salmonella food poisoning

Summary

Summary: Poisoning caused by ingestion of food harboring species of SALMONELLA. Conditions of raising, shipping, slaughtering, and marketing of domestic animals contribute to the spread of this bacterium in the food supply.

Top Publications

  1. Cavallaro E, Date K, Medus C, Meyer S, Miller B, Kim C, et al. Salmonella typhimurium infections associated with peanut products. N Engl J Med. 2011;365:601-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Contaminated food ingredients can affect multiple products, each distributed through various channels and consumed in multiple settings. Beginning in November 2008, we investigated a nationwide outbreak of salmonella infections...
  2. Greene S, Daly E, Talbot E, Demma L, Holzbauer S, Patel N, et al. Recurrent multistate outbreak of Salmonella Newport associated with tomatoes from contaminated fields, 2005. Epidemiol Infect. 2008;136:157-65 pubmed
    ..Further efforts are needed to prevent produce contamination on farms and throughout the food supply chain...
  3. Foley S, Lynne A, Nayak R. Salmonella challenges: prevalence in swine and poultry and potential pathogenicity of such isolates. J Anim Sci. 2008;86:E149-62 pubmed
    ..These include S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, S. Heidelberg, S. Montevideo, S. Saintpaul, and S. I 4,[5],12:i:-...
  4. Noble D, Lane C, Little C, Davies R, de Pinna E, Larkin L, et al. Revival of an old problem: an increase in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium definitive phage type 8 infections in 2010 in England and Northern Ireland linked to duck eggs. Epidemiol Infect. 2012;140:146-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Control measures by the duck-egg industry should be improved along with a continued need to remind the public and commercial caterers of the potential high risks of contracting salmonellosis from duck eggs...
  5. Schneider J, White P, Weiss J, Norton D, Lidgard J, Gould L, et al. Multistate outbreak of multidrug-resistant Salmonella newport infections associated with ground beef, October to December 2007. J Food Prot. 2011;74:1315-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Detailed retail grinding logs and grinding policies that prevent cross-contamination between batches of ground beef products are crucial in the identification of contaminated beef products associated with foodborne illness...
  6. Taylor J, Galanis E, Wilcott L, Hoang L, Stone J, Ekkert J, et al. An outbreak of salmonella chester infection in Canada: rare serotype, uncommon exposure, and unusual population demographic facilitate rapid identification of food vehicle. J Food Prot. 2012;75:738-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The rare serotype, a limited affected demographic group, and an uncommon exposure led to the rapid identification of the source. Control measures were implemented within 9 days of notification of the outbreak...
  7. Russo E, Biggerstaff G, Hoekstra R, Meyer S, Patel N, Miller B, et al. A recurrent, multistate outbreak of salmonella serotype agona infections associated with dry, unsweetened cereal consumption, United States, 2008. J Food Prot. 2013;76:227-30 pubmed publisher
  8. Bucher O, Holley R, Ahmed R, Tabor H, Nadon C, Ng L, et al. Occurrence and characterization of Salmonella from chicken nuggets, strips, and pelleted broiler feed. J Food Prot. 2007;70:2251-8 pubmed
    ..However, results did not rule out the possibility that breeding stock or contamination during processing may have contributed to chicken meat contamination by Salmonella...
  9. Switt A, Soyer Y, Warnick L, Wiedmann M. Emergence, distribution, and molecular and phenotypic characteristics of Salmonella enterica serotype 4,5,12:i:-. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2009;6:407-15 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper discusses our current knowledge of the global ecology, epidemiology, transmission, and evolution of this emerging Salmonella serotype...

More Information

Publications67

  1. Guo C, Hoekstra R, Schroeder C, Pires S, Ong K, Hartnett E, et al. Application of Bayesian techniques to model the burden of human salmonellosis attributable to U.S. food commodities at the point of processing: adaptation of a Danish model. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2011;8:509-16 pubmed publisher
  2. Pezzoli L, Elson R, Little C, Yip H, Fisher I, Yishai R, et al. Packed with Salmonella--investigation of an international outbreak of Salmonella Senftenberg infection linked to contamination of prepacked basil in 2007. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2008;5:661-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Microbiological evidence suggested an association between contamination of fresh basil and the cases of Salmonella Senftenberg infection, leading to withdrawal of basil from all potentially affected batches from the U.K. market...
