typhoid fever

Summary

Summary: An acute systemic febrile infection caused by SALMONELLA TYPHI, a serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA.

Top Publications

  1. Wangdi T, Winter S, BAUMLER A. Typhoid fever: "you can't hit what you can't see". Gut Microbes. 2012;3:88-92 pubmed publisher
    ..typhi), can bypass these defenses and cause an invasive bloodstream infection known as typhoid fever. Recent studies on virulence mechanisms of S...
  2. Farmakiotis D, Varughese J, Sue P, Andrews P, Brimmage M, Dobroszycki J, et al. Typhoid Fever in an inner city hospital: a 5-year retrospective review. J Travel Med. 2013;20:17-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Prevention in VFR travelers to South Asia is critical and efforts should be targeted at better education and pre-travel immunization. ..
  3. Thriemer K, Ley B, Ley B, Ame S, Deen J, Pak G, et al. Clinical and epidemiological features of typhoid fever in Pemba, Zanzibar: assessment of the performance of the WHO case definitions. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e51823 pubmed publisher
    The gold standard for diagnosis of typhoid fever is blood culture (BC). Because blood culture is often not available in impoverished settings it would be helpful to have alternative diagnostic approaches...
  4. Ley B, Mtove G, Thriemer K, Amos B, von Seidlein L, Hendriksen I, et al. Evaluation of the Widal tube agglutination test for the diagnosis of typhoid fever among children admitted to a rural hdospital in Tanzania and a comparison with previous studies. BMC Infect Dis. 2010;10:180 pubmed publisher
    The diagnosis of typhoid fever is confirmed by culture of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. typhi). However, a more rapid, simpler, and cheaper diagnostic method would be very useful especially in developing countries...
  5. Patel T, Armstrong M, Morris Jones S, Wright S, Doherty T. Imported enteric fever: case series from the hospital for tropical diseases, London, United Kingdom. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010;82:1121-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thirty percent were multidrug resistant; all were from southern Asia and Nigeria. None of the paratyphoid isolates were multidrug resistant but rates of decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones were higher than in S. typhi (74%). ..
  6. Baddam R, Thong K, Avasthi T, Shaik S, Yap K, Teh C, et al. Whole-genome sequences and comparative genomics of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates from patients with fatal and nonfatal typhoid fever in Papua New Guinea. J Bacteriol. 2012;194:5122-3 pubmed publisher
    Many of the developing countries of the Southeast Asian region are significantly affected by endemic typhoid fever, possibly as a result of marginal living standards...
  7. Kobayashi A, Adachi Y, Iwata Y, Sakai Y, Shigemitu K, Todoroki M, et al. Abdominal ultrasonographic findings in typhoid fever: a comparison between typhoid patients and those with non-typhoidal Salmonella and Campylobacter jejuni enterocolitis. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2012;43:423-30 pubmed
    b>Typhoid fever is a major health problem in many developing countries and its clinical features are similar to other types of bacterial enterocolitis...
  8. Wijedoru L, Kumar V, Chanpheaktra N, Chheng K, Smits H, Pastoor R, et al. Typhoid fever among hospitalized febrile children in Siem Reap, Cambodia. J Trop Pediatr. 2012;58:68-70 pubmed publisher
    b>Typhoid fever was confirmed by positive blood culture in 5 (3.7%) of 134 febrile children hospitalized in Cambodia. Typhoid was suspected in an additional 25 (18...
  9. Khan M, Ochiai R, Clemens J. Population impact of Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2010;9:485-96 pubmed publisher
    Development of a safe and efficacious vaccine against typhoid fever has been the mainstay of enteric vaccinology since production of the first parenteral whole-cell typhoid vaccine in 1896...

More Information

Publications95

  1. Khan M, Soofi S, Ochiai R, Habib M, Sahito S, Nizami S, et al. Effectiveness of Vi capsular polysaccharide typhoid vaccine among children: a cluster randomized trial in Karachi, Pakistan. Vaccine. 2012;30:5389-95 pubmed publisher
    b>Typhoid fever is endemic in Karachi, with an incidence among children ranging from 170 to 450 per 100,000 child-years...
  2. Parry C, Vinh H, Chinh N, Wain J, Campbell J, Hien T, et al. The influence of reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi on the clinical response to ofloxacin therapy. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1163 pubmed publisher
    ..Data from 540 patients randomised to ofloxacin treatment was analysed to identify an MIC of the infecting organism associated with treatment failure...
