. Suomalainen L, Tiirola M, Valtonen E. Influence of rearing conditions on Flavobacterium columnare infection of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). J Fish Dis. 2005;28:271-7 pubmed
    ..Because the lower rearing density can also decrease the transmission of ectoparasites and penetrating endoparasites, it could be an efficient tool in ecological disease management. ..
  7. Fujiwara Nagata E, Ikeda J, Sugahara K, Eguchi M. A novel genotyping technique for distinguishing between Flavobacterium psychrophilum isolates virulent and avirulent to ayu, Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis (Temminck & Schlegel). J Fish Dis. 2012;35:471-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The on/off switch assay provides a quick, simple, and very powerful DNA genotyping technique for F. psychrophilum isolates...
  8. Declercq A, Boyen F, Van den Broeck W, Bossier P, Karsi A, Haesebrouck F, et al. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Flavobacterium columnare isolates collected worldwide from 17 fish species. J Fish Dis. 2013;36:45-55 pubmed publisher
    ..These data might indicate less prudent use of antimicrobials especially in ornamental fish species...
  9. Marien M, Decostere A, Duchateau L, Chiers K, Froyman R, Nauwynck H. Efficacy of enrofloxacin, florfenicol and amoxicillin against Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale and Escherichia coli O2:K1 dual infection in turkeys following APV priming. Vet Microbiol. 2007;121:94-104 pubmed
    ..Five-day treatment with amoxicillin, compared with the untreated group, did not cause a significant reduction in any of the aforementioned parameters...

More Information

Publications66

  1. Aoki M, Kondo M, Nakatsuka Y, Kawai K, Oshima S. Stationary phase culture supernatant containing membrane vesicles induced immunity to rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss fry syndrome. Vaccine. 2007;25:561-9 pubmed
    ..psychrophilum infection. These data show that MVs have an adjuvant efficacy and suggest that combination of MVs and cells is necessary to obtain efficient protection...
  2. Suomalainen L, Kunttu H, Valtonen E, Hirvelä Koski V, Tiirola M. Molecular diversity and growth features of Flavobacterium columnare strains isolated in Finland. Dis Aquat Organ. 2006;70:55-61 pubmed
    ..1% or at pH values < or = 6.5, and they were susceptible to several antimicrobial agents, but not to Polymyxin B or neomycin. These findings may aid in development of methods for disease management at fish farms...
  3. Miwa S, Nakayasu C. Pathogenesis of experimentally induced bacterial cold water disease in ayu Plecoglossus altivelis. Dis Aquat Organ. 2005;67:93-104 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that skin injuries are major portals of entry for F. psychrophilum in ayu, and the bacterium has affinity for collagenous connective tissues...
  4. Gaunt P, Gao D, Sun F, Endris R. Efficacy of florfenicol for control of mortality caused by Flavobacterium columnare infection in channel catfish. J Aquat Anim Health. 2010;22:115-22 pubmed publisher
    ..There were no adverse effects among the medicated fish. Administration of florfenicol at a dosage of 10 mg/kg body weight for 10 d was efficacious and safe for the control of mortality from F. columnare infection in channel catfish...
  5. Morley N, Lewis J. Consequences of an outbreak of columnaris disease (Flavobacterium columnare) to the helminth fauna of perch (Perca fluviatilis) in the Queen Mary reservoir, south-east England. J Helminthol. 2010;84:186-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The long-term affects on the levels of helminth infections in the fish and associated intermediate hosts in the Queen Mary reservoir are discussed...
  6. Yeh H, Shoemaker C, Klesius P. Sensitive and rapid detection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus by a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method. J Appl Microbiol. 2006;100:919-25 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the loop-mediated isothermal amplification method (LAMP) for rapid detection of Flavobacterium columnare and determine the suitability of LAMP for rapid diagnosis of columnaris infection in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus...
  7. Ilardi P, Fernandez J, Avendaño Herrera R. Chryseobacterium piscicola sp. nov., isolated from diseased salmonid fish. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2009;59:3001-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The eight isolates were classified as representatives of a novel species, Chryseobacterium piscicola sp. nov., with strain VQ-6316s(T) (=CECT 7357(T)=DSM 21068(T)) as the type strain...
  8. Shoemaker C, Klesius P, Evans J. Immunization of eyed channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, eggs with monovalent Flavobacterium columnare vaccine and bivalent F. columnare and Edwardsiella ictaluri vaccine. Vaccine. 2007;25:1126-31 pubmed
    ..ictaluri. However, the RPS values were not statistically different. The results suggest that administration of live bivalent vaccine at the eyed-egg stage is safe and elicits protection upon single pathogen challenge...
