bacillary dysentery

Summary

Summary: DYSENTERY caused by gram-negative rod-shaped enteric bacteria (ENTEROBACTERIACEAE), most often by the genus SHIGELLA. Shigella dysentery, Shigellosis, is classified into subgroups according to syndrome severity and the infectious species. Group A: SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE (severest); Group B: SHIGELLA FLEXNERI; Group C: SHIGELLA BOYDII; and Group D: SHIGELLA SONNEI (mildest).

Top Publications

  1. Niyogi S. Shigellosis. J Microbiol. 2005;43:133-43 pubmed
    ..Travellers from developed to developing regions and soldiers serving under field conditions are also at an increased risk to develop shigellosis...
  2. Farshad S, Sheikhi R, Japoni A, Basiri E, Alborzi A. Characterization of Shigella strains in Iran by plasmid profile analysis and PCR amplification of ipa genes. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:2879-83 pubmed
    ..These results also demonstrate that plasmid profile analysis is more reliable than antibiotic susceptibility pattern analysis for the identification of Shigella epidemic strains isolated in Iran...
  3. Phalipon A, Sansonetti P. Shigella's ways of manipulating the host intestinal innate and adaptive immune system: a tool box for survival?. Immunol Cell Biol. 2007;85:119-29 pubmed
    ..This complex and aggressive process accounts for the symptoms of bacillary dysentery. The so-called invasive phenotype of Shigella is linked to expression of a type III secretory system (TTSS) ..
  4. Xiong Z, Li T, Xu Y, Li J. Detection of CTX-M-14 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase in Shigella sonnei isolates from China. J Infect. 2007;55:e125-8 pubmed
    ..This is the first report of CTX-M-14 in S. sonnei isolates from China and it is important to closely monitor such strains. ..
  5. Kim D, Lenzen G, Page A, Legrain P, Sansonetti P, Parsot C. The Shigella flexneri effector OspG interferes with innate immune responses by targeting ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:14046-51 pubmed
    ..This finding indicates that OspG negatively controls the host innate response induced by S. flexneri upon invasion of the epithelium. ..
  6. Shiferaw B, Shallow S, Marcus R, Segler S, Soderlund D, Hardnett F, et al. Trends in population-based active surveillance for shigellosis and demographic variability in FoodNet sites, 1996-1999. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38 Suppl 3:S175-80 pubmed
    ..Compared with other age groups, the incidence was highest among children aged 1-4 years of (36.3 cases/100,000 population). Marked demographic differences were observed between infections with S. sonnei and S. flexneri. ..
  7. Kalluri P, Cummings K, Abbott S, Malcolm G, Hutcheson K, Beall A, et al. Epidemiological features of a newly described serotype of Shigella boydii. Epidemiol Infect. 2004;132:579-83 pubmed
    ..S. boydii 20 may be related to travel to Mexico and Hispanic ethnicity. Prompt epidemiological investigation of clusters of S. boydii 20 infection may help identify specific vehicles and risk factors for infection...
  8. Amieva M. Important bacterial gastrointestinal pathogens in children: a pathogenesis perspective. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2005;52:749-77, vi pubmed
  9. Vu D, Sethabutr O, von Seidlein L, Tran V, Do G, Bui T, et al. Detection of Shigella by a PCR assay targeting the ipaH gene suggests increased prevalence of shigellosis in Nha Trang, Vietnam. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:2031-5 pubmed
    ..The clinical presentation of shigellosis may be directly related to the bacterial load. ..

More Information

Publications80

  1. Zurawski D, Mumy K, Badea L, Prentice J, Hartland E, McCormick B, et al. The NleE/OspZ family of effector proteins is required for polymorphonuclear transepithelial migration, a characteristic shared by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri infections. Infect Immun. 2008;76:369-79 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we conclude that OspZ and NleE have similar roles in the upstream induction of host signaling pathways required for PMN transepithelial migration in Shigella and EPEC infections. ..
  2. Toro C, Farfan M, Contreras I, Flores O, Navarro N, Mora G, et al. Genetic analysis of antibiotic-resistance determinants in multidrug-resistant Shigella strains isolated from Chilean children. Epidemiol Infect. 2005;133:81-6 pubmed
    ..Our results show a heterogenous distribution of antibiotic-resistance determinants between S. flexneri and S. sonnei. ..