  3. Emary K, Moore C, Chanpheaktra N, An K, Chheng K, Sona S, et al. Enteric fever in Cambodian children is dominated by multidrug-resistant H58 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi with intermediate susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2012;106:718-24 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that antimicrobial-resistant enteric fever is common in Cambodian children and therapeutic options are limited. ..
  4. Szu S. Development of Vi conjugate - a new generation of typhoid vaccine. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2013;12:1273-86 pubmed publisher
    b>Typhoid fever remains to be a serious disease burden worldwide with an estimated annual incidence about 20 million. The licensed vaccines showed moderate protections and have multiple deficiencies...
  5. Gopinath S, Carden S, Monack D. Shedding light on Salmonella carriers. Trends Microbiol. 2012;20:320-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we describe recent advances in molecular profiling of human carriers and the use of animal models to identify potential host and bacterial genes involved in the establishment of the carrier state. ..
  6. Harish B, Menezes G. Antimicrobial resistance in typhoidal salmonellae. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2011;29:223-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated that annually typhoid fever accounts for 21.7 million illnesses (217,000 deaths) and paratyphoid fever accounts for 5...
  7. Janis C, Grant A, McKinley T, Morgan F, John V, Houghton J, et al. In vivo regulation of the Vi antigen in Salmonella and induction of immune responses with an in vivo-inducible promoter. Infect Immun. 2011;79:2481-8 pubmed publisher
    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, the agent of typhoid fever in humans, expresses the surface Vi polysaccharide antigen that contributes to virulence. However, Vi expression can also be detrimental to some key steps of S...
  8. Fadeel M, House B, Wasfy M, Klena J, Habashy E, Said M, et al. Evaluation of a newly developed ELISA against Widal, TUBEX-TF and Typhidot for typhoid fever surveillance. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2011;5:169-75 pubmed
    b>Typhoid fever is endemic in many parts of the world and represents a major cause of acute febrile illness (AFI)...
  9. Song J, Willinger T, Rongvaux A, Eynon E, Stevens S, Manz M, et al. A mouse model for the human pathogen Salmonella typhi. Cell Host Microbe. 2010;8:369-76 pubmed publisher
    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) causes typhoid fever, a life-threatening human disease. The lack of animal models due to S. Typhi's strict human host specificity has hindered its study and vaccine development...
  10. Barat S, Willer Y, Rizos K, Claudi B, Mazé A, Schemmer A, et al. Immunity to intracellular Salmonella depends on surface-associated antigens. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002966 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we tested 37 broadly conserved Salmonella antigens in a mouse typhoid fever model, and identified antigen candidates that conferred partial protection against lethal disease...
  11. Keddy K, Smith A, Sooka A, Ismail H, Oliver S. Fluoroquinolone-resistant typhoid, South Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:879-80 pubmed publisher
  12. Salerno Goncalves R, Wahid R, Sztein M. Ex Vivo kinetics of early and long-term multifunctional human leukocyte antigen E-specific CD8+ cells in volunteers immunized with the Ty21a typhoid vaccine. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010;17:1305-14 pubmed publisher
    ..play an important role in the host defense against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, the causative agent of typhoid fever. We have shown that HLA-E can function as a restriction element for S. Typhi-specific CD8(+) T cells...
  13. McCoy M, Moreland S, Detweiler C. Hemophagocytic macrophages in murine typhoid fever have an anti-inflammatory phenotype. Infect Immun. 2012;80:3642-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here the identification and characterization of splenic hemophagocytes in a natural model of murine typhoid fever. The development of a flow-cytometric method allowed us to identify hemophagocytes based on their greater than ..
  14. Baker S, Favorov M, Dougan G. Searching for the elusive typhoid diagnostic. BMC Infect Dis. 2010;10:45 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we discuss the current position of typhoid diagnostics, highlight the need for technological improvements and suggest potential ways of advancing this area. ..
  15. Das S, Rajendran K, Dutta P, Saha T, Dutta S. Validation of a new serology-based dipstick test for rapid diagnosis of typhoid fever. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2013;76:5-9 pubmed publisher
    Currently, no reliable diagnostic test is available for typhoid fever. One serology-based dipstick test, developed indigenously, was validated in this study...