  9. Suomalainen L, Tiirola M, Valtonen E. Chondroitin AC lyase activity is related to virulence of fish pathogenic Flavobacterium columnare. J Fish Dis. 2006;29:757-63 pubmed
    ..The adhesion capability of the strains in vitro varied substantially when tested on crude mucus-coated slides and no statistical relationship between adhesion and virulence was found using this method...
  10. Nicolas P, Mondot S, Achaz G, Bouchenot C, Bernardet J, Duchaud E. Population structure of the fish-pathogenic bacterium Flavobacterium psychrophilum. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:3702-9 pubmed publisher
    ..As a resource for future epidemiological surveys, a multilocus sequence typing website based on seven highly informative loci is available...
  11. Kunttu H, Valtonen E, Jokinen E, Suomalainen L. Saprophytism of a fish pathogen as a transmission strategy. Epidemics. 2009;1:96-100 pubmed publisher
    ..columnare. Our findings also suggest that F. columnare may be able to persist in the rearing environment during antibiotic treatments of the living fish...
  12. Piñeiro Vidal M, Gijón D, Zarza C, Santos Y. Tenacibaculum dicentrarchi sp. nov., a marine bacterium of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from European sea bass. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2012;62:425-9 pubmed publisher
    ..nov. is proposed; the type strain is 35/09(T) (?=?CECT 7612(T)?=?NCIMB 14598(T))...
  13. Busch S, Dalsgaard I, Buchmann K. Concomitant exposure of rainbow trout fry to Gyrodactylus derjavini and Flavobacterium psychrophilum: effects on infection and mortality of host. Vet Parasitol. 2003;117:117-22 pubmed
    ..It cannot be excluded that higher parasite burdens and/or prolonged immersion (more than 10 h) in bacterial suspensions may result in bacterial invasion...
  14. Aoki M, Kondo M, Kawai K, Oshima S. Experimental bath infection with Flavobacterium psychrophilum, inducing typical signs of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss fry syndrome. Dis Aquat Organ. 2005;67:73-9 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that experimental bath infection using a logarithmic phase bacterial solution is the most appropriate method for studies of infectious mechanisms...
  15. Welker T, Shoemaker C, Arias C, Klesius P. Transmission and detection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Dis Aquat Organ. 2005;63:129-38 pubmed
    ..The newly developed PCR detection method for F. columnare was more sensitive and rapid than standard culture on bacteriological media for detection of F. columnare in channel catfish tissues and in tank water...
  16. Li N, Zhang L, Zhang J, Liu Z, Huang B, Zhang S, et al. Type I restriction-modification system and its resistance in electroporation efficiency in Flavobacterium columnare. Vet Microbiol. 2012;160:61-8 pubmed publisher
    ..columnare G(4). It will be of significant interest to examine the composition and diversity of R-M systems in strains of F. columnare in order to set up a suitable genetic manipulation system for the bacterium...
  17. Darwish A, Mitchell A, Straus D. Evaluation of potassium permanganate against an experimental subacute infection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque). J Fish Dis. 2009;32:193-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrate that KMnO4 has a clear prophylactic value but probably a marginal therapeutic value once the infection has established...
  18. Thomas Jinu S, Goodwin A. Morphological and genetic characteristics of Flavobacterium columnare isolates: correlations with virulence in fish. J Fish Dis. 2004;27:29-35 pubmed
    ..Most of the shorter or single cell isolates fell into a single RAPD group. No clear association was identified between virulence and any other characteristic, including RAPD group...
  19. Darwish A, Bebak J, Schrader K. Assessment of Aquaflor(®) , copper sulphate and potassium permanganate for control of Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare infection in sunshine bass, Morone chrysops female × Morone saxatilis male. J Fish Dis. 2012;35:637-47 pubmed publisher
    ..05) than the non-treated (61%). The results illustrate clear benefit of florfenicol and copper sulphate against a mixed infection of A. hydrophila and F. columnare...
  20. Chang M, Nie P. RNAi suppression of zebrafish peptidoglycan recognition protein 6 (zfPGRP6) mediated differentially expressed genes involved in Toll-like receptor signaling pathway and caused increased susceptibility to Flavobacterium columnare. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2008;124:295-301 pubmed publisher
    ..In challenge experiments to determine the anti-bacterial response to Gram-negative bacteria, RNAi knock-down of zfPGRP6 markedly increased susceptibility to Flavobacterium columnare...
