botulism

Summary

Summary: A disease caused by potent protein NEUROTOXINS produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM which interfere with the presynaptic release of ACETYLCHOLINE at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Clinical features include abdominal pain, vomiting, acute PARALYSIS (including respiratory paralysis), blurred vision, and DIPLOPIA. Botulism may be classified into several subtypes (e.g., food-borne, infant, wound, and others). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1208)

Top Publications

  1. Cai S, Singh B. Strategies to design inhibitors of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins. Infect Disord Drug Targets. 2007;7:47-57 pubmed
    ..They cause the life-threatening disease botulism, characterized by flaccid muscle paralysis...
  2. Skarin H, Lindberg A, Blomqvist G, Aspan A, Båverud V. Molecular characterization and comparison of Clostridium botulinum type C avian strains. Avian Pathol. 2010;39:511-8 pubmed publisher
    Type C botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT/C)-producing Clostridium botulinum causes animal botulism worldwide and has become a serious problem in poultry flocks and waterfowl in Sweden...
  3. Pier C, Tepp W, Bradshaw M, Johnson E, Barbieri J, Baldwin M. Recombinant holotoxoid vaccine against botulism. Infect Immun. 2008;76:437-42 pubmed
    ..quot; The current vaccine against botulism is in limited supply, and there is a need to develop new vaccine strategies...
  4. Lee J, Hwang H, Sakaguchi Y, Yamamoto Y, Arimitsu H, Tsuji T, et al. C terminal half fragment (50 kDa) of heavy chain components of Clostridium botulinum type C and D neurotoxins can be used as an effective vaccine. Microbiol Immunol. 2007;51:445-55 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that recombinant GST-fused Hc can be used as a safe and effective vaccine for type C and D botulism in animals...
  5. Payne J, Hogg R, Otter A, Roest H, Livesey C. Emergence of suspected type D botulism in ruminants in England and Wales (2001 to 2009), associated with exposure to broiler litter. Vet Rec. 2011;168:640 pubmed publisher
    Scanning surveillance by the Veterinary Laboratories Agency revealed the emergence of suspected botulism in ruminants in 2003, presented as flaccid paralysis...
  6. Mahajan S, Brubaker L. Botulinum toxin: from life-threatening disease to novel medical therapy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2007;196:7-15 pubmed
    ..The toxin has evolved from a cause of fatal disease into the newest neuropharmacologic medical therapy. ..
  7. Boldt G, Kennedy J, Janda K. Identification of a potent botulinum neurotoxin a protease inhibitor using in situ lead identification chemistry. Org Lett. 2006;8:1729-32 pubmed
    reaction: see text] Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), etiological agents of the deadly food poisoning disease botulism, are the most toxic proteins currently known...
  8. Nishiura H. Incubation period as a clinical predictor of botulism: analysis of previous izushi-borne outbreaks in Hokkaido, Japan, from 1951 to 1965. Epidemiol Infect. 2007;135:126-30 pubmed
    This study investigated 21 foodborne type-E botulism outbreaks, without antitoxin administration, from 1951 to 1965 in Hokkaido, Japan, to characterize the descriptive epidemiology and evaluate the relationship between case fatality and ..
  9. Akbulut D, Grant K, McLauchlin J. Development and application of Real-Time PCR assays to detect fragments of the Clostridium botulinum types A, B, and E neurotoxin genes for investigation of human foodborne and infant botulism. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2004;1:247-57 pubmed
    ..as well as from inoculated broths using material collected from seven confirmed and one suspected case of botulism. The appropriate BoNT genes were detected in material from seven of the eight cases of botulism and provided a ..

More Information

Publications87

  1. Peck M, Stringer S, Carter A. Clostridium botulinum in the post-genomic era. Food Microbiol. 2011;28:183-91 pubmed publisher
    Foodborne botulism is a severe neuroparalytic disease caused by consumption of botulinum neurotoxin formed by strains of proteolytic Clostridium botulinum and non-proteolytic C. botulinum during their growth in food...