  16. Wahid R, Pasetti M, Maciel M, Simon J, Tacket C, Levine M, et al. Oral priming with Salmonella Typhi vaccine strain CVD 909 followed by parenteral boost with the S. Typhi Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine induces CD27+IgD-S. Typhi-specific IgA and IgG B memory cells in humans. Clin Immunol. 2011;138:187-200 pubmed publisher
    ..The persistent IgA B(M) responses demonstrate the capacity of oral typhoid vaccines to prime mucosally relevant immune memory...
  17. Anwar E, Goldberg E, Fraser A, Acosta C, Paul M, Leibovici L. Vaccines for preventing typhoid fever. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;:CD001261 pubmed publisher
    b>Typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever continue to be important causes of illness and death, particularly among children and adolescents in south-central and southeast Asia...
  18. Baker S, Holt K, Clements A, Karkey A, Arjyal A, Boni M, et al. Combined high-resolution genotyping and geospatial analysis reveals modes of endemic urban typhoid fever transmission. Open Biol. 2011;1:110008 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings have implications for typhoid-control strategies, and our innovative approach may be applied to other diseases caused by other monophyletic or emerging pathogens...
  19. Mengo D, Kariuki S, Muigai A, Revathi G. Trends in Salmonella enteric serovar Typhi in Nairobi, Kenya from 2004 to 2006. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2010;4:393-6 pubmed
    b>Typhoid fever is a global health problem. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the current annual global burden of typhoid is approximately 22 million new cases, 5% of which are fatal...
  20. Luby S, Halder A, Saha S, Naheed A, Sazzad H, Akhter S, et al. A low-cost approach to measure the burden of vaccine preventable diseases in urban areas. Vaccine. 2010;28:4903-12 pubmed
    ..0 deaths per 100,000 children <5 years of age per year. This low-cost approach can provide data to support vaccine introduction and the health impact of newly introduced vaccines. ..
  21. Martin L. Vaccines for typhoid fever and other salmonelloses. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2012;25:489-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Greater effort must be placed on the development and implementation of improved vaccines for the disease burden resulting from Typhi, Paratyphi A or iNTS infections. ..
  22. Breiman R, Cosmas L, Njuguna H, Audi A, Olack B, Ochieng J, et al. Population-based incidence of typhoid fever in an urban informal settlement and a rural area in Kenya: implications for typhoid vaccine use in Africa. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29119 pubmed publisher
    High rates of typhoid fever in children in urban settings in Asia have led to focus on childhood immunization in Asian cities, but not in Africa, where data, mostly from rural areas, have shown low disease incidence...
  23. Menendez A, Arena E, Guttman J, Thorson L, Vallance B, Vogl W, et al. Salmonella infection of gallbladder epithelial cells drives local inflammation and injury in a model of acute typhoid fever. J Infect Dis. 2009;200:1703-13 pubmed publisher
    The gallbladder is often colonized by Salmonella during typhoid fever, yet little is known about bacterial pathogenesis in this organ...
  24. Libby S, Brehm M, Greiner D, Shultz L, McClelland M, Smith K, et al. Humanized nonobese diabetic-scid IL2rgammanull mice are susceptible to lethal Salmonella Typhi infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:15589-94 pubmed publisher
    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, the cause of typhoid fever, is host-adapted to humans and unable to cause disease in mice. Here, we show that S...
  25. Clark T, Daneshvar C, Pareek M, Perera N, Stephenson I. Enteric fever in a UK regional infectious diseases unit: a 10 year retrospective review. J Infect. 2010;60:91-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Enteric fever is an increasingly common diagnosis in returning travellers in the UK...
  26. Karkey A, Aryjal A, Basnyat B, Baker S. Kathmandu, Nepal: still an enteric fever capital of the world. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2008;2:461-5 pubmed
    ..Our findings highlight the requirement for better understanding of the disease within the city; in turn, this will aid development of a targeted control strategy...
  27. Yamamoto S, Wada J, Katayama T, Jikimoto T, Nakamura M, Kinoshita S, et al. Genetically modified Bifidobacterium displaying Salmonella-antigen protects mice from lethal challenge of Salmonella Typhimurium in a murine typhoid fever model. Vaccine. 2010;28:6684-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The efficiency of this vaccine was evaluated in a murine model of typhoid fever. We then orally administered 2...