  21. LaFrentz B, LaPatra S, Shoemaker C, Klesius P. Reproducible challenge model to investigate the virulence of Flavobacterium columnare genomovars in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Dis Aquat Organ. 2012;101:115-22 pubmed publisher
    ..This research also provides a basis for further defining the molecular diversity and virulence associated with F. columnare genomovars in rainbow trout and other salmonid species...
  22. Nagai T, Nakai T. Growth of Flavobacterium psychrophilum in fish serum correlates with pathogenicity. J Fish Dis. 2011;34:303-10 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the in vitro growth ability of F. psychrophilum isolates in fish serum correlates well with their pathogenicity to fish, particularly in ayu...
  23. Darwish A, Mitchell A. Evaluation of diquat against an acute experimental infection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque). J Fish Dis. 2009;32:401-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The gills had severe multifocal necrotizing branchitis. The results demonstrate that diquat would reduce mortalities caused by an acute columnaris infection...
  24. Laanto E, Sundberg L, Bamford J. Phage specificity of the freshwater fish pathogen Flavobacterium columnare. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:7868-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The host ranges of the flavobacterial phages varied, phages infecting F. columnare being more host specific than the other phages...
  25. Olivares Fuster O, Bullard S, McElwain A, Llosa M, Arias C. Adhesion dynamics of Flavobacterium columnare to channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus and zebrafish Danio rerio after immersion challenge. Dis Aquat Organ. 2011;96:221-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of the present study show that particular strains of F. columnare exhibit different levels of specificity to their fish hosts and that adhesion to fish tissues is not sufficient to cause columnaris disease...
  26. Gungor S, Ozen M, Akinci A, Durmaz R. A Chryseobacterium meningosepticum outbreak in a neonatal ward. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2003;24:613-7 pubmed
    ..To report epidemiologic, bacteriologic, and clinical features of a Chryseobacterium meningosepticum outbreak...
  27. Tripathi N, Latimer K, Gregory C, Ritchie B, Wooley R, Walker R. Development and evaluation of an experimental model of cutaneous columnaris disease in koi Cyprinus carpio. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2005;17:45-54 pubmed
    ..Biochemical changes in diseased fish included significant hyperglycemia, hyponatremia, and hypochloridemia...
  28. Van Loock M, Geens T, De Smit L, Nauwynck H, van Empel P, Naylor C, et al. Key role of Chlamydophila psittaci on Belgian turkey farms in association with other respiratory pathogens. Vet Microbiol. 2005;107:91-101 pubmed
    ..psittaci, APV and ORT, and indicates the multi-factorial aetiology of respiratory infections in commercial turkeys. All three pathogens should be considered when developing prevention strategies for respiratory disease...
  29. Figueiredo H, Klesius P, Arias C, Evans J, Shoemaker C, Pereira D, et al. Isolation and characterization of strains of Flavobacterium columnare from Brazil. J Fish Dis. 2005;28:199-204 pubmed
    ..This is the first report of characterization of Brazilian strains of F. columnare...
  30. Shoemaker C, Olivares Fuster O, Arias C, Klesius P. Flavobacterium columnare genomovar influences mortality in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Vet Microbiol. 2008;127:353-9 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that although both genomovars are present in the aquatic environment, genomovar II appears to be more pathogenic for channel catfish...
  31. Staroscik A, Nelson D. The influence of salmon surface mucus on the growth of Flavobacterium columnare. J Fish Dis. 2008;31:59-69 pubmed
    ..Further characterization of mucus-induced physiological changes will increase our understanding of the basis of virulence of this economically important fish pathogen...
  32. Bandilla M, Valtonen E, Suomalainen L, Aphalo P, Hakalahti T. A link between ectoparasite infection and susceptibility to bacterial disease in rainbow trout. Int J Parasitol. 2006;36:987-91 pubmed
    ..coregoni and F. columnare. This data presents, for the first time, experimental support for the hypothesis that an ectoparasite infection increases susceptibility of fish to a bacterial pathogen...
  33. Bebak J, Matthews M, Shoemaker C. Survival of vaccinated, feed-trained largemouth bass fry (Micropterus salmoides floridanus) during natural exposure to Flavobacterium columnare. Vaccine. 2009;27:4297-301 pubmed publisher
    ..4%/d) as compared to the vaccinated fish (0.8%/d). Vaccination with AQUAVAC-COL (Intervet/Schering-Plough Animal Health) significantly reduced the risk of death from columnaris disease in feed-trained largemouth bass fry...
