Summary: A disease caused by tetanospasmin, a powerful protein toxin produced by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI. Tetanus usually occurs after an acute injury, such as a puncture wound or laceration. Generalized tetanus, the most common form, is characterized by tetanic muscular contractions and hyperreflexia. Localized tetanus presents itself as a mild condition with manifestations restricted to muscles near the wound. It may progress to the generalized form.

Top Publications

  1. Blencowe H, Lawn J, Vandelaer J, Roper M, Cousens S. Tetanus toxoid immunization to reduce mortality from neonatal tetanus. Int J Epidemiol. 2010;39 Suppl 1:i102-9 pubmed publisher
    Neonatal tetanus remains an important and preventable cause of neonatal mortality globally...
  2. Paulke Korinek M, Rendi Wagner P, Kundi M, Tomann B, Wiedermann U, Kollaritsch H. Pretravel consultation: rapid dipstick test as a decision guidance for the application of tetanus booster vaccinations. J Travel Med. 2008;15:437-41 pubmed publisher
    When deciding whether to administer a tetanus vaccination--for international travel or injury--a subject's vaccination certificate should be investigated...
  3. Vesikari T, Van Damme P, Lindblad N, Pfletschinger U, Radley D, Ryan D, et al. An open-label, randomized, multicenter study of the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6/11/16/18) vaccine given concomitantly with diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, and poliomyelitis vaccine in healthy. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010;29:314-8 pubmed publisher
    ..we evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of GARDASIL administered concomitantly with REPEVAX (diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, and poliomyelitis vaccine). This was an open-label, randomized, multicenter study...
  4. Theeten H, Hutse V, Hens N, Yavuz Y, Hoppenbrouwers K, Beutels P, et al. Are we hitting immunity targets? The 2006 age-specific seroprevalence of measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria and tetanus in Belgium. Epidemiol Infect. 2011;139:494-504 pubmed publisher
    ..against measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) and diphtheria at all available ages (1-65 years), and against tetanus in >40-year-olds, were measured by ELISA...
  5. Weston W, Friedland L, Wu X, Howe B. Vaccination of adults 65 years of age and older with tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine (Boostrix(®)): results of two randomized trials. Vaccine. 2012;30:1721-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Two studies examined the safety and immunogenicity of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine (Boostrix(®)) in healthy ?65 year olds...
  6. Fetuga B, Ogunlesi T, Adekanmbi F. Risk factors for mortality in neonatal tetanus: a 15-year experience in Sagamu, Nigeria. World J Pediatr. 2010;6:71-5 pubmed publisher
    Neonatal tetanus (NNT) is a major cause of newborn deaths especially in the developing world. While efforts aimed at eradicating NNT should be sustained, it is equally imperative to reduce death among affected infants...
  7. van Riet E, Retra K, Adegnika A, Jol van der Zijde C, Uh H, Lell B, et al. Cellular and humoral responses to tetanus vaccination in Gabonese children. Vaccine. 2008;26:3690-5 pubmed publisher
    Protection to tetanus is often not optimal in developing countries due to incomplete vaccination schemes, or decreased efficacy of vaccination...
  8. Choi J, Choo E, Huh A, Choi S, Eom J, Lee J, et al. Immunogenicity and safety of diphtheria-tetanus vaccine in adults. J Korean Med Sci. 2010;25:1727-32 pubmed publisher
    This study was conducted to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of diphtheria-tetanus (Td) vaccine in adults over 40 yr old who had never received a diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination...
  9. Lambo J, Khahro Z, Memon M, Lashari M. Neonatal tetanus incidence in Dadu District, Pakistan, 1993-2003. Scand J Infect Dis. 2011;43:175-80 pubmed publisher
    The study objective was to assess the incidence of neonatal tetanus (NT) in Dadu District, Pakistan. We analyzed the NT surveillance data for the period 1993-2003 in order to determine the NT incidence...

More Information


  1. Urschel S, Cremer S, Birnbaum J, Dallapozza R, Fuchs A, Jäger G, et al. Lack of serologic immunity against vaccine-preventable diseases in children after thoracic transplantation. Transpl Int. 2010;23:619-27 pubmed publisher
    ..We found protective antibody levels against diphtheria in 74% of patients, against tetanus in 22%, against Haemophilus influenzae type b in 30% and against Streptococcus pneumoniae in 59%...