  28. Martins F, Elian S, Vieira A, Tiago F, Martins A, Silva F, et al. Oral treatment with Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain UFMG 905 modulates immune responses and interferes with signal pathways involved in the activation of inflammation in a murine model of typhoid fever. Int J Med Microbiol. 2011;301:359-64 pubmed publisher
    ..intracellular pathogens that cause several diarrheal diseases ranging from self-limiting gastroenteritis to typhoid fever. Previous results from our laboratory showed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain UFMG 905 isolated from '..
  29. Mackenzie G, Ceesay S, Hill P, Walther M, Bojang K, Satoguina J, et al. A decline in the incidence of invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella infection in The Gambia temporally associated with a decline in malaria infection. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10568 pubmed publisher
    ..Malaria is a risk factor for invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) infection in children. In the last 10 years, indices of malaria infection in The Gambia have fallen substantially...
  30. Cook J, Sur D, Clemens J, Whittington D. Evaluating investments in typhoid vaccines in two slums in Kolkata, India. J Health Popul Nutr. 2009;27:711-24 pubmed
    New-generation vaccines against typhoid fever have the potential to reduce the burden of disease in areas where the disease is endemic...
  31. Lutterloh E, Likaka A, Sejvar J, Manda R, Naiene J, Monroe S, et al. Multidrug-resistant typhoid fever with neurologic findings on the Malawi-Mozambique border. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;54:1100-6 pubmed publisher
    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi causes an estimated 22 million cases of typhoid fever and 216 000 deaths annually worldwide...
  32. Zhou L, Pollard A. A fast and highly sensitive blood culture PCR method for clinical detection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2010;9:14 pubmed publisher
    Salmonella Typhi causes an estimated 21 million new cases of typhoid fever and 216,000 deaths every year...
  33. Hatta M, Sultan A, Pastoor R, Smits H. New flagellin gene for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi from the East Indonesian archipelago. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011;84:429-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The Hj gene was not detected. The z66 gene was present in 15.4% of the isolates. The presence of these "foreign" flagellin genes could be associated with an increased risk for developing severe disease...
  34. Nga T, Karkey A, Dongol S, Thuy H, Dunstan S, Holt K, et al. The sensitivity of real-time PCR amplification targeting invasive Salmonella serovars in biological specimens. BMC Infect Dis. 2010;10:125 pubmed publisher
    ..Invasive Salmonella serovars, which cause enteric fever, can be commonly cultured from the blood of infected patients. Yet, the isolation of invasive Salmonella serovars from blood is protracted and potentially insensitive...
  35. Holt K, Phan M, Baker S, Duy P, Nga T, Nair S, et al. Emergence of a globally dominant IncHI1 plasmid type associated with multiple drug resistant typhoid. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1245 pubmed publisher
    b>Typhoid fever, caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), remains a serious global health concern. Since their emergence in the mid-1970s multi-drug resistant (MDR) S...
  36. Blackstock S, Sheppeard V, Paterson J, Ralph A. Typhoid and paratyphoid fever in Western Sydney Local Health District, NSW, January-June 2011. N S W Public Health Bull. 2012;23:148-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Typhi vaccination for people visiting endemic areas for 3 or more weeks, especially those in the vulnerable 'visiting friends and relative' category...
  37. Keddy K, Sooka A, Letsoalo M, Hoyland G, Chaignat C, Morrissey A, et al. Sensitivity and specificity of typhoid fever rapid antibody tests for laboratory diagnosis at two sub-Saharan African sites. Bull World Health Organ. 2011;89:640-7 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate three commercial typhoid rapid antibody tests for Salmonella Typhi antibodies in patients suspected of having typhoid fever in Mpumalanga, South Africa, and Moshi, United Republic of Tanzania.
  38. Butler T. Treatment of typhoid fever in the 21st century: promises and shortcomings. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2011;17:959-63 pubmed publisher
    ..chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin, ineffective or suboptimal for typhoid fever. Ideally, treatment should be safe and available for adults and children in shortened courses of 5 days, cause ..
  39. Ali M, Sur D, Kim D, Kanungo S, Bhattacharya S, Manna B, et al. Impact of Vi vaccination on spatial patterns of typhoid fever in the slums of Kolkata, India. Vaccine. 2011;29:9051-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This study evaluated the impact of the campaign on spatial patterns of typhoid fever. Eighty contiguous residential groups of households in the study area were randomized to receive either a ..