  3. Gould L, Walsh K, Vieira A, Herman K, Williams I, Hall A, et al. Surveillance for foodborne disease outbreaks - United States, 1998-2008. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2013;62:1-34 pubmed
  4. Barton Behravesh C, Mody R, Jungk J, Gaul L, Redd J, Chen S, et al. 2008 outbreak of Salmonella Saintpaul infections associated with raw produce. N Engl J Med. 2011;364:918-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Raw produce is an increasingly recognized vehicle for salmonellosis. We investigated a nationwide outbreak that occurred in the United States in 2008...
  5. Ma L, Zhang G, Gerner Smidt P, Tauxe R, Doyle M. Survival and growth of Salmonella in salsa and related ingredients. J Food Prot. 2010;73:434-44 pubmed
    ..These results highlight the importance of preharvest pathogen contamination control of fresh produce and proper formulation and storage of salsa...
  6. Gajraj R, Pooransingh S, Hawker J, Olowokure B. Multiple outbreaks of Salmonella braenderup associated with consumption of iceberg lettuce. Int J Environ Health Res. 2012;22:150-5 pubmed publisher
    ..braenderup in an outbreak due to lettuce. The results highlight the need to increase attention to the various stages in the farm-to-fork process to reduce produce-associated outbreaks related to the global food trade...
  7. Torpdahl M, Sorensen G, Ethelberg S, Sandø G, Gammelgård K, Porsbo L. A regional outbreak of S. Typhimurium in Denmark and identification of the source using MLVA typing. Euro Surveill. 2006;11:134-6 pubmed
    ..MLVA may contribute significantly to both surveillance and outbreak investigations of S. Typhimurium, as without MLVA typing this outbreak would not have been found nor its origin traced...
  8. Macdougall L, Fyfe M, McIntyre L, Paccagnella A, Cordner K, Kerr A, et al. Frozen chicken nuggets and strips--a newly identified risk factor for Salmonella Heidelberg infection in British Columbia, Canada. J Food Prot. 2004;67:1111-5 pubmed
    ..Consumer misconceptions contributed to the risk of infection. Clear labels identifying nuggets and strips as raw poultry are needed...
  9. Bruins M, Fernandes T, Ruijs G, Wolfhagen M, van Rijn van Berkel J, Schenk B, et al. Detection of a nosocomial outbreak of salmonellosis may be delayed by application of a protocol for rejection of stool cultures. J Hosp Infect. 2003;54:93-8 pubmed
    ..As a result of this outbreak, the government has announced legislation forbidding the sale of Salmonella-contaminated eggs. An official ban on the use of raw eggs will be included in several hygiene codes...
  10. Standaert S, Hutcheson R, Schaffner W. Nosocomial transmission of Salmonella gastroenteritis to laundry workers in a nursing home. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1994;15:22-6 pubmed
    ..Outbreaks of salmonella gastroenteritis in nursing homes are common. Person-to-person transmission to nursing home personnel occurs occasionally, but infection of laundry staff as a result of handling soiled linen rarely has been reported...
  11. Morales C, Musgrove M, Humphrey T, Cates C, Gast R, Guard Bouldin J. Pathotyping of Salmonella enterica by analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in cyaA and flanking 23S ribosomal sequences. Environ Microbiol. 2007;9:1047-59 pubmed
    ..In summary, these analyses link SNPs occurring in the rrlC-rrlA genomic fragment of S. enterica to genetic drift within S. Enteritidis that is associated with egg contamination...
  12. Hardy A. Salmonella: a continuing problem. Postgrad Med J. 2004;80:541-5 pubmed
    ..This paper explores the story of salmonella as a continuing problem in epidemiology, microbiology and public health, in the food chain, and in the kitchen...
  13. Ejidokun O, Killalea D, Cooper M, Holmyard S, Cross A, Kemp C. Four linked outbreaks of Salmonella enteritidis phage type 4 infection--the continuing egg threat. Commun Dis Public Health. 2000;3:95-100 pubmed
    ..Education of caterers includes advice to obtain eggs and other products from reputable and identifiable suppliers...