  2. Herrman H, Braekhus A, Aaserud O, Aukrust P, Stubhaug A, Hassel B. Early treatment of tetanus-induced trismus with botulinum toxin A. Anesth Analg. 2008;106:1591 pubmed publisher
  3. Qiu S, Jebelli A, Ashe J, Curras Collazo M. Domoic acid induces a long-lasting enhancement of CA1 field responses and impairs tetanus-induced long-term potentiation in rat hippocampal slices. Toxicol Sci. 2009;111:140-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, aberrant regulation of CaMKII and GluR1 phosphorylation occurs after DOM application. In addition, tetanus-induced LTP as well as the increase of phosphorylation of CaMKII (p-Thr286) were reduced in DOM-potentiated ..
  4. Clark S, Adolphe S, Davis M, Cowan A, Kretsinger K. Attitudes of US obstetricians toward a combined tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine for adults. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2006;2006:87040 pubmed
    To describe obstetricians' perspectives related to tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination of mothers and other adults in close contact with infants. Mail survey of national random sample of 400 obstetricians...
  5. Fishman P, Parks D, Bowen T, Matthews C. Localized tetanus in immunized mice. Neurotoxicology. 2009;30:697-701 pubmed publisher
    The capacity of tetanus toxin to enhance motor neuron excitability has suggested its potential use as a therapeutic...
  6. Lim F, Han H, Jacquet J, Bock H. Primary vaccination of infants against hepatitis B can be completed using a combined hexavalent diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliomyelitis-Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2007;36:801-6 pubmed
    ..against hepatitis B virus (HBV) at 0, 1 and 5 or 6 months of age, and vaccination against pertussis, diphtheria, tetanus, and polio at 3, 4 and 5 months of age...
  7. Cooke M. Are current UK tetanus prophylaxis procedures for wound management optimal?. Emerg Med J. 2009;26:845-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Tetanus is a potentially fatal disease that occurs after contamination of a wound with Clostridium tetani spores...
  8. Scott L. Spotlight on Tdap? vaccine (Covaxis®) as a single-booster immunization for the prevention of tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis: in children (aged ?4 years), adolescents, and adults. Paediatr Drugs. 2011;13:133-5 pubmed publisher
    Covaxis® (also licensed as Triaxis® or Adacel® in individual countries) is a Tdap? (i.e. combined tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, five component acellular pertussis [namely detoxified pertussis toxin, filamentous ..
  9. Lindsay W, Wiedner E, Isaza R, Townsend H, Boleslawski M, Lunn D. Immune responses of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) to commercial tetanus toxoid vaccine. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2010;133:287-9 pubmed publisher
    Although captive elephants are commonly vaccinated annually against tetanus using commercially available tetanus toxoid vaccines marketed for use in horses and livestock, no data exists to prove that tetanus toxoid vaccination produces ..
  10. Chapman L, Sullivent E, Grohskopf L, Beltrami E, Perz J, Kretsinger K, et al. Postexposure interventions to prevent infection with HBV, HCV, or HIV, and tetanus in people wounded during bombings and other mass casualty events--United States, 2008: recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Disaster M. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2008;2:150-65 pubmed publisher
    ..at risk for bloodborne infections such as hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus, or tetanus. This report adapts existing general recommendations on the use of immunization and postexposure prophylaxis for ..
  11. Aba T, Kra O, Ehui E, Tanon K, Kacou A, Ouatara B, et al. [Clinical and developmental aspects of care-related tetanus in the reference service of the teaching hospital of Abidjan]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2011;104:38-41 pubmed publisher
    A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from medical data of inpatients with tetanus in the Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases of the University Hospital of Treichville in Abidjan from January 2003 to December 2007...