  40. Demczuk W, Finley R, Nadon C, Spencer A, Gilmour M, Ng L. Characterization of antimicrobial resistance, molecular and phage types of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolations. Epidemiol Infect. 2010;138:1414-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Improved integration of epidemiological and laboratory case data will facilitate the protection of public health in Canada during an era of increasing travel and globalization...
  41. Holt K, Dolecek C, Chau T, Duy P, La T, Hoang N, et al. Temporal fluctuation of multidrug resistant salmonella typhi haplotypes in the mekong river delta region of Vietnam. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e929 pubmed publisher
    b>typhoid fever remains a public health problem in Vietnam, with a significant burden in the Mekong River delta region. Typhoid fever is caused by the bacterial pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S...
  42. Rondini S, Micoli F, Lanzilao L, Pisoni I, Di Cioccio V, Saul A, et al. Characterization of Citrobacter sp. line 328 as a source of Vi for a Vi-CRM(197) glycoconjugate vaccine against Salmonella Typhi. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2012;6:763-73 pubmed publisher
    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is the causative agent of typhoid fever with over 22 million cases and over 200,000 deaths reported annually...
  43. Owais A, Sultana S, Zaman U, Rizvi A, Zaidi A. Incidence of typhoid bacteremia in infants and young children in southern coastal Pakistan. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010;29:1035-9 pubmed
    The burden of typhoid fever in preschool children is not well recognized...
  44. Meltzer E, Schwartz E. Enteric fever: a travel medicine oriented view. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2010;23:432-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This review aims to describe recent epidemiological trends and developments in diagnosis, treatment and prevention...
  45. Gaborieau V, Weill F, Marchou B. [A case of Salmonella enterica serovar typhi with decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin]. Med Mal Infect. 2010;40:691-5 pubmed publisher
    The use of fluoroquinolone (FQ) as first line therapy for typhoid fever should be reconsidered because of the emergence of Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi A strains with decreased susceptibility to FQ, mainly from Asia...
  46. Koirala K, Thanh D, Thapa S, Arjyal A, Karkey A, Dongol S, et al. Highly resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi with a novel gyrA mutation raises questions about the long-term efficacy of older fluoroquinolones for treating typhoid fever. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012;56:2761-2 pubmed publisher
    ..resistance, clinicians are highly dependent on fluoroquinolones for treating the serious systemic infection typhoid fever. While reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones, which lessens clinical efficacy, is becoming ubiquitous, ..
  47. Zhang X, Liu Y, Yang M, Zhang T, Young A, Li X. Comparative study of four time series methods in forecasting typhoid fever incidence in China. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e63116 pubmed publisher
    ..paper, we present a comprehensive study of different forecasting methods based on the monthly incidence of typhoid fever. The seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model and three different models inspired by ..
  48. Pakkanen S, Kantele J, Kantele A. Cross-reactive gut-directed immune response against Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A and B in typhoid fever and after oral Ty21a typhoid vaccination. Vaccine. 2012;30:6047-53 pubmed publisher
  49. Cunha B, Gran A, Munoz Gomez S. Typhoid fever vs. malaria in a febrile returning traveler: typhomalaria revisited--an Oslerian perspective. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2013;11:66-9 pubmed publisher
    ..g., typhoid fever, dengue fever, chikungunya fever...
  50. Sheikh A, Charles R, Sharmeen N, Rollins S, Harris J, Bhuiyan M, et al. In vivo expression of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi genes in the blood of patients with typhoid fever in Bangladesh. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1419 pubmed publisher
    Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi is the cause of typhoid fever. It is a human-restricted pathogen, and few data exist on S. Typhi gene expression in humans.
  51. Zaki S, Karande S. Multidrug-resistant typhoid fever: a review. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2011;5:324-37 pubmed
    Multidrug-resistant typhoid fever (MDRTF) is defined as typhoid fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strains (S...
  52. Nagshetty K, Channappa S, Gaddad S. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella Typhi in India. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2010;4:70-3 pubmed
    b>Typhoid fever continues to remain a major public health problem, especially in regions such as Gulbarga, due to poor sanitation and personal hygiene...
  53. Khoo S, Petillo D, Parida M, Tan A, Resau J, Obaro S. Host response transcriptional profiling reveals extracellular components and ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters gene enrichment in typhoid fever-infected Nigerian children. BMC Infect Dis. 2011;11:241 pubmed publisher
    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) is a human-specific pathogen that causes typhoid fever, and remains a global health problem especially in developing countries...