  2. Arnon S, Schechter R, Maslanka S, Jewell N, Hatheway C. Human botulism immune globulin for the treatment of infant botulism. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:462-71 pubmed
    We created the orphan drug Human Botulism Immune Globulin Intravenous (Human) (BIG-IV), which neutralizes botulinum toxin, and evaluated its safety and efficacy in treating infant botulism, the intestinal-toxemia form of human botulism...
  3. Spiegelman J, Cescon D, Friedman Y, Mazza B, Austin J, Rachlis A, et al. Bowel loops and eyelid droops. CMAJ. 2008;179:927-9 pubmed publisher
    A patient presented with a small-bowel obstruction associated with signs and symptoms of botulism. Fecal cultures were positive for viable Clostridium botulinum...
  4. Preuss S, Veelken F, Galldiks N, Klussmann J, Neugebauer P, Nolden Hoverath S, et al. A rare differential diagnosis in dysphagia: wound botulism. Laryngoscope. 2006;116:831-2 pubmed
    The incidence of wound botulism is increasing dramatically among intravenous drug users. Efficient intensive care and early treatment with antitoxin is essential to avoid lethal courses...
  5. Arriagada S D, Wilhelm B J, Donoso F A. [Infant botulism: case report and review]. Rev Chilena Infectol. 2009;26:162-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Botulism is a rare disease in Chile and of the known clinical presentation, infant botulism is the most common...
  6. Yuki Y, Nochi T, Harada N, Katakai Y, Shibata H, Mejima M, et al. In vivo molecular imaging analysis of a nasal vaccine that induces protective immunity against botulism in nonhuman primates. J Immunol. 2010;185:5436-43 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we performed real-time quantitative tracking of a nasal vaccine candidate for botulism, which is a nontoxic subunit fragment of Clostridium botulinum type A neurotoxin (BoHc/A) effective in the ..
  7. Abe Y, Negasawa T, Monma C, Oka A. Infantile botulism caused by Clostridium butyricum type E toxin. Pediatr Neurol. 2008;38:55-7 pubmed
    The case of a 9-month-old boy with infantile botulism caused by Clostridium butyricum type E toxin is reported. Because infantile botulism is rare in Japan, it was difficult to diagnose it at an early stage...
  8. Arnon S. Creation and development of the public service orphan drug Human Botulism Immune Globulin. Pediatrics. 2007;119:785-9 pubmed
    The public service orphan drug Human Botulism Immune Globulin for the treatment of infant botulism would not have come into existence without the federal Orphan Drug Act and the funding mechanism that it provided to conduct pivotal ..
  9. Harper C, Martin S, Nguyen T, Daniels S, Lavidis N, Popoff M, et al. Dynamin inhibition blocks botulinum neurotoxin type A endocytosis in neurons and delays botulism. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:35966-76 pubmed publisher
    The botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are di-chain bacterial proteins responsible for the paralytic disease botulism. Following binding to the plasma membrane of cholinergic motor nerve terminals, BoNTs are internalized into an endocytic ..
  10. Koepke R, Sobel J, Arnon S. Global occurrence of infant botulism, 1976-2006. Pediatrics. 2008;122:e73-82 pubmed publisher
    To summarize the worldwide occurrence of reported infant (intestinal toxemia) botulism cases since first recognition of the disease in 1976...
  11. Hannett G, Stone W, Davis S, Wroblewski D. Biodiversity of Clostridium botulinum type E associated with a large outbreak of botulism in wildlife from Lake Erie and Lake Ontario. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:1061-8 pubmed publisher
    The genetic relatedness of Clostridium botulinum type E isolates associated with an outbreak of wildlife botulism was studied using random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD)...