  12. van den Berg J, Westerbeek E, Berbers G, van Gageldonk P, van der Klis F, van Elburg R. Transplacental transport of IgG antibodies specific for pertussis, diphtheria, tetanus, haemophilus influenzae type b, and Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C is lower in preterm compared with term infants. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010;29:801-5 pubmed
  13. Te Wierik M, Hahné S, van Ooik P, van Lier A, Swaan C. [Tetanus prophylaxis after an injury; check the need for vaccination and immunoglobulin]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2013;157:A5906 pubmed
    b>Tetanus can occur after an injury and is caused by the exotoxin of Clostridium tetani...
  14. Small T, Zelenetz A, Noy A, Rice R, Trippett T, Abrey L, et al. Pertussis immunity and response to tetanus-reduced diphtheria-reduced pertussis vaccine (Tdap) after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2009;15:1538-42 pubmed publisher
    ..In an effort to reduce pertussis in adolescents and adults, 2 vaccines containing tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) (BOOSTRIX and Adacel) were licensed in 2005 for ..
  15. Calaminus G, Hense B, Laws H, Groeger M, MacKenzie C, Gobel U. Diphtheria (D) and tetanus (T) antibody values in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) after treatment according to Co-ALL 05/92. Klin Padiatr. 2007;219:355-60 pubmed
    ..Diphtheria (D) and Tetanus (T) antibodies are known to appear within 3 to 6 months after end of treatment as a sign of immune recovery and ..
  16. Ndour C, Soumare M, Mbaye S, Seydi M, Diop B, Sow P. [Tetanus following intramuscular injection in Dakar: epidemiological, clinical and prognostic features]. Dakar Med. 2005;50:160-3 pubmed
    b>tetanus stills a major public health problem in developing countries despite the availability of an efficient and accessible vaccine...
  17. Dingli K, Morgan R, Leen C. Acute dystonic reaction caused by metoclopramide, versus tetanus. BMJ. 2007;334:899-900 pubmed
  18. Black S, Friedland L, Ensor K, Weston W, Howe B, Klein N. Diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis and inactivated poliovirus vaccines given separately or combined for booster dosing at 4-6 years of age. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008;27:341-6 pubmed publisher
    In the United States, diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) and inactivated poliovirus (IPV) booster vaccinations are recommended for children 4-6 years of age...
  19. Arteaga A, Desviat P, Jaqueti J, Santos J, de Miguel A, García R. Self-reported history of vaccination and disease and immunity against hepatitis A, hepatitis B, tetanus, diphtheria and varicella among Spanish military recruits. Hum Vaccin. 2010;6:198-201 pubmed
    This study aims to evaluate the immune status against hepatitis A, hepatitis B, tetanus, diphtheria and varicella in military recruits and the validity of self-reporting of their disease and vaccination history...
  20. Abbate R, Di Giuseppe G, Marinelli P, Angelillo I. Appropriate tetanus prophylaxis practices in patients attending Emergency Departments in Italy. Vaccine. 2008;26:3634-9 pubmed publisher
    This study evaluated the physician compliance with tetanus prophylaxis and immunization practices for patients with wounds attending Emergency Departments (EDs) of four randomly selected non-academic acute care public hospitals in Italy.
  21. Amare A, Melkamu Y, Mekonnen D. Tetanus in adults: clinical presentation, treatment and predictors of mortality in a tertiary hospital in Ethiopia. J Neurol Sci. 2012;317:62-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Tetanus remains a major health problem in the developing world. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical presentation, risk factors, complications, treatment, outcome and predictors of death in patients with tetanus.
  22. Sunthornchart S, Linkins R, Natephisarnwanish V, Levine W, Maneesinthu K, Lolekha R, et al. Prevalence of hepatitis B, tetanus, hepatitis A, human immunodeficiency virus and feasibility of vaccine delivery among injecting drug users in Bangkok, Thailand, 2003-2005. Addiction. 2008;103:1687-95 pubmed publisher
    To estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV), tetanus, hepatitis A virus (HAV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in injecting drug users (IDUs), risk factors associated with infection and the feasibility of HBV vaccine ..
  23. Saxena S, Jais M, Dutta R, Dutta A. Serological immunity to diphtheria and tetanus in healthy adults in Delhi, India. Trop Doct. 2009;39:160-3 pubmed publisher
    Widespread childhood immunization with DPT (diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus) has largely eradicated diphtheria and tetanus from many countries...