  54. Nath G, Mauryal P, Gulati A, Singh T, Srivastava R, Kumar K, et al. Comparison of Vi serology and nested PCR in diagnosis of chronic typhoid carriers in two different study populations in typhoid endemic area of India. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2010;41:636-40 pubmed
    ..The second study population was 508 healthy volunteers, who did not suffer from typhoid fever during the preceding year and whose sera were subjected to detection of carriage by estimation of Vi antibody ..
  55. Aggarwal A, Ghosh A, Gomber S, Mitra M, Parikh A. Efficacy and safety of azithromycin for uncomplicated typhoid fever: an open label non-comparative study. Indian Pediatr. 2011;48:553-6 pubmed
    ..evaluate the efficacy and safety of azithromycin (20mg/ kg/day for 6 days) for the treatment of uncomplicated typhoid fever. Of the patients enrolled based on a clinical definition of typhoid fever, 109 (93.1%) completed the study...
  56. Parry C, Wijedoru L, Arjyal A, Baker S. The utility of diagnostic tests for enteric fever in endemic locations. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2011;9:711-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we discuss the range of methods currently used for diagnosing enteric fever in endemic locations and we suggest new technologies which may improve enteric fever diagnostics over the coming years...
  57. Van Damme P, Kafeja F, Anemona A, Basile V, Hilbert A, De Coster I, et al. Safety, immunogenicity and dose ranging of a new Vi-CRM??? conjugate vaccine against typhoid fever: randomized clinical testing in healthy adults. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25398 pubmed publisher
    b>Typhoid fever causes more than 21 million cases of disease and 200,000 deaths yearly worldwide, with more than 90% of the disease burden being reported from Asia...
  58. Verma S, Thakur S, Kanga A, Singh G, Gupta P. Emerging Salmonella Paratyphi A enteric fever and changing trends in antimicrobial resistance pattern of salmonella in Shimla. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2010;28:51-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Paratyphi A. There was decrease in resistance to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole in 2004 and nalidixic acid beyond 2005 and increase in resistance to cefuroxime. We also documented a decrease in resistance to ciprofloxacin after 2005...
  59. Lunguya O, Phoba M, Mundeke S, Bonebe E, Mukadi P, Muyembe J, et al. The diagnosis of typhoid fever in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2012;106:348-55 pubmed publisher
    The diagnosis of typhoid fever (TF) in Kinshasa (DR Congo) was assessed by on-site surveys, external quality assessment (EQA) of the Widal test and a microbiological blood culture surveillance study. In 331/536 (61...
  60. Dongol S, Thompson C, Clare S, Nga T, Duy P, Karkey A, et al. The microbiological and clinical characteristics of invasive salmonella in gallbladders from cholecystectomy patients in kathmandu, Nepal. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47342 pubmed publisher
    Gallbladder carriage of invasive Salmonella is considered fundamental in sustaining typhoid fever transmission...
  61. Keddy K, Sooka A, Ismail H, Smith A, Weber I, Letsoalo M, et al. Molecular epidemiological investigation of a typhoid fever outbreak in South Africa, 2005: the relationship to a previous epidemic in 1993. Epidemiol Infect. 2011;139:1239-45 pubmed publisher
    In 2005, over 600 clinically diagnosed typhoid fever cases occurred in South Africa, where an outbreak had been previously described in 1993. Case-control and molecular investigations, including Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S...
  62. Poulos C, Riewpaiboon A, Stewart J, Clemens J, Guh S, Agtini M, et al. Cost of illness due to typhoid fever in five Asian countries. Trop Med Int Health. 2011;16:314-23 pubmed publisher
    ..estimates of the public (paid by the government) and private (paid by households) costs of blood culture-confirmed typhoid fever in Hechi, China; North Jakarta, Indonesia; Kolkata, India; Karachi, Pakistan and Hue, Vietnam.
  63. Liang L, Juarez S, Nga T, Dunstan S, Nakajima Sasaki R, Davies D, et al. Immune profiling with a Salmonella Typhi antigen microarray identifies new diagnostic biomarkers of human typhoid. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1043 pubmed publisher
    Current serological diagnostic assays for typhoid fever are based on detecting antibodies against Salmonella LPS or flagellum, resulting in a high false-positive rate...