  12. Krüger M, Große Herrenthey A, Schrödl W, Gerlach A, Rodloff A. Visceral botulism at dairy farms in Schleswig Holstein, Germany: prevalence of Clostridium botulinum in feces of cows, in animal feeds, in feces of the farmers, and in house dust. Anaerobe. 2012;18:221-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Four of the humans under study (one child, 8 month, and three adults) showed symptoms of infant/visceral botulism. Specimens were cultivated in reinforced clostridial medium (RCM). C. botulinum antigens were detected by ELISA...
  13. Juliao P, Maslanka S, Dykes J, Gaul L, Bagdure S, Granzow Kibiger L, et al. National outbreak of type a foodborne botulism associated with a widely distributed commercially canned hot dog chili sauce. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;56:376-82 pubmed publisher
    ..11 July 2007, health officials in Texas and Indiana, respectively, reported 4 possible cases of type A foodborne botulism to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...
  14. Shi Y, Li M. Biological effects of toosendanin, a triterpenoid extracted from Chinese traditional medicine. Prog Neurobiol. 2007;82:1-10 pubmed
    ..The TSN-induced [Ca(2+)](i) increase and overload could be responsible for the TSN-induced biphasic effect on transmitter release, cell differentiation, apoptosis as well as the cytoxicity of TSN. ..
  15. Partikian A, Mitchell W. Iatrogenic botulism in a child with spastic quadriparesis. J Child Neurol. 2007;22:1235-7 pubmed
    ..The patient developed iatrogenic botulism with ptosis, facial diplegia, neck flexor and extensor weakness, and profound hypopharyngeal laxity with ..
  16. Jalava K, Selby K, Pihlajasaari A, Kolho E, Dahlsten E, Forss N, et al. Two cases of food-borne botulism in Finland caused by conserved olives, October 2011. Euro Surveill. 2011;16:20034 pubmed
    In October 2011 in Finland, two persons fell ill with symptoms compatible with botulism after having eaten conserved olives stuffed with almonds. One of these two died...
  17. Cai S, Singh B, Sharma S. Botulism diagnostics: from clinical symptoms to in vitro assays. Crit Rev Microbiol. 2007;33:109-25 pubmed
    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), which cause the deadly neuroparalytic disease, botulism, is the most toxic substance known to man...
  18. Brook I. Infant botulism. J Perinatol. 2007;27:175-80 pubmed
    Infant botulism results from the absorption of heat-labile neurotoxin produced in situ by ingested Clostridium botulinum. Honey and environmental exposure are the main sources of acquisition of the organism...
  19. Penas S, Faria O, Serrão R, Capao Filipe J, Mota Miranda A, Falcao Reis F. Ophthalmic manifestations in 18 patients with botulism diagnosed in Porto, Portugal between 1998 and 2003. J Neuroophthalmol. 2005;25:262-7 pubmed
    b>Botulism is a rare but potentially lethal disease in which ophthalmic signs and symptoms are among the very earliest manifestations...
  20. Work T, Klavitter J, Reynolds M, Blehert D. Avian botulism: a case study in translocated endangered Laysan Ducks (Anas laysanensis) on Midway Atoll. J Wildl Dis. 2010;46:499-506 pubmed
    ..In August 2008, mortality due to botulism type C was identified, and 181 adult, fledgling, and duckling carcasses were collected from August to October...
  21. Hakami R, Ruthel G, Stahl A, Bavari S. Gaining ground: assays for therapeutics against botulinum neurotoxin. Trends Microbiol. 2010;18:164-72 pubmed publisher
  22. Burnett J, Ruthel G, Stegmann C, Panchal R, Nguyen T, Hermone A, et al. Inhibition of metalloprotease botulinum serotype A from a pseudo-peptide binding mode to a small molecule that is active in primary neurons. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:5004-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Isothermal titration calorimetry showed that the interaction between NSC 240898 and the botulinum A light chain is largely entropy-driven, and occurs with a 1:1 stoichiometry and a dissociation constant of 4.6 microM...
  23. Thanongsaksrikul J, Chaicumpa W. Botulinum neurotoxins and botulism: a novel therapeutic approach. Toxins (Basel). 2011;3:469-88 pubmed publisher
    Specific treatment is not available for human botulism. Current remedial mainstay is the passive administration of polyclonal antibody to botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) derived from heterologous species (immunized animal or mouse hybridoma) ..