  24. Rosado M, Gesualdo F, Marcellini V, Di Sabatino A, Corazza G, Smacchia M, et al. Preserved antibody levels and loss of memory B cells against pneumococcus and tetanus after splenectomy: tailoring better vaccination strategies. Eur J Immunol. 2013;43:2659-70 pubmed publisher
  25. McCormack P. Reduced-antigen, combined diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis vaccine, adsorbed (Boostrix®): a review of its properties and use as a single-dose booster immunization. Drugs. 2012;72:1765-91 pubmed publisher
    Reduced-antigen, combined diphtheria, tetanus and three-component acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap; Boostrix®) is indicated for booster vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis in individuals from age four years onwards in ..
  26. Tomovici A, Barreto L, Zickler P, Meekison W, Noya F, Voloshen T, et al. Humoral immunity 10 years after booster immunization with an adolescent and adult formulation combined tetanus, diphtheria, and 5-component acellular pertussis vaccine. Vaccine. 2012;30:2647-53 pubmed publisher
    Persistence of antibodies after a single dose of Tdap vaccine (tetanus, diphtheria, and 5-component acellular pertussis vaccine) was evaluated in a follow-up study of adolescents (N=324) and adults (N=644) who had received Tdap in ..
  27. Hirobe S, Matsuo K, Quan Y, Kamiyama F, Morito H, Asada H, et al. Clinical study of transcutaneous vaccination using a hydrogel patch for tetanus and diphtheria. Vaccine. 2012;30:1847-54 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we performed a clinical study to apply our TCI formulation for vaccination against tetanus and diphtheria in human...
  28. Kwon H, Lee J, Chung N, Cho B, Kim H, Kang J. Assessment of serologic immunity to diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis after treatment of Korean pediatric hematology and oncology patients. J Korean Med Sci. 2012;27:78-83 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to investigate the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis antibody titers after antineoplastic treatment and to suggest an appropriate vaccination approach for pediatric hemato-oncologic patients...
  29. Healy C, Rench M, Baker C. Importance of timing of maternal combined tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) immunization and protection of young infants. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;56:539-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Pertussis booster vaccine (Tdap) recommendations assume that pertussis-specific antibodies in women immunized preconception, during, or after previous pregnancies persist at sufficient levels to protect newborn infants...
  30. Eubelen C, Brendel F, Belche J, Freyens A, Vanbelle S, Giet D. Effect of an audiovisual message for tetanus booster vaccination broadcast in the waiting room. BMC Fam Pract. 2011;12:104 pubmed publisher
    ..This work was designed to assess the effect of a message inviting patients to ask for a tetanus booster vaccination.
  31. Launay O, Toneatti C, Bernede C, Njamkepo E, Petitprez K, Leblond A, et al. Antibodies to tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis among healthy adults vaccinated according to the French vaccination recommendations. Hum Vaccin. 2009;5:341-6 pubmed
    In this sero-epidemiological study, we investigated humoral immunity to three vaccine-preventable diseases--tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis--among 331 adults (aged 18-60 years) attending vaccination centres for travellers and who had ..
  32. Steens A, Mollema L, Berbers G, van Gageldonk P, van der Klis F, de Melker H. High tetanus antitoxin antibody concentrations in the Netherlands: a seroepidemiological study. Vaccine. 2010;28:7803-9 pubmed publisher
    We assessed the level and determinants of tetanus-antitoxin (TT)-antibodies in the Dutch population. Additionally, we evaluated the national guidelines for post-exposure prophylaxis...
  33. Freitas F, Sato H, Aranda C, Arantes B, Pacheco M, Waldman E. [Adverse events following diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus vaccinations and factors associated with severity]. Rev Saude Publica. 2007;41:1032-41 pubmed
    To analyze adverse events following vaccinations against diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus (AEFV-DPT) and to investigate factors associated with event severity.
  34. Campbell J, Lam T, Huynh T, To S, Tran T, Nguyen V, et al. Microbiologic characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium tetani isolated from wounds of patients with clinically diagnosed tetanus. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009;80:827-31 pubmed
    Clostridium tetani is the etiologic agent of the muscle-spasming disease tetanus. Despite an effective vaccine, tetanus is an ongoing problem in some developing countries...
