animal salmonella infections

Summary

Summary: Infections in animals with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.

Top Publications

  1. Geddes K, Cruz F, Heffron F. Analysis of cells targeted by Salmonella type III secretion in vivo. PLoS Pathog. 2007;3:e196 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that Salmonella specifically target splenic neutrophils presumably to attenuate their microbicidal functions, thereby promoting intracellular survival and replication in the mouse...
  2. Boyen F, Haesebrouck F, Maes D, Van Immerseel F, Ducatelle R, Pasmans F. Non-typhoidal Salmonella infections in pigs: a closer look at epidemiology, pathogenesis and control. Vet Microbiol. 2008;130:1-19 pubmed publisher
  3. MacKinnon K, He H, Nerren J, Swaggerty C, Genovese K, Kogut M. Expression profile of toll-like receptors within the gastrointestinal tract of 2-day-old Salmonella enteriditis-infected broiler chickens. Vet Microbiol. 2009;137:313-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, we provide a comprehensive report of mRNA expression profiles for the TLR family of innate immune receptors in the GI tract of 2-day-old broilers and their differential response to SE colonization...
  4. Gong H, Su J, Bai Y, Miao L, Kim K, Yang Y, et al. Characterization of the expression of Salmonella Type III secretion system factor PrgI, SipA, SipB, SopE2, SpaO, and SptP in cultures and in mice. BMC Microbiol. 2009;9:73 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the expression of these proteins has not been extensively studied in vivo, especially during the later stages of salmonellosis when the infection is established...
  5. Sekirov I, Tam N, Jogova M, Robertson M, Li Y, Lupp C, et al. Antibiotic-induced perturbations of the intestinal microbiota alter host susceptibility to enteric infection. Infect Immun. 2008;76:4726-36 pubmed publisher
  6. Pullinger G, Carnell S, Sharaff F, van Diemen P, Dziva F, Morgan E, et al. Norepinephrine augments Salmonella enterica-induced enteritis in a manner associated with increased net replication but independent of the putative adrenergic sensor kinases QseC and QseE. Infect Immun. 2010;78:372-80 pubmed publisher
  7. Yu C, Chu C, Chou S, Chao M, Yeh C, Lo D, et al. Comparison of the association of age with the infection of Salmonella and Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium in Pekin ducks and Roman geese. Poult Sci. 2008;87:1544-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, Salmonella Typhimurium infection should be more common in goose farms than in duck farms, especially in the younger birds...
  8. Luque I, Echeita A, Leon J, Herrera Leon S, Tarradas C, Gonzalez Sanz R, et al. Salmonella Indiana as a cause of abortion in ewes: Genetic diversity and resistance patterns. Vet Microbiol. 2009;134:396-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Anti-bird meshes and closed drinking and feeding troughs were also installed to prevent further contact of the ewes with wild birds...
  9. Sivula C, Bogomolnaya L, Andrews Polymenis H. A comparison of cecal colonization of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in white leghorn chicks and Salmonella-resistant mice. BMC Microbiol. 2008;8:182 pubmed publisher

More Information

Publications69

  1. Snow L, Davies R, Christiansen K, Carrique Mas J, Cook A, Teale C, et al. Survey of the prevalence of Salmonella on commercial broiler farms in the United Kingdom, 2005/06. Vet Rec. 2008;163:649-54 pubmed
    ..Of the three other serotypes given top priority by the eu owing to their public health significance, Salmonella Virchow was isolated from one holding, but Salmonella Hadar and Salmonella Infantis were not detected on any of the holdings...
  2. Hébrard M, Viala J, Méresse S, Barras F, Aussel L. Redundant hydrogen peroxide scavengers contribute to Salmonella virulence and oxidative stress resistance. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:4605-14 pubmed publisher
    ..This enzymatic redundancy highlights the evolutionary strategies developed by bacterial pathogens to survive within hostile environments...
  3. Eswarappa S, Janice J, Balasundaram S, Dixit N, Chakravortty D. Host-specificity of Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum: insights from comparative genomics. Infect Genet Evol. 2009;9:468-73 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that these positively selected genes play important roles in conferring different host-specificities to S. Gallinarum and S. Enteritidis...