  24. Ghasemi M, Norouzi R, Salari M, Asadi B. Iatrogenic botulism after the therapeutic use of botulinum toxin-A: a case report and review of the literature. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2012;35:254-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We report 2 cases of primary hyperhidrosis who developed iatrogenic botulism after the therapeutic dose of onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox)...
  25. Reller M, Douce R, Maslanka S, Torres D, Manock S, Sobel J. Wound botulism acquired in the Amazonian rain forest of Ecuador. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006;74:628-31 pubmed
    Wound botulism results from colonization of a contaminated wound by Clostridium botulinum and the anaerobic in situ production of a potent neurotoxin...
  26. Leclair D, Pagotto F, Farber J, Cadieux B, Austin J. Comparison of DNA fingerprinting methods for use in investigation of type E botulism outbreaks in the Canadian Arctic. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:1635-44 pubmed
    ..for epidemiological typing of Clostridium botulinum type E using clinical and food isolates associated with four botulism outbreaks occurring in the Canadian Arctic...
  27. Webb R, Smith T, Wright P, Brown J, Smith L. Production of catalytically inactive BoNT/A1 holoprotein and comparison with BoNT/A1 subunit vaccines against toxin subtypes A1, A2, and A3. Vaccine. 2009;27:4490-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Differences in protective immunity diminished after multiple vaccinations with either ciBoNT/A1 HP or BoNT/A1 H(c), and the survival rates were more comparable at the toxin levels used to challenge...
  28. McLauchlin J, Grant K, Little C. Food-borne botulism in the United Kingdom. J Public Health (Oxf). 2006;28:337-42 pubmed
    Food-borne botulism is a rare but serious disease caused by ingestions of neurotoxin [botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs)] produced as a result of the growth of the bacterium Clostridium botulinum in foods before consumption...
  29. Crowner B, Brunstrom J, Racette B. Iatrogenic botulism due to therapeutic botulinum toxin a injection in a pediatric patient. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007;30:310-3 pubmed
    ..We report a pediatric patient who developed systemic botulism as a result of a severe overdose of the injected toxin (40 U/kg)...
  30. Pang Y, Vummenthala A, Mishra R, Park J, Wang S, Davis J, et al. Potent new small-molecule inhibitor of botulinum neurotoxin serotype A endopeptidase developed by synthesis-based computer-aided molecular design. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7730 pubmed publisher
    Botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNTA) causes a life-threatening neuroparalytic disease known as botulism. Current treatment for post exposure of BoNTA uses antibodies that are effective in neutralizing the extracellular toxin to prevent ..
  31. Bianco M, Luquez C, de Jong L, Fernández R. Presence of Clostridium botulinum spores in Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile) and its relationship with infant botulism. Int J Food Microbiol. 2008;121:357-60 pubmed
    Nowadays, infant botulism is the most important form of human botulism in some countries. This illness affects infants younger than 52 weeks of age...
  32. Smith L, Rusnak J. Botulinum neurotoxin vaccines: past, present, and future. Crit Rev Immunol. 2007;27:303-18 pubmed
    ..the past decade, recombinant DNA technology has been employed to develop second-generation vaccines to prevent botulism. Recombinant subunit vaccines utilizing the receptor-binding domains of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) have been ..
  33. van der Vorst M, Jamal W, Rotimi V, Moosa A. Infant botulism due to consumption of contaminated commercially prepared honey. First report from the Arabian Gulf States. Med Princ Pract. 2006;15:456-8 pubmed
    To report the first case of infant botulism in Arabian Gulf States.
  34. Sobel J, Dill T, Kirkpatrick C, Riek L, Luedtke P, Damrow T. Clinical recovery and circulating botulinum toxin type F in adult patient. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:969-71 pubmed publisher
    ..On day 8, she began moving spontaneously, even though blood tests later showed botulinum toxin type F remained...