  3. Sansonetti P. The bacterial weaponry: lessons from Shigella. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1072:307-12 pubmed
    Shigella, a Gram-negative bacterial species of the family Enterobacteriaceae, causes bacillary dysentery in humans, an acute rectocolitis that reflects the capacity of the microorganism to disrupt, invade, and cause the inflammatory ..
  4. Wang L, Fang X, Pan G. Bacillary dysentery as a causative factor of irritable bowel syndrome and its pathogenesis. Gut. 2004;53:1096-101 pubmed
    The incidence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) or functional bowel disorders (FBD) after bacillary dysentery (BD) has not been extensively evaluated, and little is known of the pathogenesis of post-infective (PI) IBS...
  5. Singer M, Sansonetti P. IL-8 is a key chemokine regulating neutrophil recruitment in a new mouse model of Shigella-induced colitis. J Immunol. 2004;173:4197-206 pubmed
    The lack of a mouse model of acute rectocolitis mimicking human bacillary dysentery in the presence of invasive Shigella is a major handicap to study the pathogenesis of the disease and to develop a Shigella vaccine...
  6. Marcus U, Zucs P, Bremer V, Hamouda O, Prager R, Tschaepe H, et al. Shigellosis - a re-emerging sexually transmitted infection: outbreak in men having sex with men in Berlin. Int J STD AIDS. 2004;15:533-7 pubmed
    ..Awareness among practitioners and among MSM about the risk of sexual transmission of orally transmitted agents needs to be raised. ..
  7. Naheed A, Kalluri P, Talukder K, Faruque A, Khatun F, Nair G, et al. Fluoroquinolone-resistant Shigella dysenteriae type 1 in northeastern Bangladesh. Lancet Infect Dis. 2004;4:607-8 pubmed
  8. Hachani A, Biskri L, Rossi G, Marty A, Menard R, Sansonetti P, et al. IpgB1 and IpgB2, two homologous effectors secreted via the Mxi-Spa type III secretion apparatus, cooperate to mediate polarized cell invasion and inflammatory potential of Shigella flexenri. Microbes Infect. 2008;10:260-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The attenuated phenotype of the ipgB1 ipgB2 mutant was confirmed using a murine pulmonary model of infection and histopathology and immunochemistry studies. ..
  9. Huang D, Guan P, Guo J, Wang P, Zhou B. Investigating the effects of climate variations on bacillary dysentery incidence in northeast China using ridge regression and hierarchical cluster analysis. BMC Infect Dis. 2008;8:130 pubmed publisher
    The effects of climate variations on bacillary dysentery incidence have gained more recent concern. However, the multi-collinearity among meteorological factors affects the accuracy of correlation with bacillary dysentery incidence...
  10. Cheung T, Chu Y, Tsang G, Ngan J, Hui I, Kam K. Emergence of CTX-M-type beta-lactam resistance in Shigella spp. in Hong Kong. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2005;25:350-2 pubmed
  11. Penatti M, Hollanda L, Nakazato G, Campos T, Lancellotti M, Angellini M, et al. Epidemiological characterization of resistance and PCR typing of Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei strains isolated from bacillary dysentery cases in Southeast Brazil. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2007;40:249-58 pubmed
    ..and non-sporulated bacilli of the Enterobacteriaceae family responsible for "Shigellosis" or bacillary dysentery, an important cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality...
  12. Wang X, Tao F, Xiao D, Lee H, Deen J, Gong J, et al. Trend and disease burden of bacillary dysentery in China (1991-2000). Bull World Health Organ. 2006;84:561-8 pubmed
    We aimed to determine the burden of bacillary dysentery in China, its cross-regional variations, trends in morbidity and mortality, the causative bacterial species and antimicrobial resistance patterns.