  4. Chiang H, Swaggerty C, Kogut M, Dowd S, Li X, Pevzner I, et al. Gene expression profiling in chicken heterophils with Salmonella enteritidis stimulation using a chicken 44 K Agilent microarray. BMC Genomics. 2008;9:526 pubmed publisher
    ..To dissect the interplay between heterophils and SE infection, we utilized large-scale gene expression profiling...
  5. Desin T, Lam P, Koch B, Mickael C, Berberov E, Wisner A, et al. Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis pathogenicity island 1 is not essential for but facilitates rapid systemic spread in chickens. Infect Immun. 2009;77:2866-75 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that SPI-1 facilitates systemic infection but is not essential for invasion and systemic spread of the organism in chickens...
  6. Li S, Zhang Z, Pace L, Lillehoj H, Zhang S. Functions exerted by the virulence-associated type-three secretion systems during Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis invasion into and survival within chicken oviduct epithelial cells and macrophages. Avian Pathol. 2009;38:97-106 pubmed publisher
  7. Dieye Y, Ameiss K, Mellata M, Curtiss R. The Salmonella Pathogenicity Island (SPI) 1 contributes more than SPI2 to the colonization of the chicken by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. BMC Microbiol. 2009;9:3 pubmed publisher
    ..The type three secretion systems encoded by Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPI) 1 and 2 are major virulence factors of Salmonella. However, only a few studies have investigated their role during the infection of chickens...
  8. Moreira C, Weinshenker D, Sperandio V. QseC mediates Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium virulence in vitro and in vivo. Infect Immun. 2010;78:914-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Elucidation of the role of this interkingdom signaling system in Salmonella serovar Typhimurium should contribute to a better understanding of the complex interplay between the pathogen and the host during infection...
  9. Bogomolnaya L, Santiviago C, Yang H, BAUMLER A, Andrews Polymenis H. 'Form variation' of the O12 antigen is critical for persistence of Salmonella Typhimurium in the murine intestine. Mol Microbiol. 2008;70:1105-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that the 12-2 antigen is a S. enterica subspecies I-specific LPS modification that enhances long-term intestinal colonization, and is in contrast to the role of O-antigen variation described for Shigella...
  10. Thomson N, Clayton D, Windhorst D, Vernikos G, Davidson S, Churcher C, et al. Comparative genome analysis of Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 and Salmonella Gallinarum 287/91 provides insights into evolutionary and host adaptation pathways. Genome Res. 2008;18:1624-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Enteritidis-harboring mutations in functional homologs of the pseudogenes present in S. Gallinarum could provide an experimentally tractable route toward unraveling the genetic basis of host adaptation in S. enterica...
  11. Rasko D, Moreira C, Li D, Reading N, Ritchie J, Waldor M, et al. Targeting QseC signaling and virulence for antibiotic development. Science. 2008;321:1078-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of signaling offers a strategy for the development of broad-spectrum antimicrobial drugs...
  12. Rychlik I, Karasova D, Sebkova A, Volf J, Sisak F, Havlickova H, et al. Virulence potential of five major pathogenicity islands (SPI-1 to SPI-5) of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis for chickens. BMC Microbiol. 2009;9:268 pubmed publisher
    ..e. with the remaining four deleted) and a mutant with all 5 SPIs deleted, and assessed their virulence in one-day-old chickens, together with the innate immune response of this host...
  13. Beaumont C, Chapuis H, Protais J, Sellier N, Menanteau P, Fravalo P, et al. Resistance to Salmonella carrier state: selection may be efficient but response depends on animal's age. Genet Res (Camb). 2009;91:161-9 pubmed publisher
    ..37) and, for adult contamination, with number of eggs laid between 18 and 24 (0.37) or 25 and 40 (-0.33) weeks of age...
  14. Garner C, Antonopoulos D, Wagner B, Duhamel G, Keresztes I, Ross D, et al. Perturbation of the small intestine microbial ecology by streptomycin alters pathology in a Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium murine model of infection. Infect Immun. 2009;77:2691-702 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these results provide a better understanding of the ileal environment in the mouse and the changes that occur upon streptomycin treatment...