  14. Cowden J, Hamlet N, Locking M, Allardice G. A national outbreak of infection with Salmonella enteritidis phage types 5c and 6a associated with Chinese food businesses in Scotland, summer 2000. Epidemiol Infect. 2003;130:387-93 pubmed
    ..However the result did not reach statistical significance (OR 1.7, P=0.3). Extensive environmental investigation was unable to identify the source of the suspected contaminated chicken...
  15. Rabsch W, Andrews H, Kingsley R, Prager R, Tschäpe H, Adams L, et al. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium and its host-adapted variants. Infect Immun. 2002;70:2249-55 pubmed
  16. Lindsay E, Lawson A, Walker R, Ward L, Smith H, Scott F, et al. Role of electronic data exchange in an international outbreak caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium DT204b. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:732-4 pubmed
    ..This investigation highlights the importance of standardized protocols for molecular typing in international outbreaks of foodborne disease...
  17. Patrick M, Adcock P, Gomez T, Altekruse S, Holland B, Tauxe R, et al. Salmonella enteritidis infections, United States, 1985-1999. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10:1-7 pubmed
    ..Overall, rates of sporadic S. Enteritidis infection, outbreaks, and deaths have declined dramatically. For further reductions, control measures should continue to be applied along the entire farm-to-table continuum...
  18. Tansel O, Ekuklu G, Otkun M, Otkun M, Akata F, Tugrul M. A food-borne outbreak caused by Salmonella enteritidis. Yonsei Med J. 2003;44:198-202 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, although our results didn't indicate the exact source of the outbreak microbiologically, the omelet was considered to be the source based on the epidemiological proofs...
  19. Isaacs S, Aramini J, Ciebin B, Farrar J, Ahmed R, Middleton D, et al. An international outbreak of salmonellosis associated with raw almonds contaminated with a rare phage type of Salmonella enteritidis. J Food Prot. 2005;68:191-8 pubmed
    ..Identification of almonds as the source of a foodborne outbreak is a previously undocumented finding, leading to a North American recall of this product and a review of current industry practices...
  20. Gupta S, Nalluswami K, Snider C, Perch M, Balasegaram M, Burmeister D, et al. Outbreak of Salmonella Braenderup infections associated with Roma tomatoes, northeastern United States, 2004: a useful method for subtyping exposures in field investigations. Epidemiol Infect. 2007;135:1165-73 pubmed
    ..2-15.9). Roma tomatoes from two restaurants were traced back to a single tomato packing house. The methods used in this field investigation to define specific exposures may be useful for other foodborne outbreaks...
  21. Adak G, Long S, O Brien S. Trends in indigenous foodborne disease and deaths, England and Wales: 1992 to 2000. Gut. 2002;51:832-41 pubmed
    ..Commitment to food safety is evidenced by high profile governmental initiatives around the globe. To measure progress towards targets, policy makers need to know the baseline from which they started...
  22. Weill F, Guesnier F, Guibert V, Timinouni M, Demartin M, Polomack L, et al. Multidrug resistance in Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium from humans in France (1993 to 2003). J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:700-8 pubmed
    ..Global data from the NRC-Salm suggested that DT104 was the main cause of multidrug resistance in serotype Typhimurium from humans from at least 1997 to 2003, with a roughly stable prevalence during this period...
  23. Chittick P, Sulka A, Tauxe R, Fry A. A summary of national reports of foodborne outbreaks of Salmonella Heidelberg infections in the United States: clues for disease prevention. J Food Prot. 2006;69:1150-3 pubmed
    ..Efforts to reduce illness due to Salmonella Heidelberg shouldensure that poultry and eggs are handled appropriately to minimize contamination and cross contamination...
  24. Olsen S, Bishop R, Brenner F, Roels T, Bean N, Tauxe R, et al. The changing epidemiology of salmonella: trends in serotypes isolated from humans in the United States, 1987-1997. J Infect Dis. 2001;183:753-61 pubmed
    ..Additional educational efforts are needed to control the emergence of reptile-associated salmonellosis...
  25. Soto S, Guerra B, Del Cerro A, Gonzalez Hevia M, Mendoz M. Outbreaks and sporadic cases of Salmonella serovar panama studied by DNA fingerprinting and antimicrobial resistance. Int J Food Microbiol. 2001;71:35-43 pubmed
    ..Isolates showing drug-resistance (71%) fell into six lineages and 23 types. Ten multidrug-resistant types carried class I integrons with three types of variable regions containing resistance gene cassettes...