  35. Hemilä H, Koivula T. Vitamin C for preventing and treating tetanus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;:CD006665 pubmed publisher
    b>Tetanus is a severe infection that can be prevented by vaccination...
  36. Sagheb M, Sajjadi S, Sajjady G. A study on the protection of hemodialysis patients against diphtheria and tetanus. Ren Fail. 2009;31:904-9 pubmed publisher
    ..only 16% of our hemodialysis patients were immune to diphtheria (19% of the control group), and this rate for tetanus was 24% (48.2% in the healthy control)...
  37. Scheifele D, Ochnio J, Halperin S. Cellular immunity as a potential cause of local reactions to booster vaccination with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis antigens. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009;28:985-9 pubmed publisher
    Booster doses of diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccines restore waning serum antibody values but frequently cause local inflammation...
  38. Brook I. Current concepts in the management of Clostridium tetani infection. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2008;6:327-36 pubmed publisher
    This review summarizes the microbiology, management and prevention of tetanus. Tetanus is an acute toxemic illness caused by Clostridium tetani infection at a laceration or break in the skin...
  39. Hassan B, Popoola A, Olokoba A, Salawu F. A survey of neonatal tetanus at a district general hospital in north-east Nigeria. Trop Doct. 2011;41:18-20 pubmed publisher
    Neonatal tetanus (NNT) remains among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Nigeria and a huge challenge in achieving the fourth goal of the Millennium Development Goals...
  40. Weng W, Huang W, Peng T, Chien Y, Chang K, Ro L, et al. Clinical characteristics of adult tetanus in a Taiwan medical center. J Formos Med Assoc. 2011;110:705-10 pubmed publisher
    Despite effective vaccine programs, tetanus is occasionally observed in adults. We reviewed clinical presentation data for adult patients with tetanus in the post-vaccine era in Taiwan.
  41. Böhmer M, Walter D, Krause G, Müters S, Gösswald A, Wichmann O. Determinants of tetanus and seasonal influenza vaccine uptake in adults living in Germany. Hum Vaccin. 2011;7:1317-25 pubmed publisher
    ..was to assess determinants of vaccine uptake in adults living in Germany exemplified by one standard vaccination (tetanus) and one vaccination targeting specific risk-groups (seasonal influenza)...
  42. Halasa N, O Shea A, Shi J, Lafleur B, Edwards K. Poor immune responses to a birth dose of diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine. J Pediatr. 2008;153:327-32 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of an additional birth dose of diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP).
  43. Gajdos V, Soubeyrand B, Vidor E, Richard P, Boyer J, Sadorge C, et al. Immunogenicity and safety of combined adsorbed low-dose diphtheria, tetanus and inactivated poliovirus vaccine (REVAXIS (®)) versus combined diphtheria, tetanus and inactivated poliovirus vaccine (DT Polio (®)) given as a booster dose at 6 years of a. Hum Vaccin. 2011;7:549-56 pubmed
    ..comparative, phase-IIIb study conducted in France aimed to demonstrate whether seroprotection against diphtheria, tetanus and poliomyelitis 1 month after a single dose of REVAXIS (low-dose diphtheria) is non-inferior to seroprotection ..
  44. Zarei S, Jeddi Tehrani M, Akhondi M, Zeraati H, Kheirkhah T, Ghazanfari M, et al. Immunogenicity of a triple diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis vaccine in Iranian preschool children. Iran J Immunol. 2007;4:101-9 pubmed
    Immunization against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis has been applied in Iran since 1950. WHO suggests periodical evaluation of effectiveness of the triple diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis (DTwP) vaccine, worldwide.
  45. Dey A, Saha L, Shahidullah M. Risk factors, morbidity and mortality of neonatal tetanus. Mymensingh Med J. 2011;20:54-8 pubmed
    A retrospective study was conducted to identify the risk factors, mortality and morbidity of neonatal tetanus in an Infectious Disease Hospital, Mohakhali, Dhaka, Bangladesh, the only referral hospital in the country of its kind...
  46. Roper M, Vandelaer J, Gasse F. Maternal and neonatal tetanus. Lancet. 2007;370:1947-59 pubmed
    Maternal and neonatal tetanus are important causes of maternal and neonatal mortality, claiming about 180 000 lives worldwide every year, almost exclusively in developing countries...