  35. Shone C, Agostini H, Clancy J, Gu M, Yang H, Chu Y, et al. Bivalent recombinant vaccine for botulinum neurotoxin types A and B based on a polypeptide comprising their effector and translocation domains that is protective against the predominant A and B subtypes. Infect Immun. 2009;77:2795-801 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, LH(N)/B provided single-dose protection in mice against BoNT/B(4) (nonproteolytic toxin subtype)...
  36. Carter A, Paul C, Mason D, Twine S, Alston M, Logan S, et al. Independent evolution of neurotoxin and flagellar genetic loci in proteolytic Clostridium botulinum. BMC Genomics. 2009;10:115 pubmed publisher
    Proteolytic Clostridium botulinum is the causative agent of botulism, a severe neuroparalytic illness. Given the severity of botulism, surprisingly little is known of the population structure, biology, phylogeny or evolution of C...
  37. Macdonald T, Helma C, Shou Y, Valdez Y, Ticknor L, Foley B, et al. Analysis of Clostridium botulinum serotype E strains by using multilocus sequence typing, amplified fragment length polymorphism, variable-number tandem-repeat analysis, and botulinum neurotoxin gene sequencing. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:8625-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The strains, representing environmental, food-borne, and infant botulism samples collected from 1932 to 2007, were analyzed to compare serotype E strains from different geographic ..
  38. Webb R, Smith T, Wright P, Montgomery V, Meagher M, Smith L. Protection with recombinant Clostridium botulinum C1 and D binding domain subunit (Hc) vaccines against C and D neurotoxins. Vaccine. 2007;25:4273-82 pubmed
  39. Kalb S, Lou J, Garcia Rodriguez C, Geren I, Smith T, Moura H, et al. Extraction and inhibition of enzymatic activity of botulinum neurotoxins/A1, /A2, and /A3 by a panel of monoclonal anti-BoNT/A antibodies. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5355 pubmed publisher
    ..The mAbs binding the C-terminal portion of the BoNT/A heavy chain had optimal properties for use in the Endopep-MS assay...
  40. Takeda M, Kasai H, Torii Y, Mukamoto M, Kohda T, Tsukamoto K, et al. Protective effect of botulinum C/D mosaic toxoid against avian botulism. J Vet Med Sci. 2006;68:325-30 pubmed
    Avian botulism is a paralytic disease caused by a toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum type C...
  41. Boles J, West M, Montgomery V, Tammariello R, Pitt M, Gibbs P, et al. Recombinant C fragment of botulinum neurotoxin B serotype (rBoNTB (HC)) immune response and protection in the rhesus monkey. Toxicon. 2006;47:877-84 pubmed
    ..from the toxin and no clinical signs of disease were observed, while controls displaying classic signs of botulism succumbed to the toxin challenge...
  42. Horowitz B. Type E botulism. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2010;48:880-95 pubmed publisher
    There are seven known serotypes of botulism, designated A through G; almost all human cases of botulism are caused by types A, B, and E. Botulism type E is the predominant serotype causing disease associated with native Arctic foods...
  43. Glik D, Drury A, Cavanaugh C, Shoaf K. What not to say: risk communication for botulism. Biosecur Bioterror. 2008;6:93-107 pubmed publisher
    This formative research study used qualitative methods to test the suitability of messages about botulism for the general public...
  44. Karalewitz A, Barbieri J. Vaccines against botulism. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2012;15:317-24 pubmed publisher
    ..While chemically inactive TeNT toxoid remains an effect vaccine, the current pentavalent vaccine against botulism is in limited supply...
  45. Gupta A, Sumner C, Castor M, Maslanka S, Sobel J. Adult botulism type F in the United States, 1981-2002. Neurology. 2005;65:1694-700 pubmed
    Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin types A, B, and E cause most cases of the paralytic disease botulism. Little is known about the epidemiology, clinical features, or microbiology of botulism type F.