  26. Linnane E, Roberts R, Mannion P. An outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis phage type 34a infection in primary school children: the use of visual aids and food preferences to overcome recall bias in a case control study. Epidemiol Infect. 2002;129:35-9 pubmed
    ..006). The results of the case control study agreed with the findings of the environmental investigation. We believe our approach could be used in other circumstances, where subjects are young children or recall bias is a concern...
  27. Parry S, Miles S, Tridente A, Palmer S. Differences in perception of risk between people who have and have not experienced Salmonella food poisoning. Risk Anal. 2004;24:289-99 pubmed
    ..This suggests the need to examine other factors. A case-control study of sporadic Salmonella food poisoning was conducted to investigate several domestic kitchen risk factors...
  28. Doorduyn Y, van den Brandhof W, van Duynhoven Y, Wannet W, van Pelt W. Risk factors for Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium (DT104 and non-DT104) infections in The Netherlands: predominant roles for raw eggs in Enteritidis and sandboxes in Typhimurium infections. Epidemiol Infect. 2006;134:617-26 pubmed
    ..However, playing in a sandbox was a predominant new risk factor for S. Typhimurium salmonellosis in children [population attributable risk (PAR) 14%], and especially for S. Typhimurium DT104 (PAR 32%)...
  29. Gillespie I, O Brien S, Adak G, Ward L, Smith H. Foodborne general outbreaks of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 4 infection, England and Wales, 1992-2002: where are the risks?. Epidemiol Infect. 2005;133:795-801 pubmed
    ..Enteritidis PT4 epidemic, providing evidence that control measures introduced, e.g. improved biosecurity and vaccination, have worked. Continued surveillance of human and veterinary salmonellosis is essential to detect future problems...
  30. Parry S, Palmer S, Slader J, Humphrey T. Risk factors for salmonella food poisoning in the domestic kitchen--a case control study. Epidemiol Infect. 2002;129:277-85 pubmed
    Domestic kitchen food handling risk factors for sporadic salmonella food poisoning are largely unknown...
  31. Mølbak K, Neimann J. Risk factors for sporadic infection with Salmonella enteritidis, Denmark, 1997-1999. Am J Epidemiol. 2002;156:654-61 pubmed
    ..The authors recommend this method in studies that have the objective of determining risk associated with common exposures...
  32. Currie A, Macdougall L, Aramini J, Gaulin C, Ahmed R, Isaacs S. Frozen chicken nuggets and strips and eggs are leading risk factors for Salmonella Heidelberg infections in Canada. Epidemiol Infect. 2005;133:809-16 pubmed
    ..These findings have prompted changes in product-labelling policy and consumer education...
  33. Johnson J, Clabots C, Azar M, Boxrud D, Besser J, Thurn J. Molecular analysis of a hospital cafeteria-associated salmonellosis outbreak using modified repetitive element PCR fingerprinting. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:3452-60 pubmed
  34. Guard Petter J. The chicken, the egg and Salmonella enteritidis. Environ Microbiol. 2001;3:421-30 pubmed
    ..This review highlights the stages of transmission and discusses evidence that altered bacterial growth patterns and specific cell surface characteristics contribute to the adaptation of S. enteritidis to these diverse environments...
  35. Matsune W, Ishikawa K, Hayashi K, Tsuji M, Izumiya H, Watanabe H. Molecular analysis of Salmonella Enteritidis isolates resistance to ampicillin and streptomycin from three outbreaks of food poisoning in Shiga prefecture. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2001;54:111-3 pubmed
    ..In addition all isolates were resistant to ampicillin and streptomycin. However, the patterns of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis strongly indicated that the three outbreaks were actually independent...
  36. Tsen H, Lin J. Analysis of Salmonella enteritidis strains isolated from food-poisoning cases in Taiwan by pulsed field gel electrophoresis, plasmid profile and phage typing. J Appl Microbiol. 2001;91:72-9 pubmed
    ..To establish the molecular typing data for Salmonella enteritidis due to its increasing role in Salmonella infections in Taiwan...