  15. Calenge F, Lecerf F, DeMars J, Feve K, Vignoles F, Pitel F, et al. QTL for resistance to Salmonella carrier state confirmed in both experimental and commercial chicken lines. Anim Genet. 2009;40:590-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic studies conducted on experimental lines can therefore be of potential interest for marker-assisted selection in commercial lines...
  16. Osterberg J, Lewerin S, Wallgren P. Patterns of excretion and antibody responses of pigs inoculated with Salmonella Derby and Salmonella Cubana. Vet Rec. 2009;165:404-8 pubmed
    ..65 x 10(6) cfu of S Derby...
  17. Jeong J, Song M, Park S, Cho K, Rhee J, Choy H. Salmonella enterica serovar gallinarum requires ppGpp for internalization and survival in animal cells. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:6340-50 pubmed publisher
    ..It was concluded that Salmonella serovar Gallinarum internalizes animal cells by a mechanism independent of SPI-1 genes but dependent on ppGpp. Intracellular growth also required ppGpp for the transcription of genes encoded in SPI-2...
  18. Chaudhuri R, Peters S, Pleasance S, Northen H, Willers C, Paterson G, et al. Comprehensive identification of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium genes required for infection of BALB/c mice. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000529 pubmed publisher
    ..Defined deletion mutants of several novel targets identified in the TMDH screen are effective live vaccines...
  19. Nerren J, Swaggerty C, MacKinnon K, Genovese K, He H, Pevzner I, et al. Differential mRNA expression of the avian-specific toll-like receptor 15 between heterophils from Salmonella-susceptible and -resistant chickens. Immunogenetics. 2009;61:71-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that differences in the gene expression of TLR 15 by heterophils likely accounts for some of the observed differences between the lines in their susceptibility to infection...
  20. Veldhuizen E, Koomen I, Ultee T, van Dijk A, Haagsman H. Salmonella serovar specific upregulation of porcine defensins 1 and 2 in a jejunal epithelial cell line. Vet Microbiol. 2009;136:69-75 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide further insight into the porcine innate immune response towards Salmonella infections, and could partially explain the different epidemiology of Salmonella infections in pig...
  21. Redmond S, Chuammitri P, Andreasen C, Palić D, Lamont S. Chicken heterophils from commercially selected and non-selected genetic lines express cytokines differently after in vitro exposure to Salmonella enteritidis. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2009;132:129-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings illustrate the potential value of native lines to provide biodiversity to enhance innate health in commercially selected poultry...
  22. Gantois I, Ducatelle R, Pasmans F, Haesebrouck F, Gast R, Humphrey T, et al. Mechanisms of egg contamination by Salmonella Enteritidis. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2009;33:718-38 pubmed publisher
    ..This appears to require a unique combination of genes encoding for improved cell wall protection and repairing cellular and molecular damage, among others...
  23. Yoon H, McDermott J, Porwollik S, McClelland M, Heffron F. Coordinated regulation of virulence during systemic infection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000306 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, experiments to demonstrate epistatic relationships showed that SsrB can replace SlyA and, in some cases, SlyA can replace SsrB for expression of SPI-2 encoded virulence factors...
  24. Abasht B, Kaiser M, van der Poel J, Lamont S. Genetic lines differ in Toll-like receptor gene expression in spleens of chicks inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. Poult Sci. 2009;88:744-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrate a significant genetic line effect on TLR expression in the spleen of Salmonella Enteritidis-infected birds, which may partly explain genetic variability in immune response to Salmonella Enteritidis...
  25. Chappell L, Kaiser P, Barrow P, Jones M, Johnston C, Wigley P. The immunobiology of avian systemic salmonellosis. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2009;128:53-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In carrier animals persistence may lead to reproductive tract and egg infection associated with a decline in CD4+ T cell numbers and function associated with the onset of sexual maturity in hens...
  26. Karasova D, Sebkova A, Vrbas V, Havlickova H, Sisak F, Rychlik I. Comparative analysis of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis mutants with a vaccine potential. Vaccine. 2009;27:5265-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, when a detailed comparison of polymyxin and serum sensitive mutants was performed, the serum sensitive mutants were more immunogenic...