  34. Schneck J, Caslake L. Genetic diversity of Flavobacterium columnare isolated from fish collected from warm and cold water. J Fish Dis. 2006;29:245-8 pubmed
  35. Lee C, Chen P, Wang L, Lee H, Chang C, Lee N, et al. Fatal case of community-acquired bacteremia and necrotizing fasciitis caused by Chryseobacterium meningosepticum: case report and review of the literature. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:1181-3 pubmed
    ..A review of the English literature found 10 cases of soft tissue infection caused by C. meningosepticum, which is rarely acquired in the community...
  36. Arias C, Cai W, Peatman E, Bullard S. Catfish hybrid Ictalurus punctatus × I. furcatus exhibits higher resistance to columnaris disease than the parental species. Dis Aquat Organ. 2012;100:77-81 pubmed publisher
    ..By contrast, C×B hybrid and blue catfishes were strongly resistant to the ARS-1 strain, with <10% mortality. Our data suggest enhanced disease resistance of the C×B hybrid to columnaris disease...
  37. Fujiwara Nagata E, Eguchi M. Development and evaluation of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid and simple detection of Flavobacterium psychrophilum. J Fish Dis. 2009;32:873-81 pubmed publisher
    ..parE LAMP detected the gene in a wide range of concentrations from 2.0 x 10(1) to 2.0 x 10(9) copies/reaction within 70 min and revealed a good correlation between threshold times and gene copy number...
  38. Nematollahi A, Pasmans F, Haesebrouck F, Decostere A. Early interactions of Flavobacterium psychrophilum with macrophages of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Dis Aquat Organ. 2005;64:23-8 pubmed
    ..Moreover, due to lower ROS production, spleen macrophages have a lower antimicrobial action against F. psychrophilum, compared to head kidney macrophages and, thus, might form a 'safe site' in which bacteria can reside...
  39. Boutin S, Bernatchez L, Audet C, Derome N. Antagonistic effect of indigenous skin bacteria of brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) against Flavobacterium columnare and F. psychrophilum. Vet Microbiol. 2012;155:355-61 pubmed publisher
  40. Zhang Y, Arias C, Shoemaker C, Klesius P. Comparison of lipopolysaccharide and protein profiles between Flavobacterium columnare strains from different genomovars. J Fish Dis. 2006;29:657-63 pubmed
    ..Based on the difference of LPS and total protein profiles, it is possible to discriminate the attenuated mutant FC-RR from other F. columnare strains...
  41. Bhuyar G, Jain S, Shah H, Mehta V. Urinary tract infection by Chryseobacterium indologenes. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2012;30:370-2 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a rare case of urinary tract infection by Chryseobacterium indologenes in a young girl, operated for renal calculus and successfully treated with piperacillin-tazobactam combination...
  42. Soto E, Mauel M, Karsi A, Lawrence M. Genetic and virulence characterization of Flavobacterium columnare from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). J Appl Microbiol. 2008;104:1302-10 pubmed
    ..columnare channel catfish isolates, and to determine whether variation in pathogenic potential exists in F. columnare isolates from channel catfish...
  43. Thomas Jinu S, Goodwin A. Acute columnaris infection in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque): efficacy of practical treatments for warmwater aquaculture ponds. J Fish Dis. 2004;27:23-8 pubmed
    ..Diquat is labelled for aquatic use as an herbicide in the USA but in large ponds it is prohibitively expensive...
  44. Cunningham F, Jack S, Hardin D, Wills R. Pond-level risk factors associated with columnaris disease on Mississippi commercial catfish farms. J Aquat Anim Health. 2012;24:178-84 pubmed publisher
    ..This study showed some commonly recorded production variables were associated with columnaris disease outbreaks and, if monitored, could help identify "at risk" ponds before disease outbreaks occur...
  45. Lin J, Wang W, Yen C, Liu J, Chiou T, Yang M, et al. Chryseobacterium indologenes bacteremia in a bone marrow transplant recipient with chronic graft-versus-host disease. Scand J Infect Dis. 2003;35:882-3 pubmed
    ..Our case indicates that C. indologenes infection can occur in patients with GVHD after allogeneic BMT and might be treated with a single agent, piperacillin/tazobactam without the removal of intravascular catheter...