  64. Sheikh A, Khanam F, Sayeed M, Rahman T, Pacek M, Hu Y, et al. Interferon-? and proliferation responses to Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi proteins in patients with S. Typhi Bacteremia in Dhaka, Bangladesh. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1193 pubmed publisher
    Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi is a human-restricted intracellular pathogen and the cause of typhoid fever. Cellular immune responses are required to control and clear Salmonella infection...
  65. Sumer A, Kemik O, Dulger A, Olmez A, Hasirci I, Kisli E, et al. Outcome of surgical treatment of intestinal perforation in typhoid fever. World J Gastroenterol. 2010;16:4164-8 pubmed
    To represent our clinical experience in the treatment of intestinal perforation arising from typhoid fever.
  66. Neil K, Sodha S, Lukwago L, O Tipo S, Mikoleit M, Simington S, et al. A large outbreak of typhoid fever associated with a high rate of intestinal perforation in Kasese District, Uganda, 2008-2009. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;54:1091-9 pubmed publisher
    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (Salmonella Typhi) causes an estimated 22 million typhoid fever cases and 216 000 deaths annually worldwide...
  67. Mohanty S, Gaind R, Paglietti B, Paul P, Rubino S, Deb M. Bacteraemia with pleural effusions complicating typhoid fever caused by high-level ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi. Ann Trop Paediatr. 2010;30:233-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The case is notable because of the important issue of antimicrobial resistance in S. Typhi and the therapeutic dilemma faced by clinicians regarding the empirical use of ciprofloxacin and newer fluoroquinolones...
  68. Wu W, Wang H, Lu J, Wu J, Chen M, Xu Y, et al. Genetic diversity of Salmonella enteric serovar typhi and paratyphi in Shenzhen, China from 2002 through 2007. BMC Microbiol. 2010;10:32 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this investigation was to determine the molecular features of nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella enteric serovar Typhi (S. typhi) and Paratyphi (S. paratyphi) from blood isolates in Shenzhen, China...
  69. Kumar G, Pratap C, Mishra O, Kumar K, Nath G. Use of urine with nested PCR targeting the flagellin gene (fliC) for diagnosis of typhoid fever. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:1964-7 pubmed publisher
    ..to devise a test that can meet the levels necessary to be considered a gold standard for the diagnosis of typhoid fever. A total of 60 subjects with suspected cases of typhoid fever and 20 apparently healthy control subjects were ..
  70. Yan M, Tam F, Kan B, Lim P. Combined rapid (TUBEX) test for typhoid-paratyphoid A fever based on strong anti-O12 response: design and critical assessment of sensitivity. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24743 pubmed publisher
    ..Paired sera analysis was insightful, revealing 64% of typhoid patients who had no change in antibody titer over 4-16 days, and 14% with no IgM-IgG class-switching...
  71. Beig F, Ahmad F, Ekram M, Shukla I. Typhidot M and Diazo test vis-à-vis blood culture and Widal test in the early diagnosis of typhoid fever in children in a resource poor setting. Braz J Infect Dis. 2010;14:589-93 pubmed
    b>Typhoid fever is a major public health problem. A test which is simple, reliable and can be carried out in small laboratories is the need of the hour...
  72. Ley B, Thriemer K, Ame S, Mtove G, von Seidlein L, Amos B, et al. Assessment and comparative analysis of a rapid diagnostic test (Tubex®) for the diagnosis of typhoid fever among hospitalized children in rural Tanzania. BMC Infect Dis. 2011;11:147 pubmed publisher
    b>Typhoid fever remains a significant health problem in many developing countries. A rapid test with a performance comparable to that of blood culture would be highly useful...
  73. Feasey N, Archer B, Heyderman R, Sooka A, Dennis B, Gordon M, et al. Typhoid fever and invasive nontyphoid salmonellosis, Malawi and South Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:1448-51 pubmed publisher
    To determine the prevalence of invasive nontyphoid salmonellosis and typhoid fever in Malawi and South Africa, we compared case frequency and patient age distribution...
  74. Mathur R, Oh H, Zhang D, Park S, Seo J, Koblansky A, et al. A mouse model of Salmonella typhi infection. Cell. 2012;151:590-602 pubmed publisher
    Salmonella spp. are gram-negative flagellated bacteria that can cause food- and waterborne gastroenteritis and typhoid fever in humans. We now report that flagellin from Salmonella spp...