  13. Phalipon A, Costachel C, Grandjean C, Thuizat A, Guerreiro C, Tanguy M, et al. Characterization of functional oligosaccharide mimics of the Shigella flexneri serotype 2a O-antigen: implications for the development of a chemically defined glycoconjugate vaccine. J Immunol. 2006;176:1686-94 pubmed
    ..with noncapsulated Gram-negative bacteria, such as Shigella, an enteroinvasive bacterium responsible for bacillary dysentery, is mainly achieved by Abs specific for the O-Ag, the polysaccharide part of the LPS, the major bacterial ..
  14. Kuo C, Su L, Perera J, Carlos C, Tan B, Kumarasinghe G, et al. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Shigella isolates in eight Asian countries, 2001-2004. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2008;41:107-11 pubmed
    ..Because of increasing trends towards drug resistance, this study was undertaken to monitor local resistance patterns of Shigella isolates from 8 Asian countries...
  15. Schroeder G, Hilbi H. Molecular pathogenesis of Shigella spp.: controlling host cell signaling, invasion, and death by type III secretion. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2008;21:134-56 pubmed publisher
    ..An understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying Shigella pathogenesis will foster the development of a safe and efficient vaccine, which, in parallel with improved hygiene, should curb infections by this widespread pathogen...
  16. Hu L, Li J, Ye Y, Li X. Mutations in the GyrA subunit of DNA gyrase and the ParC subunit of topoisomerase IV in clinical strains of fluoroquinolone-resistant Shigella in Anhui, China. J Microbiol. 2007;45:168-70 pubmed
    ..The results did show, however, some novel mutations at codon 83 of gyrA (Ser-->Ile) and codon 64 of parC (Ala64-->Cys, Ala64-->Asp), which were related to fluroquinolone resistance...
  17. Sansonetti P. Shigellosis: an old disease in new clothes?. PLoS Med. 2006;3:e354 pubmed
  18. Raqib R, Sarker P, Bergman P, Ara G, Lindh M, Sack D, et al. Improved outcome in shigellosis associated with butyrate induction of an endogenous peptide antibiotic. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:9178-83 pubmed
  19. Pazhani G, Ramamurthy T, Mitra U, Bhattacharya S, Niyogi S. Species diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Shigella spp. isolated between 2001 and 2004 from hospitalized children with diarrhoea in Kolkata (Calcutta), India. Epidemiol Infect. 2005;133:1089-95 pubmed
    ..flexneri, but not in S. boydii or S. sonnei. Monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility through a surveillance programme is recommended to select appropriate antibiotics for the effective treatment of shigellosis in this region...
  20. Guerin P, Brasher C, Baron E, Mic D, Grimont F, Ryan M, et al. Case management of a multidrug-resistant Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 outbreak in a crisis context in Sierra Leone, 1999-2000. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2004;98:635-43 pubmed
    ..9%. Patients who did not have signs of severity when seen by health workers were given hygiene advice and oral rehydration salts. This strategy was effective in this complex emergency...
  21. Mammina C, Pontello M, Dal Vecchio A, Nastasi A. Identification of Shigella sonnei biotype g isolates carrying class 2 integrons in Italy (2001 to 2003). J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:2467-70 pubmed
    ..Isolates from four of the five outbreaks and four of six sporadic cases were biotype g, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis type B, and class 2 integron positive, suggesting emergence and spread of an epidemic clone in Italy...
  22. Lan R, Alles M, Donohoe K, Martinez M, Reeves P. Molecular evolutionary relationships of enteroinvasive Escherichia coli and Shigella spp. Infect Immun. 2004;72:5080-8 pubmed
    ..Two strains were found in the pINV B form by using the ipgD sequence, with one strain having an mxiA sequence similar to the divergent sequence of D1. Clearly, EIEC and Shigella spp. form a pathovar of E. coli...
  23. Iwai H, Kim M, Yoshikawa Y, Ashida H, Ogawa M, Fujita Y, et al. A bacterial effector targets Mad2L2, an APC inhibitor, to modulate host cell cycling. Cell. 2007;130:611-23 pubmed
    ..These results strongly indicate that Shigella employ special tactics to influence epithelial renewal in order to promote bacterial colonization of intestinal epithelium...