  46. Sanford D, Barnewall R, Vassar M, Niemuth N, Metcalfe K, House R, et al. Inhalational botulism in rhesus macaques exposed to botulinum neurotoxin complex serotypes A1 and B1. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010;17:1293-304 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical observations were consistent with the recognized pattern of botulism disease progression...
  47. . Investigational heptavalent botulinum antitoxin (HBAT) to replace licensed botulinum antitoxin AB and investigational botulinum antitoxin E. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010;59:299 pubmed
    ..As of March 13, 2010, HBAT became the only botulinum antitoxin available in the United States for naturally occurring noninfant botulism.
  48. Sobel J. Botulism. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;41:1167-73 pubmed
    b>Botulism is a rare disease with 4 naturally occurring syndromes: foodborne botulism is caused by ingestion of foods contaminated with botulinum toxin, wound botulism is caused by Clostridium botulinum colonization of a wound and in situ ..
  49. Luquez C, Dykes J, Yu P, Raphael B, Maslanka S. First report worldwide of an infant botulism case due to Clostridium botulinum type E. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:326-8 pubmed publisher
    Clostridium botulinum type E has been associated with botulism in adults but never in infants. Infant botulism type E cases have been associated with neurotoxigenic strains of C. butyricum...
  50. Carter A, Pearson B, Crossman L, Drou N, Heavens D, Baker D, et al. Complete genome sequence of the proteolytic Clostridium botulinum type A5 (B3') strain H04402 065. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:2351-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report the complete 3.9-Mb genome sequence and annotation of strain H04402 065, which was isolated from a botulism patient in the United Kingdom in 2004.
  51. Zhang P, Ray R, Singh B, Li D, Adler M, Ray P. An efficient drug delivery vehicle for botulism countermeasure. BMC Pharmacol. 2009;9:12 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report a drug delivery strategy that could directly deliver toxin inhibitors into the intoxicated nerve terminal cytosol...
  52. Baldwin M, Tepp W, Przedpelski A, Pier C, Bradshaw M, Johnson E, et al. Subunit vaccine against the seven serotypes of botulism. Infect Immun. 2008;76:1314-8 pubmed
    ..This is the first E. coli-derived vaccine that effectively neutralizes each of the seven BoNT serotypes...
  53. Smith L. Botulism and vaccines for its prevention. Vaccine. 2009;27 Suppl 4:D33-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Botulism is a severe neuroparalytic disease caused by toxins produced by several Clostridium species...
  54. Sebaihia M, Peck M, Minton N, Thomson N, Holden M, Mitchell W, et al. Genome sequence of a proteolytic (Group I) Clostridium botulinum strain Hall A and comparative analysis of the clostridial genomes. Genome Res. 2007;17:1082-92 pubmed
    ..the ability to produce botulinum neurotoxin, the most poisonous toxin known to man, and the causative agent of botulism, a severe disease of humans and animals...
  55. Sheppard Y, Middleton D, Whitfield Y, Tyndel F, Haider S, Spiegelman J, et al. Intestinal toxemia botulism in 3 adults, Ontario, Canada, 2006-2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:1-6 pubmed publisher
    Five cases of intestinal toxemia botulism in adults were identified within an 18-month period in or near Toronto, Ontario, Canada. We describe findings for 3 of the 5 case-patients...
  56. Henkel J, Tepp W, Przedpelski A, Fritz R, Johnson E, Barbieri J. Subunit vaccine efficacy against Botulinum neurotoxin subtypes. Vaccine. 2011;29:7688-95 pubmed publisher
    ..These results may provide a reference for the development of pan-BoNT vaccines...
  57. Filozov A, Kattan J, Jitendranath L, Smith C, Luquez C, Phan Q, et al. Asymmetric type F botulism with cranial nerve demyelination. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:102-4 pubmed publisher
    We report a case of type F botulism in a patient with bilateral but asymmetric neurologic deficits. Cranial nerve demyelination was found during autopsy. Bilateral, asymmetric clinical signs, although rare, do not rule out botulism...