  46. Suomalainen L, Tiirola M, Valtonen E. Treatment of columnaris disease of rainbow trout: low pH and salt as possible tools?. Dis Aquat Organ. 2005;65:115-20 pubmed
    ..columnare are located below the mucus surface. We suggest, however, that salt and acidic bath treatments can be used to disinfect water containing F. columnare cells shed by infected fish and thus prevent the transmission of the disease...
  47. Bernardet J, Vancanneyt M, Matte Tailliez O, Grisez L, Tailliez P, Bizet C, et al. Polyphasic study of Chryseobacterium strains isolated from diseased aquatic animals. Syst Appl Microbiol. 2005;28:640-60 pubmed
    ..Members of this bacterial group should be considered potential emergent pathogens in various fish and frog species, farming conditions and geographical areas...
  48. Shoemaker C, Klesius P, Drennan J, Evans J. Efficacy of a modified live Flavobacterium columnare vaccine in fish. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2011;30:304-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these trials demonstrate the vaccine administered to early life-stage channel catfish and largemouth bass is safe and reduces mortality following challenge with F. columnare...
  49. Pulkkinen K, Suomalainen L, Read A, Ebert D, Rintamäki P, Valtonen E. Intensive fish farming and the evolution of pathogen virulence: the case of columnaris disease in Finland. Proc Biol Sci. 2010;277:593-600 pubmed publisher
    ..columnare. This effect is intensified by the recent increases in summer water temperature. More generally, we predict that intensive fish farming will lead to the evolution of more virulent pathogens...
  50. Kunttu H, Suomalainen L, Jokinen E, Valtonen E. Flavobacterium columnare colony types: connection to adhesion and virulence?. Microb Pathog. 2009;46:21-7 pubmed publisher
    ..columnare. Colony morphology change might be caused by phase variation, and different colony types isolated from infected fish may indicate different roles of the colony morphologies in the infection process of columnaris disease...
  51. Hesami S, Allen K, Metcalf D, Ostland V, MacInnes J, Lumsden J. Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of Flavobacterium psychrophilum isolates from Ontario salmonids with bacterial coldwater disease. Can J Microbiol. 2008;54:619-29 pubmed publisher
    ..psychrophilum with pathogenic potential is quite heterogeneous...
  52. Nematollahi A, Decostere A, Pasmans F, Haesebrouck F. Flavobacterium psychrophilum infections in salmonid fish. J Fish Dis. 2003;26:563-74 pubmed
    ..This literature review discusses the agent and the disease it causes, with emphasis on the bacterium-host interactions...
  53. Lin Y, Jeng Y, Lin M, Yu K, Wang F, Liu C. Clinical and microbiological characteristics of Chryseobacterium indologenes bacteremia. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2010;43:498-505 pubmed publisher
    ..The clinical significance of C. indologenes has not been fully established. This retrospective study investigated the clinical features and antimicrobial susceptibility of C. indologenes bacteremia...
  54. Sun F, Peatman E, Li C, Liu S, Jiang Y, Zhou Z, et al. Transcriptomic signatures of attachment, NF-?B suppression and IFN stimulation in the catfish gill following columnaris bacterial infection. Dev Comp Immunol. 2012;38:169-80 pubmed publisher
  55. Castillo D, Higuera G, Villa M, Middelboe M, Dalsgaard I, Madsen L, et al. Diversity of Flavobacterium psychrophilum and the potential use of its phages for protection against bacterial cold water disease in salmonids. J Fish Dis. 2012;35:193-201 pubmed publisher
    ..While we recognize the artificial laboratory conditions used for these protection assays, this work is the first to demonstrate that phages might be able protect salmonids from RTFS or CWD...
  56. Morris J, Snyder Conn E, Foott J, Holt R, Suedkamp M, Lease H, et al. Survival of Lost River suckers (Deltistes luxatus) challenged with Flavobacterium columnare during exposure to sublethal ammonia concentrations at ph 9.5. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2006;50:256-63 pubmed
    ..05) as unionized ammonia concentrations increased. Our results suggest that complex interactions can complicate prediction of the responses of fish to concurrent chemical stressors and bacterial pathogens...
  57. Hadidi S, Glenney G, Welch T, Silverstein J, Wiens G. Spleen size predicts resistance of rainbow trout to Flavobacterium psychrophilum challenge. J Immunol. 2008;180:4156-65 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first report of a positive association between spleen size and disease resistance in a teleost fish. Further evaluation of spleen index as an indirect measure of disease resistance is warranted...