  47. Gatchalian S, Palestroque E, de Vleeschauwer I, Han H, Poolman J, Schuerman L, et al. The development of a new heptavalent diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis-hepatitis B-Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A and C vaccine: a randomized dose-ranging trial of the conjugate vaccine components. Int J Infect Dis. 2008;12:278-88 pubmed
    ..antibody persistence, immune memory, and reactogenicity of a novel heptavalent DTPw-HBV/Hib-MenAC (diphtheria, tetanus, whole cell pertussis-hepatitis B virus/Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A and C) ..
  48. Fawibe A. The pattern and outcome of adult tetanus at a sub-urban tertiary hospital in Nigeria. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2010;20:68-70 pubmed publisher
    Though tetanus is a major cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in Nigeria, there is a paucity of data on the pattern and outcome of the disease among the sub-urban and rural populations...
  49. Onwuekwe I, Onyedum C, Nwabueze A. Experience with tetanus in a tertiary hospital in south east Nigeria. Niger J Med. 2008;17:50-2 pubmed
    b>Tetanus has for long been an avoidable source of morbidity and mortality particularly in developing countries. The aim of this study was to review the experience with managing tetanus in a regional tertiary hospital in Nigeria.
  50. Heldens J, Pouwels H, Derks C, Van de Zande S, Hoeijmakers M. Duration of immunity induced by an equine influenza and tetanus combination vaccine formulation adjuvanted with ISCOM-Matrix. Vaccine. 2010;28:6989-96 pubmed publisher
    ..tested in an experimental setting according to European legislation, of this inactivated equine influenza and tetanus combination vaccine...
  51. Springer D, Phillippi Falkenstein K, Smith G. Retrospective analysis of wound characteristics and tetanus development in captive macaques. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2009;40:95-102 pubmed
    Traumatic wounds and access to outdoor enclosures containing soil contribute to development of tetanus in nonhuman primates...
  52. McVicar J. Should we test for tetanus immunity in all emergency department patients with wounds?. Emerg Med J. 2013;30:177-9 pubmed publisher
    People who present to the emergency department often do not know their tetanus immunisation status. The Protetanus test can determine whether a person is immune and can guide treatment decisions.
  53. Pomara C, Neri M, Riezzo I, Turillazzi E, Fineschi V. Autonomic nervous system instability, tetanic necrosis of the heart and myocardial TNFalpha expression in a tetanus fatal case. Int J Cardiol. 2009;136:e54-7 pubmed publisher
    The cardiovascular manifestations of tetanus consist of disturbances of heart rate and rhythm, blood pressure instability, arrhythmias, myocardial dysfunction and sympathetic overactivity...
  54. Singh A, Pallikadavath S, Ogollah R, Stones W. Maternal tetanus toxoid vaccination and neonatal mortality in rural north India. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e48891 pubmed publisher
    Preventable neonatal mortality due to tetanus infection remains common. We aimed to examine antenatal vaccination impact in a context of continuing high neonatal mortality in rural northern India.
  55. Elkharrat D, Sanson Le Pors M, Arrouy L, Beauchet A, Benhamou F. Evaluation of a bedside immunotest to predict individual anti-tetanus seroprotection: a prospective concordance study of 1018 adults in an emergency department. Emerg Med J. 2010;27:36-42 pubmed publisher
    Unscheduled tetanus prophylaxis (UTP) used in the emergency room (ER) in patients with wounds who are unaware of their vaccination history is erroneous in 40% of cases...
  56. Alvis N, de la Hoz F, Gamboa O, Cediel N, Rico A, Paternina A, et al. [Epidemiological and economic impact of tetanus vaccination in Colombian adults]. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2011;30:209-16 pubmed
    Assess the potential epidemiological and economic impact of vaccinating the over-15 Colombian population against tetanus with a booster dose every 10 years.
  57. Amare A, Yami A. Case-fatality of adult tetanus at Jimma University Teaching Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia. Afr Health Sci. 2011;11:36-40 pubmed
    b>Tetanus remains a major health problem in Ethiopia like in most other developing countries.