  27. Abasht B, Kaiser M, Lamont S. Toll-like receptor gene expression in cecum and spleen of advanced intercross line chicks infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2008;123:314-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The downregulation of TLR5 RNA expression was observed in cecum by S. enteritidis infection, which might be beneficial to protect host cells from overstimulation by bacterial flagellin. ..
  28. Hasenstein J, Lamont S. Chicken gallinacin gene cluster associated with Salmonella response in advanced intercross line. Avian Dis. 2007;51:561-7 pubmed
    ..The use of gallinacin single-nucleotide polymorphisms as molecular markers for genetic selection for Salmonella Enteritidis resistance might result in reduced bacterial burden via development of an enhanced innate immune response. ..
  29. Berndt A, Wilhelm A, Jugert C, Pieper J, Sachse K, Methner U. Chicken cecum immune response to Salmonella enterica serovars of different levels of invasiveness. Infect Immun. 2007;75:5993-6007 pubmed
    ..The data indicate that the capability of Salmonella serovars to enter the cecal mucosa and invade lower regions affects both the level and character of the immune response in tissue. ..
  30. Cheong H, Lee Y, Hwang I, Kee S, Cheong H, Song J, et al. Characteristics of non-typhoidal Salmonella isolates from human and broiler-chickens in southwestern Seoul, Korea. J Korean Med Sci. 2007;22:773-8 pubmed
    ..The presence of the three identical PFGE molecular types from human and broiler-chicken NTS isolates suggests the possibility of transmission from livestock to humans. ..
  31. Babu U, Raybourne R. Impact of dietary components on chicken immune system and Salmonella infection. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2008;6:121-35 pubmed publisher
    ..This may help design better poultry nutrition to lower Salmonella infection in chickens and, therefore, reduce human salmonellosis. ..
  32. Paulin S, Jagannathan A, Campbell J, Wallis T, Stevens M. Net replication of Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Choleraesuis in porcine intestinal mucosa and nodes is associated with their differential virulence. Infect Immun. 2007;75:3950-60 pubmed
  33. Yu C, Chou S, Yeh C, Chao M, Huang K, Chang Y, et al. Prevalence and characterization of multidrug-resistant (type ACSSuT) Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains in isolates from four gosling farms and a hatchery farm. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:522-6 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, geese were a reservoir of diverse multidrug-resistant (type ACSSuT) S. enterica serovar Typhimurium strains, and each farm was colonized with genetically closely related S. enterica serovar Typhimurium strains. ..
  34. Rosu V, Chadfield M, Santona A, Christensen J, Thomsen L, Rubino S, et al. Effects of crp deletion in Salmonella enterica serotype Gallinarum. Acta Vet Scand. 2007;49:14 pubmed
    ..In the current study, the effect of crp deletion was investigated with respect to virulence and biochemical properties and the possible use of a deletion mutant as vaccine candidate was preliminarily tested...
  35. Grassl G, Finlay B. Pathogenesis of enteric Salmonella infections. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2008;24:22-6 pubmed
    ..The use of various animal models has greatly advanced understanding of Salmonella pathogenesis at intestinal and systemic sites. This review will emphasize recent advances in the understanding of intestinal Salmonella infections...
  36. Gast R, Guraya R, Guard Bouldin J, Holt P, Moore R. Colonization of specific regions of the reproductive tract and deposition at different locations inside eggs laid by hens infected with Salmonella enteritidis or Salmonella heidelberg. Avian Dis. 2007;51:40-4 pubmed
  37. Wang Y, Qu L, Uthe J, Bearson S, Kuhar D, Lunney J, et al. Global transcriptional response of porcine mesenteric lymph nodes to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Genomics. 2007;90:72-84 pubmed
    ..We propose that such NFkappaB suppression in antigen-presenting cells may be the mechanism by which S. Typhimurium eludes a strong inflammatory response to establish a carrier status in pigs...