  37. Rabsch W, Prager R, Koch J, Stark K, Roggentin P, Bockemuhl J, et al. Molecular epidemiology of Salmonella enterica serovar Agona: characterization of a diffuse outbreak caused by aniseed-fennel-caraway infusion. Epidemiol Infect. 2005;133:837-44 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that strains of S. Agona will continue to be of public health concern, and that phage typing together with PFGE typing should be applied as reliable and rapid tools for epidemiological subtyping and future monitoring...
  38. Mumma G, Griffin P, Meltzer M, Braden C, Tauxe R. Egg quality assurance programs and egg-associated Salmonella enteritidis infections, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10:1782-9 pubmed
    ..14% decrease in S. Enteritidis incidence (p < 0.05). These data indicate that EQAPs probably played a major role in reducing S. Enteritidis illness in these states...
  39. Horby P, O Brien S, Adak G, Graham C, Hawker J, Hunter P, et al. A national outbreak of multi-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium definitive phage type (DT) 104 associated with consumption of lettuce. Epidemiol Infect. 2003;130:169-78 pubmed
    ..This has implications for public health since food hazard warnings and product withdrawal are contingent on accurate identification of the suspect product...
  40. Rowe S, Rocourt J, Shiferaw B, Kassenborg H, Segler S, Marcus R, et al. Breast-feeding decreases the risk of sporadic salmonellosis among infants in FoodNet sites. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38 Suppl 3:S262-70 pubmed
    ..2; P=.01). To decrease their infants' risk of salmonellosis, mothers should be encouraged to breast-feed their infants. Caretakers of infants should learn about salmonellosis, hand washing, and safe preparation of formula and solid food...
  41. Hennessy T, Cheng L, Kassenborg H, Ahuja S, Mohle Boetani J, Marcus R, et al. Egg consumption is the principal risk factor for sporadic Salmonella serotype Heidelberg infections: a case-control study in FoodNet sites. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38 Suppl 3:S237-43 pubmed
    ..Heidelberg infections. Control measures to prevent S. Heidelberg infection should include advising consumers to avoid eating undercooked eggs and educating food handlers about proper egg handling and cooking...
  42. Bangtrakulnonth A, Pornreongwong S, Pulsrikarn C, Sawanpanyalert P, Hendriksen R, Lo Fo Wong D, et al. Salmonella serovars from humans and other sources in Thailand, 1993-2002. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10:131-6 pubmed
    ..Serovars causing human infections in Thailand differ from those in other countries and seem to be related to Salmonella serovars in different food products and reservoirs...
  43. van der Wolf P, Bongers J, Elbers A, Franssen F, Hunneman W, van Exsel A, et al. Salmonella infections in finishing pigs in The Netherlands: bacteriological herd prevalence, serogroup and antibiotic resistance of isolates and risk factors for infection. Vet Microbiol. 1999;67:263-75 pubmed
    ..It is necessary to test these presumed risk factors in intervention studies to evaluate their potency to reduce the Salmonella prevalence in finishing pigs and thereby reduce the risk of Salmonellosis in people consuming pork...
  44. Marcus R, Varma J, Medus C, Boothe E, Anderson B, Crume T, et al. Re-assessment of risk factors for sporadic Salmonella serotype Enteritidis infections: a case-control study in five FoodNet Sites, 2002-2003. Epidemiol Infect. 2007;135:84-92 pubmed
    ..Contact with birds and reptiles was also associated with SE infections. This study supports the findings of previous case-control studies and identifies risk factors associated with specific phage types and molecular subtypes...
  45. Kimura A, Reddy V, Marcus R, Cieslak P, Mohle Boetani J, Kassenborg H, et al. Chicken consumption is a newly identified risk factor for sporadic Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis infections in the United States: a case-control study in FoodNet sites. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38 Suppl 3:S244-52 pubmed
    ..Measures to prevent SE infections include educating consumers and food handlers about food safety and interventions to decrease contamination of eggs and poultry...
  46. Thong K, Goh Y, Radu S, Noorzaleha S, Yasin R, Koh Y, et al. Genetic diversity of clinical and environmental strains of Salmonella enterica serotype Weltevreden isolated in Malaysia. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:2498-503 pubmed
    ..To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to compare clinical and environmental isolates of Salmonella serotype Weltevreden in Malaysia...