  58. Barjat C, Charles R, Lucht F, Frappé P. [Managing the risk of wound tetanus in family practice]. Med Mal Infect. 2011;41:424-9 pubmed publisher
    The study objectives were to assess how GPs manage the risk of tetanus in wounds, compared to the French Health Ministry guidelines on tetanus toxoid vaccination and immunoglobulin injections.
  59. Munro P, Flatau G, Lemichez E. Intranasal immunization with tetanus toxoid and CNF1 as a new mucosal adjuvant protects BALB/c mice against lethal challenge. Vaccine. 2007;25:8702-6 pubmed
    ..We report that mucosal immunization against tetanus toxoid through nasal route, together with active cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1), elicits a specific and ..
  60. Hatamabadi H, Abdalvand A, Safari S, Kariman H, Dolatabadi A, Shahrami A, et al. Tetanus Quick Stick as an applicable and cost-effective test in assessment of immunity status. Am J Emerg Med. 2011;29:717-20 pubmed publisher
    b>Tetanus vaccine and immunoglobulin administration are challenging decisions mostly because of the fact that the current protocol for immunization against tetanus is based on 2 variables: the vaccination status of the patient and the ..
  61. Gatchalian S, Ramakrishnan G, Bock H, Lefevre I, Jacquet J. Immunogenicity, reactogenicity and safety of three-dose primary and booster vaccination with combined diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis-hepatitis B-reduced antigen content Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine in Filipino children. Hum Vaccin. 2010;6:664-72 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the immunogenicity, reactogenicity and safety of primary and booster vaccination with DTPw-HBVLT/Hib2.5 vaccine containing low thiomersal and reduced quantities of Hib polysaccharide (PRP)...
  62. Selman M, de Jong S, Soonawala D, Kroon F, Adegnika A, Deelder A, et al. Changes in antigen-specific IgG1 Fc N-glycosylation upon influenza and tetanus vaccination. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2012;11:M111.014563 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that dependent on the vaccination time point the infectious agent will encounter IgGs with different glycosylation profiles, which are expected to influence the antibody effector functions relevant in immunity...
  63. Heijstek M, van Gageldonk P, Berbers G, Wulffraat N. Differences in persistence of measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria and tetanus antibodies between children with rheumatic disease and healthy controls: a retrospective cross-sectional study. Ann Rheum Dis. 2012;71:948-54 pubmed publisher
    To compare the persistence of measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria and tetanus antibodies between patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and healthy controls.
  64. Lee S, Belitsky B, Brown D, Brinker J, Kerstein K, Herrmann J, et al. Efficacy, heat stability and safety of intranasally administered Bacillus subtilis spore or vegetative cell vaccines expressing tetanus toxin fragment C. Vaccine. 2010;28:6658-65 pubmed publisher
    Bacillus subtilis strains expressing tetanus toxin fragment C (TTFC) were tested as vaccine candidates against tetanus in adult mice. Mice received three intranasal (IN) exposures to 10(9) spores or 10(8) vegetative cells of B...
  65. del Corro M, Vargas Román M, García R, Prieto R, de Miguel A. Tetanus vaccination in adult population: coverage, registration and compliance. Hum Vaccin. 2009;5:98-104 pubmed
    To ascertain correct tetanus vaccination coverage (CTVC), defined as any user who received the complete primary series of three adult doses of T or Td and/or up-to-date 10-yearly booster doses, with an official record thereof, among ..
  66. Mertsola J, Van Der Meeren O, He Q, Linko Parvinen A, Ramakrishnan G, Mannermaa L, et al. Decennial administration of a reduced antigen content diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine in young adults. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;51:656-62 pubmed publisher
    Booster vaccination against tetanus and diphtheria at 10-year intervals is commonly recommended...
  67. Uddin M, Grosse Brinkhaus C, Cinar M, Jonas E, Tesfaye D, Tholen E, et al. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for mycoplasma and tetanus antibodies and interferon-gamma in a porcine F(2) Duroc x Pietrain resource population. Mamm Genome. 2010;21:409-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Antibodies response to Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and tetanus toxoid vaccine and the interferon-gamma (IFNG) serum concentration were measured at three different time points ..