  38. Wickham M, Brown N, Provias J, Finlay B, Coombes B. Oral infection of mice with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium causes meningitis and infection of the brain. BMC Infect Dis. 2007;7:65 pubmed
    ..For this pathogen, no appropriate model has been reported in which to examine infection kinetics and natural dissemination to the brain...
  39. García Feliz C, Collazos J, Carvajal A, Vidal A, Aladueña A, Ramiro R, et al. Salmonella enterica infections in Spanish swine fattening units. Zoonoses Public Health. 2007;54:294-300 pubmed
    ..Phage types DT 104, DT 104b and DT U302, which have been associated with several multi-resistant patterns, accounted for 23% and 29% of the Typhimurium total isolates or Typhimurium infected farms respectively...
  40. Ghebremicael S, Hasenstein J, Lamont S. Association of interleukin-10 cluster genes and Salmonella response in the chicken. Poult Sci. 2008;87:22-6 pubmed
    ..05) of PIGR with spleen tissue and cecal content were found. The results suggest that SNP in MAPKAPK2 and IL10 were strongly associated with Salmonella burden and may be valuable in generating resistant birds by marker-assisted selection...
  41. Kishima M, Uchida I, Namimatsu T, Osumi T, Takahashi S, Tanaka K, et al. Nationwide surveillance of salmonella in the faeces of pigs in Japan. Zoonoses Public Health. 2008;55:139-44 pubmed publisher
    ..1% (50/172) of all isolates. Of 26 S. enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates, 16 strains appeared to be definitive phage type 104 (DT104) by polymerase chain reaction...
  42. Jones M, Hulme S, Barrow P, Wigley P. The Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 and Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 type III secretion systems play a major role in pathogenesis of systemic disease and gastrointestinal tract colonization of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in the chi. Avian Pathol. 2007;36:199-203 pubmed
    ..The SPI-1 system is involved in both systemic infection and gastrointestinal colonization, but does not appear absolutely essential for either infection process...
  43. Barman M, Unold D, Shifley K, Amir E, Hung K, Bos N, et al. Enteric salmonellosis disrupts the microbial ecology of the murine gastrointestinal tract. Infect Immun. 2008;76:907-15 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that several Salmonella virulence factors, particularly those involved in the local mucosal host response, are required for disruption of the intestinal ecosystem...
  44. Sad S, Dudani R, Gurnani K, Russell M, van Faassen H, Finlay B, et al. Pathogen proliferation governs the magnitude but compromises the function of CD8 T cells. J Immunol. 2008;180:5853-61 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results indicate that pathogens that proliferate rapidly and chronically in vivo may evoke functionally inferior memory CD8+ T cells which may promote the survival of the pathogen...
  45. Boyen F, Pasmans F, Van Immerseel F, Morgan E, Botteldoorn N, Heyndrickx M, et al. A limited role for SsrA/B in persistent Salmonella Typhimurium infections in pigs. Vet Microbiol. 2008;128:364-73 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the ssrA/B gene of Salmonella Typhimurium plays a limited role in the persistent intestinal colonization of pigs...
  46. Chu C, Wang S, Chen Z, Chien M, Huang J, Chen J, et al. Heterologous protection in pigs induced by a plasmid-cured and crp gene-deleted Salmonella choleraesuis live vaccine. Vaccine. 2007;25:7031-40 pubmed
    ..C.-Deltacrp/vpl(-) can induce adequate immunity to protect pigs against challenge with a heterologous virulent strain. Thus, this mutant holds promise for the development of a new live S. choleraesuis vaccine...
  47. Perron G, Bell G, Quessy S. Parallel evolution of multidrug-resistance in Salmonella enterica isolated from swine. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2008;281:17-22 pubmed publisher
  48. Capita R, Alonso Calleja C, Prieto M. Prevalence of Salmonella enterica serovars and genovars from chicken carcasses in slaughterhouses in Spain. J Appl Microbiol. 2007;103:1366-75 pubmed
    ..To determine the prevalence of Salmonella enterica serovars in chicken carcasses in slaughterhouses in Spain and to examine genotypic relations among these serovars...