  24. Dromigny J, Macondo E, Juergens Behr A, Siby T, Perrier Gros Claude J. The distribution and antibiotic susceptibility of Shigella isolates in Dakar, Senegal (2000-2002). Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2004;24:307-8 pubmed
  25. Yoshida S, Handa Y, Suzuki T, Ogawa M, Suzuki M, Tamai A, et al. Microtubule-severing activity of Shigella is pivotal for intercellular spreading. Science. 2006;314:985-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Degradation of microtubules by VirA was dependent on its alpha-tubulin-specific cysteine protease-like activity. virA mutants did not move within the host cytoplasm and failed to move into adjacent cells...
  26. Pan J, Ye R, Meng D, Zhang W, Wang H, Liu K. Molecular characteristics of class 1 and class 2 integrons and their relationships to antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates of Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexneri. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2006;58:288-96 pubmed
    ..To analyse the gene cassettes and determine the roles of class 1 and class 2 integrons in antibiotic-resistant strains of Shigella sonnei (n=31) and Shigella flexneri (n=33)...
  27. Wang X, Du L, von Seidlein L, Xu Z, Zhang Y, Hao Z, et al. Occurrence of shigellosis in the young and elderly in rural China: results of a 12-month population-based surveillance study. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005;73:416-22 pubmed
    ..Widespread resistance to antibiotics adds urgency to the development and use of vaccines to control shigellosis...
  28. Kramer R, Slagowski N, Eze N, Giddings K, Morrison M, Siggers K, et al. Yeast functional genomic screens lead to identification of a role for a bacterial effector in innate immunity regulation. PLoS Pathog. 2007;3:e21 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies demonstrate how yeast systems biology can facilitate functional characterization of pathogenic bacterial effector proteins...
  29. Garrett V, Bornschlegel K, Lange D, Reddy V, Kornstein L, Kornblum J, et al. A recurring outbreak of Shigella sonnei among traditionally observant Jewish children in New York City: the risks of daycare and household transmission. Epidemiol Infect. 2006;134:1231-6 pubmed
    ..Disease containment efforts should focus on reducing Shigella transmission in childcare settings and within homes...
  30. van den Broek J, Roy S, Khan W, Ara G, Chakraborty B, Islam S, et al. Risk factors for mortality due to shigellosis: a case-control study among severely-malnourished children in Bangladesh. J Health Popul Nutr. 2005;23:259-65 pubmed
  31. Zafar A, Sabir N, Bhutta Z. Frequency of isolation of shigella serogroups/serotypes and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in children from slum areas in Karachi. J Pak Med Assoc. 2005;55:184-8 pubmed
    ..To assess the frequency of serogroups and serotypes, as well as the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Shigella species isolated from known cases of diarrhoea and dysentery from Karachi, Pakistan...
  32. Lee H, Kotloff K, Chukaserm P, Samosornsuk S, Chompook P, Deen J, et al. Shigellosis remains an important problem in children less than 5 years of age in Thailand. Epidemiol Infect. 2005;133:469-74 pubmed
    ..Based on the routine surveillance system, the annual incidence of bacillary dysentery decreased from 1.3 to 0.2/10,000 persons per year...
  33. Lu Y, Xu H, Yu Q, Bian X. [Analysis on incidence of bacillary dysentery in Jinan municipality from 1951 to 2005]. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2008;42:342-4 pubmed
    ..To explore the epidemic characteristics of bacterial dysentery in Jinan municipality, and to provide scientific basis for effective strategy for bacterial dysentery control...
  34. Fullá N, Prado V, Durán C, Lagos R, Levine M. Surveillance for antimicrobial resistance profiles among Shigella species isolated from a semirural community in the northern administrative area of santiago, chile. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005;72:851-4 pubmed
    ..Continuous monitoring of resistance patterns in Shigella is essential for establishing and updating guidelines for antibiotic treatment in shigellosis...
  35. Nguyen T, Le P, Le C, Weintraub A. Antibiotic resistance in diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and Shigella strains isolated from children in Hanoi, Vietnam. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005;49:816-9 pubmed
    ..More than 75% of the strains were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol (53.6% of Shigella strains), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Multiresistance was detected in 89.5% of E. coli strains and 78.6% of Shigella strains...