  47. Hudson C, Garcia M, Gast R, Maurer J. Determination of close genetic relatedness of the major Salmonella enteritidis phage types by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and DNA sequence analysis of several Salmonella virulence genes. Avian Dis. 2001;45:875-86 pubmed
    ..Any chance for discerning genetic differences among isolates will need to rely on molecular techniques other than PFGE...
  48. Isakbaeva E, Lindstedt B, Schimmer B, Vardund T, Stavnes T, Hauge K, et al. Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 outbreak linked to imported minced beef, Norway, October-November 2005. Euro Surveill. 2005;10:E051110.1 pubmed
  49. Stephens N, Coleman D, Shaw K. Recurring outbreaks of Salmonella typhimurium phage type 135 associated with the consumption of products containing raw egg in Tasmania. Commun Dis Intell Q Rep. 2008;32:466-8 pubmed
    ..This report describes these outbreaks and their links to the common source associated with the outbreaks in 2005. ..
  50. Chanachai K, Pittayawonganon C, Areechokchai D, Suchatsoonthorn C, Pokawattana L, Jiraphongsa C. A food borne outbreak of gastroenteritis due to shigella and possibly salmonella in a school. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2008;39:297-302 pubmed
    ..Food borne outbreaks such as this can be prevented through simple and effective hygienic measures. ..
  51. Cores Calvo O, Valero Juan L, García Sánchez E, García Sánchez J, García García M. [Changes in the epidemiology of gastroenteritis caused by Salmonella during 2005-2014 in Salamanca, Spain]. Rev Esp Quimioter. 2016;29:91-8 pubmed
    ..Typhimurium serotype has replaced S. Enteritidis serotype and predominates in younger patients. It is observed under-reporting of cases of salmonellosis produced in Salamanca despite being mandatory notification of these since 2007. ..
  52. Santos F, Dsouza D, Jaykus L, Ferket P, Sheldon B. Genotypes, serotypes, and antibiotic resistance profiles of Salmonella isolated from commercial North Carolina turkey farms. J Food Prot. 2007;70:1328-33 pubmed
    ..05). This study showed that Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotypes, genotypes and AbR patterns were affected by bird age but not by season or farm. ..
  53. Denehy E, Raupach J, Cameron S, Lokuge K, Koehler A. Outbreak of Salmonella typhimurium phage type 44 infection among attendees of a wedding reception, April 2009. Commun Dis Intell Q Rep. 2011;35:192-6 pubmed
    ..The ingredients of the garlic aioli included raw egg yolk, roasted garlic, Dijon mustard, vinegar and vegetable oil. The raw egg yolk was identified as a high risk food item; however no eggs tested positive for Salmonella. ..
  54. Medus C, Smith K, Bender J, Leano F, Hedberg C. Salmonella infections in food workers identified through routine Public Health Surveillance in Minnesota: impact on outbreak recognition. J Food Prot. 2010;73:2053-8 pubmed
    ..Food service managers need to be alert to Salmonella-like illnesses among food workers to facilitate prevention and control efforts, including exclusion of infected food workers or restriction of their duties...
  55. King N, Lake R, Campbell D. Source attribution of nontyphoid salmonellosis in new zealand using outbreak surveillance data. J Food Prot. 2011;74:438-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this analysis support the hypothesis that non-typhoid salmonellosis is primarily a foodborne disease in New Zealand, but there is insufficient evidence to confirm important food vehicles...
  56. Mertens E, Kreher H, Rabsch W, Bornhofen B, Alpers K, Burckhardt F. Severe infections caused by Salmonella Enteritidis PT8/7 linked to a private barbecue. Epidemiol Infect. 2013;141:277-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Phage type 8/7 was identified in the stools of the salad preparer and one barbecue guest. This outbreak shows that S. Enteritidis can cause serious infection in young healthy individuals without well-known risk factors...
  57. Glass K, Fearnley E, Hocking H, Raupach J, Veitch M, Ford L, et al. Bayesian Source Attribution of Salmonellosis in South Australia. Risk Anal. 2016;36:561-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results strengthen the evidence that eggs and chicken meat are important vehicles for salmonellosis in South Australia. ..
  58. Vigre H, Domingues A, Pedersen U, Hald T. An Approach to Cluster EU Member States into Groups According to Pathways of Salmonella in the Farm-to-Consumption Chain for Pork Products. Risk Anal. 2016;36:450-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, each cluster was characterized qualitatively using the centroids of the clusters. ..