  75. Menezes G, Harish B, Khan M, Goessens W, Hays J. Antimicrobial resistance trends in blood culture positive Salmonella Typhi isolates from Pondicherry, India, 2005-2009. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012;18:239-45 pubmed publisher
    b>Typhoid fever is caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, a major public health concern in developing countries...
  76. Brown D, McCoy M, Pilonieta M, Nix R, Detweiler C. Chronic murine typhoid fever is a natural model of secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9441 pubmed publisher
    ..Whereby secondary HLH is known to occur in human patients with typhoid fever and other infectious diseases, our characterization of a viable natural disease model of secondary HLH offers ..
  77. Moehario L. The molecular epidemiology of Salmonella Typhi across Indonesia reveals bacterial migration. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2009;3:579-84 pubmed
    b>Typhoid fever remains a worldwide problem, but it is particularly common in Southeast Asia, including Indonesia. The causative agent Salmonella Typhi is known to have significant genome plasticity.
  78. Kariuki S, Revathi G, Kiiru J, Mengo D, Mwituria J, Muyodi J, et al. Typhoid in Kenya is associated with a dominant multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi haplotype that is also widespread in Southeast Asia. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:2171-6 pubmed publisher
    In sub-Saharan Africa, the burden of typhoid fever, caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, remains largely unknown, in part because of a lack of blood or bone marrow culture facilities. We characterized a total of 323 S...
  79. Arjyal A, Basnyat B, Koirala S, Karkey A, Dongol S, Agrawaal K, et al. Gatifloxacin versus chloramphenicol for uncomplicated enteric fever: an open-label, randomised, controlled trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2011;11:445-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to investigate whether gatifloxacin, a new generation and affordable fluoroquinolone, is better than chloramphenicol for the treatment of uncomplicated enteric fever in children and adults...
  80. Khan M, Ochiai R, Soofi S, Von Seidlein L, Khan M, Sahito S, et al. Risk factors associated with typhoid fever in children aged 2-16 years in Karachi, Pakistan. Epidemiol Infect. 2012;140:665-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Karachi to assess the differences in individual-, household- and cluster-level characteristics for developing typhoid fever. The annual incidence of typhoid in children aged 2-16 years in the control arm of the vaccine trial was 151/..
  81. Charles R, Sheikh A, Krastins B, Harris J, Bhuiyan M, LaRocque R, et al. Characterization of anti-Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi antibody responses in bacteremic Bangladeshi patients by an immunoaffinity proteomics-based technology. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010;17:1188-95 pubmed publisher
    Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi is the cause of typhoid fever and a human-restricted pathogen...
  82. Baker S, Hanage W, Holt K. Navigating the future of bacterial molecular epidemiology. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2010;13:640-5 pubmed publisher
    ..As genome sequencing, SNP detection and geospatial information become more accessible these methods will continue to transform the way molecular epidemiology is used to study populations of bacterial pathogens...
  83. Dewan A, Corner R, Hashizume M, Ongee E. Typhoid Fever and its association with environmental factors in the Dhaka Metropolitan Area of Bangladesh: a spatial and time-series approach. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e1998 pubmed publisher
    b>Typhoid fever is a major cause of death worldwide with a major part of the disease burden in developing regions such as the Indian sub-continent...
  84. Ugochukwu A, Amu O, Nzegwu M. Ileal perforation due to typhoid fever - review of operative management and outcome in an urban centre in Nigeria. Int J Surg. 2013;11:218-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The management of ileal typhoid perforation is a challenging task in our environment. Lack of incidence data base and poor financial resources preclude adequate prevention of this public health menace...
  85. Siba V, Horwood P, Vanuga K, Wapling J, Sehuko R, Siba P, et al. Evaluation of serological diagnostic tests for typhoid fever in Papua New Guinea using a composite reference standard. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012;19:1833-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Typhoid fever remains a major global health problem. A major impediment to improving outcomes is the lack of appropriate diagnostic tools, which have not significantly improved in low-income settings for 100 years...
  86. Oliveira R, Figueiredo I, Freitas L, Pinheiro R, Brito G, Alencar N, et al. Inflammation induced by phytomodulatory proteins from the latex of Calotropis procera (Asclepiadaceae) protects against Salmonella infection in a murine model of typhoid fever. Inflamm Res. 2012;61:689-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Typhimurium was investigated...