  36. Vinh H, Nhu N, Nga T, Duy P, Campbell J, Hoang N, et al. A changing picture of shigellosis in southern Vietnam: shifting species dominance, antimicrobial susceptibility and clinical presentation. BMC Infect Dis. 2009;9:204 pubmed publisher
    ..Antimicrobial resistance in the genus Shigella is a constant threat, with reports of organisms in Asia being resistant to multiple antimicrobials and new generation therapies...
  37. Shim D, Suzuki T, Chang S, Park S, Sansonetti P, Sasakawa C, et al. New animal model of shigellosis in the Guinea pig: its usefulness for protective efficacy studies. J Immunol. 2007;178:2476-82 pubmed
    ..difficult to evaluate the protective efficacy of vaccine candidates against shigellosis, a major form of bacillary dysentery caused by Shigella spp. infection, because of the lack of suitable animal models...
  38. Rahman M, Shoma S, Rashid H, Siddique A, Nair G, Sack D. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-mediated third-generation cephalosporin resistance in Shigella isolates in Bangladesh. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2004;54:846-7 pubmed
  39. Hien B, Trang D, Scheutz F, Cam P, Mølbak K, Dalsgaard A. Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli and other causes of childhood diarrhoea: a case-control study in children living in a wastewater-use area in Hanoi, Vietnam. J Med Microbiol. 2007;56:1086-96 pubmed
    ..For this particular region, vaccine development strategies targeting rotavirus and Shigella are likely to be of public health benefit, whereas the role of DEC and preventive measures need to be further elaborated...
  40. Okuda J, Toyotome T, Kataoka N, Ohno M, Abe H, Shimura Y, et al. Shigella effector IpaH9.8 binds to a splicing factor U2AF(35) to modulate host immune responses. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;333:531-9 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that IpaH9.8 plays a role in Shigella infection to optimize the host inflammatory responses, thus facilitating bacterial colonization within the host epithelial cells...
  41. Guan P, Huang D, Guo J, Wang P, Zhou B. Bacillary dysentery and meteorological factors in northeastern China: a historical review based on classification and regression trees. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2008;61:356-60 pubmed
    The relationship between the incidence of bacillary dysentery and meteorological factors was investigated...
  42. Bhattacharya S, Khanal B, Bhattarai N, Das M. Prevalence of Shigella species and their antimicrobial resistance patterns in Eastern Nepal. J Health Popul Nutr. 2005;23:339-42 pubmed
    ..dysenteriae type 1. The results suggest reconsideration of the empiric use of these antimicrobial agents for shigellosis. A further study is required to evaluate additional antimicrobial agents...
  43. Zhang Y, Bi P, Hiller J. Weather and the transmission of bacillary dysentery in Jinan, northern China: a time-series analysis. Public Health Rep. 2008;123:61-6 pubmed
    This article aims to quantify the relationship between weather variations and bacillary dysentery in Jinan, a city in northern China with a temperate climate, to reach a better understanding of the effect of weather variations on enteric ..
  44. Rahman M, Shoma S, Rashid H, El Arifeen S, Baqui A, Siddique A, et al. Increasing spectrum in antimicrobial resistance of Shigella isolates in Bangladesh: resistance to azithromycin and ceftriaxone and decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. J Health Popul Nutr. 2007;25:158-67 pubmed
    ..The growing antimicrobial resistance of Shigella is worrying and mandates monitoring of resistance. Pivmecillinam or ciprofloxacin might be considered for treating shigellosis with caution...
  45. Dutta S, Kawamura Y, Ezaki T, Nair G, Iida K, Yoshida S. Alteration in the GyrA subunit of DNA gyrase and the ParC subunit of topoisomerase IV in Quinolone-resistant Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 clinical isolates from Kolkata, India. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005;49:1660-1 pubmed
  46. Gupta A, Polyak C, Bishop R, Sobel J, Mintz E. Laboratory-confirmed shigellosis in the United States, 1989-2002: epidemiologic trends and patterns. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38:1372-7 pubmed
    ..4 during 2000-2002. Approximately 1% of isolates were from extraenteric sources; 0.25% were from blood. S. sonnei remains an important cause of diarrhea in the United States. Prevention efforts that target high-risk groups are needed...