  49. Higgins S, Erf G, Higgins J, Henderson S, Wolfenden A, Gaona Ramirez G, et al. Effect of probiotic treatment in broiler chicks on intestinal macrophage numbers and phagocytosis of Salmonella enteritidis by abdominal exudate cells. Poult Sci. 2007;86:2315-21 pubmed
  50. Hautekiet V, Geert V, Marc V, Rony G. Development of a sanitary risk index for Salmonella seroprevalence in Belgian pig farms. Prev Vet Med. 2008;86:75-92 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the SRI is a useful preliminary screening tool which forms the basis for targeted sampling but cannot replace the serological herd classification with regard to Salmonella prevalence...
  51. Carnell S, Bowen A, Morgan E, Maskell D, Wallis T, Stevens M. Role in virulence and protective efficacy in pigs of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium secreted components identified by signature-tagged mutagenesis. Microbiology. 2007;153:1940-52 pubmed
    ..The data provide valuable information for the control of Salmonella in pigs...
  52. Methner U, Rabsch W, Reissbrodt R, Williams P. Effect of norepinephrine on colonisation and systemic spread of Salmonella enterica in infected animals: role of catecholate siderophore precursors and degradation products. Int J Med Microbiol. 2008;298:429-39 pubmed
  53. Scherer K, Szabo I, Rösler U, Appel B, Hensel A, Nockler K. Time course of infection with Salmonella typhimurium and its influence on fecal shedding, distribution in inner organs, and antibody response in fattening pigs. J Food Prot. 2008;71:699-705 pubmed
    ..No specific influence of transport-induced stress on Salmonella shedding rates in feces and distribution patterns in organs was observed...
  54. Clark R, Gill J, Fairley R, Smart J. Abortions in sheep caused by Salmonella Brandenburg: pathological findings. N Z Vet J. 2007;55:356-7 pubmed
  55. Chessa D, Winter M, Nuccio S, T kel C, B umler A. RosE represses Std fimbrial expression in Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium. Mol Microbiol. 2008;68:573-87 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that a tight control of Std fimbrial expression mediated by RosE is required during host pathogen interaction...
  56. Beloeil P, Chauvin C, Proux K, Fablet C, Madec F, Alioum A. Risk factors for Salmonella seroconversion of fattening pigs in farrow-to-finish herds. Vet Res. 2007;38:835-48 pubmed
    ..03, 1.06). The biosecurity measures of wearing specific clothes before entering the facilities (HR = 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3, 0.9) and enclosing the pig farm facilities were protective (HR = 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2, 0.8)...
  57. Futagawa Saito K, Hiratsuka S, Kamibeppu M, Hirosawa T, Oyabu K, Fukuyasu T. Salmonella in healthy pigs: prevalence, serotype diversity and antimicrobial resistance observed during 1998-1999 and 2004-2005 in Japan. Epidemiol Infect. 2008;136:1118-23 pubmed
    ..01 to P<0.05) and resistance to 2 antimicrobials [19.4% (13/67) vs. 39.7% (50/126), P<0.01]. This study provides national estimates of Salmonella prevalence in healthy pigs of different growth stages in Japan...
  58. Lapuz R, Tani H, Sasai K, Shirota K, Katoh H, Baba E. The role of roof rats ( Rattus rattus) in the spread of Salmonella Enteritidis and S. Infantis contamination in layer farms in eastern Japan. Epidemiol Infect. 2008;136:1235-43 pubmed
    ..Enteritidis and S. Infantis and that persistent S. Enteritidis and S. Infantis infections in a rat population may play an important role in the spread and maintenance of these pathogens inside the layer premises...
  59. Nawabi P, Catron D, Haldar K. Esterification of cholesterol by a type III secretion effector during intracellular Salmonella infection. Mol Microbiol. 2008;68:173-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicating the molecular activity of SseJ suggest that cholesterol and its esterification at the SCV are functionally important for intracellular bacterial survival...
  60. Prévost K, Magal P, Protais J, Beaumont C. Effect of genetic resistance of the hen to Salmonella carrier-state on incidence of bacterial contamination: synergy with vaccination. Vet Res. 2008;39:20 pubmed publisher
    ..These results must be confirmed experimentally while the mathematical model could be extended with minor modifications to other animal species or pathogenic species...