  47. Zhang Y, Bi P, Hiller J, Sun Y, Ryan P. Climate variations and bacillary dysentery in northern and southern cities of China. J Infect. 2007;55:194-200 pubmed
    This paper was aimed at examining the relationship between meteorological variables and bacillary dysentery in different climatic and geographic areas in China.
  48. Chompook P, Samosornsuk S, von Seidlein L, Jitsanguansuk S, Sirima N, Sudjai S, et al. Estimating the burden of shigellosis in Thailand: 36-month population-based surveillance study. Bull World Health Organ. 2005;83:739-46 pubmed
    ..To estimate incidence of shigellosis in the Kaengkhoi district, Saraburi Province, Thailand...
  49. Talukder K, Khajanchi B, Islam M, Dutta D, Islam Z, Safa A, et al. Genetic relatedness of ciprofloxacin-resistant Shigella dysenteriae type 1 strains isolated in south Asia. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2004;54:730-4 pubmed
    ..The aim of the present study was to determine the clonal relationships of ciprofloxacin-resistant Shigella dysenteriae type 1 strains isolated from south Asia, and S. dysenteriae 1 strains associated with epidemics in 1978, 1984 and 1994...
  50. Zurawski D, Mitsuhata C, Mumy K, McCormick B, Maurelli A. OspF and OspC1 are Shigella flexneri type III secretion system effectors that are required for postinvasion aspects of virulence. Infect Immun. 2006;74:5964-76 pubmed
    ..Ultimately, OspF and OspC1 are essential for PMN transepithelial migration, a phenotype associated with increased inflammation and bacterial access to the submucosa, which are fundamental aspects of S. flexneri pathogenesis...
  51. Kim S, Kim J, Kang Y, Park Y, Lee B. Occurrence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in members of the genus Shigella in the Republic of Korea. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:5264-9 pubmed
    ..This is the first report of the presence of TEM-17, TEM-19, and TEM-20 in Korea and in S. sonnei...
  52. Sur D, Ramamurthy T, Deen J, Bhattacharya S. Shigellosis : challenges & management issues. Indian J Med Res. 2004;120:454-62 pubmed
    ..Shigellosis, also known as acute bacillary dysentery, is characterized by the passage of loose stools mixed with blood and mucus and accompanied by fever, ..
  53. Yang F, Yang J, Zhang X, Chen L, Jiang Y, Yan Y, et al. Genome dynamics and diversity of Shigella species, the etiologic agents of bacillary dysentery. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:6445-58 pubmed
    The Shigella bacteria cause bacillary dysentery, which remains a significant threat to public health...
  54. Ingersoll M, Zychlinsky A. ShiA abrogates the innate T-cell response to Shigella flexneri infection. Infect Immun. 2006;74:2317-27 pubmed
    Shigella spp. are the causative agent of bacillary dysentery. Infection results in acute colonic injury due to the host inflammatory response...
  55. Jain S, Gupta A, Glanz B, Dick J, Siberry G. Antimicrobial-resistant Shigella sonnei: limited antimicrobial treatment options for children and challenges of interpreting in vitro azithromycin susceptibility. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005;24:494-7 pubmed
    ..Antimicrobial-resistant Shigella sonnei is a growing problem in the United States and poses treatment challenges particularly among children. Azithromycin is recommended as an alternative oral agent for shigellosis...
  56. Levine M, Kotloff K, Barry E, Pasetti M, Sztein M. Clinical trials of Shigella vaccines: two steps forward and one step back on a long, hard road. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2007;5:540-53 pubmed
  57. Ram P, Crump J, Gupta S, Miller M, Mintz E. Part II. Analysis of data gaps pertaining to Shigella infections in low and medium human development index countries, 1984-2005. Epidemiol Infect. 2008;136:577-603 pubmed
    ..This review highlights the large gaps in data on the burden of Shigella infections for low human development index countries and, more specifically, for sub-Saharan Africa...
  58. Suzuki T, Yoshikawa Y, Ashida H, Iwai H, Toyotome T, Matsui H, et al. High vaccine efficacy against shigellosis of recombinant noninvasive Shigella mutant that expresses Yersinia invasin. J Immunol. 2006;177:4709-17 pubmed
  59. von Seidlein L, Kim D, Ali M, Lee H, Wang X, Thiem V, et al. A multicentre study of Shigella diarrhoea in six Asian countries: disease burden, clinical manifestations, and microbiology. PLoS Med. 2006;3:e353 pubmed
    ..We conducted a prospective, population-based study in six Asian countries to gain a better understanding of the current disease burden, clinical manifestations, and microbiology of shigellosis in Asia...
  60. Brinkmann V, Reichard U, Goosmann C, Fauler B, Uhlemann Y, Weiss D, et al. Neutrophil extracellular traps kill bacteria. Science. 2004;303:1532-5 pubmed
    ..NETs appear to be a form of innate response that binds microorganisms, prevents them from spreading, and ensures a high local concentration of antimicrobial agents to degrade virulence factors and kill bacteria...
  61. Ashida H, Ogawa M, Mimuro H, Sasakawa C. Shigella infection of intestinal epithelium and circumvention of the host innate defense system. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2009;337:231-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Gram-negative bacteria closely related to Escherichia coli, are highly adapted human pathogens that cause bacillary dysentery. Although Shigella have neither adherence factors nor flagella required for attaching or accessing the ..
  62. Pazhani G, Niyogi S, Singh A, Sen B, Taneja N, Kundu M, et al. Molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant Shigella species isolated from epidemic and endemic cases of shigellosis in India. J Med Microbiol. 2008;57:856-63 pubmed publisher
    ..PFGE analysis revealed clonality among strains of S. dysenteriae types 1 and 5, S. flexneri type 2a and Shigella boydii type 12...
  63. Yan W, Xu Y, Yang X, Zhou Y. A hybrid model for short-term bacillary dysentery prediction in Yichang City, China. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2010;63:264-70 pubmed
    b>Bacillary dysentery is still a common and serious public health problem in China...
  64. Miller M, Sentz J, Rabaa M, Mintz E. Global epidemiology of infections due to Shigella, Salmonella serotype Typhi, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Epidemiol Infect. 2008;136:433-5 pubmed
  65. Hrabák J, Empel J, Gniadkowski M, Halbhuber Z, Rébl K, Urbaskova P. CTX-M-15-producing Shigella sonnei strain from a Czech patient who traveled in Asia. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:2147-8 pubmed publisher
  66. Kim D, Ali M, Thiem V, Park J, von Seidlein L, Clemens J. Geographic analysis of shigellosis in Vietnam. Health Place. 2008;14:755-67 pubmed publisher
    ..The disease maps can help identify high-risk areas of shigellosis that can be targeted for interventions. This approach may be useful for the selection of populations and the analysis of vaccine trials...
  67. Nicolas X, Granier H, Le Guen P. [Shigellosis or bacillary dysentery]. Presse Med. 2007;36:1606-18 pubmed
    Shigellosis, commonly known as bacillary dysentery, is an enterobacterial disease caused by the Shigella genus, which now belongs to the Escherichia tribe, because of their genetic and phenotypic similarities. S...
  68. Ogawa M, Sasakawa C. Shigella and autophagy. Autophagy. 2006;2:171-4 pubmed
    ..In this review we discuss recent discoveries regarding Shigella strategies for infecting mammalian cells, and then focus on recent studies of an elegant bacterial survival strategy against autophagic degradation...
  69. Kim H, Kim M, Ji S, Park H. [The development of irritable bowel syndrome after Shigella infection: 3 year follow-up study]. Korean J Gastroenterol. 2006;47:300-5 pubmed
    ..So, we investigated the clinical course and prognosis of PI-IBS three years after shigella infection...
  70. Agtini M, Soeharno R, Lesmana M, Punjabi N, Simanjuntak C, Wangsasaputra F, et al. The burden of diarrhoea, shigellosis, and cholera in North Jakarta, Indonesia: findings from 24 months surveillance. BMC Infect Dis. 2005;5:89 pubmed
  71. Fukiya S, Mizoguchi H, Tobe T, Mori H. Extensive genomic diversity in pathogenic Escherichia coli and Shigella Strains revealed by comparative genomic hybridization microarray. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:3911-21 pubmed
    ..The data demonstrated that the CGH microarray technique is useful not only for genomic comparisons but also for phylogenic analysis of E. coli at the strain level...