  58. Vugia D, Mase S, Cole B, Stiles J, Rosenberg J, Velasquez L, et al. Botulism from drinking pruno. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:69-71 pubmed publisher
    Foodborne botulism occurred among inmates at 2 prisons in California in 2004 and 2005. In the first outbreak, 4 inmates were hospitalized, 2 of whom required intubation. In the second event, 1 inmate required intubation...
  59. Ostrowski S, Kubiski S, Palmero J, Reilly C, Higgins J, Cook Cronin S, et al. An outbreak of equine botulism type A associated with feeding grass clippings. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2012;24:601-3 pubmed publisher
    In September 2010, an outbreak of type A botulism involved 4 horses in northern California that were fed grass clippings obtained from a nearby park...
  60. Williams J, Bester L, Venter L, Pretorius D, Greyling F. Barbiturate ingestion in three adult captive tigers (Panthera tigris) and concomitant fatal botulism of one. J S Afr Vet Assoc. 2011;82:244-9 pubmed
    ..b>Botulism is an often fatal intoxication in man, animals, birds and certain fish...
  61. Barash J, Tang T, Arnon S. First case of infant botulism caused by Clostridium baratii type F in California. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:4280-2 pubmed
    In late 2003 a severely hypotonic neonate, just 38 h old at onset of illness, was found to have infant botulism caused by neurotoxigenic Clostridium baratii type F. Environmental investigations failed to identify a source of this strain...
  62. Nakamura K, Kohda T, Umeda K, Yamamoto H, Mukamoto M, Kozaki S. Characterization of the D/C mosaic neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum associated with bovine botulism in Japan. Vet Microbiol. 2010;140:147-54 pubmed publisher
    Clostridium botulinum types C and D are related to avian and mammalian botulism. Bovine botulism occurred at various farms from 2004 to 2007 in Japan...
  63. Takeda M, Tsukamoto K, Kohda T, Matsui M, Mukamoto M, Kozaki S. Characterization of the neurotoxin produced by isolates associated with avian botulism. Avian Dis. 2005;49:376-81 pubmed
    Several varieties of birds are affected by type C botulism. We conducted neutralization tests of culture supernatants of isolates from cases of avian botulism...
  64. Villar R, Elliott S, Davenport K. Botulism: the many faces of botulinum toxin and its potential for bioterrorism. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2006;20:313-27, ix pubmed
  65. Peck M. Clostridium botulinum and the safety of minimally heated, chilled foods: an emerging issue?. J Appl Microbiol. 2006;101:556-70 pubmed
    Foodborne botulism is caused by consumption of preformed botulinum neurotoxin, with as little as 30 ng of neurotoxin being potentially lethal. Consumption of minute quantities of neurotoxin-containing food can result in botulism...
  66. Zeng M, Xu Q, Elias M, Pichichero M, Simpson L, Smith L. Protective immunity against botulism provided by a single dose vaccination with an adenovirus-vectored vaccine. Vaccine. 2007;25:7540-8 pubmed
    Botulinum neurotoxins cause botulism, a neuroparalytic disease in humans and animals...
  67. Yu Y, Zhang S, Sun Z, Wang S, Yu W. Enhanced immune responses using plasmid DNA replicon vaccine encoding the Hc domain of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin serotype A. Vaccine. 2007;25:8843-50 pubmed
    ..botulinum neurotoxin serotype A...
  68. Umeda K, Seto Y, Kohda T, Mukamoto M, Kozaki S. Genetic characterization of Clostridium botulinum associated with type B infant botulism in Japan. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:2720-8 pubmed publisher
    The 15 proteolytic Clostridium botulinum type B strains, including 3 isolates associated with infant botulism in Japan, were genetically characterized by phylogenetic analysis of boNT/B gene sequences, genotyping, and determination of the ..
  69. Peck M. Biology and genomic analysis of Clostridium botulinum. Adv Microb Physiol. 2009;55:183-265, 320 pubmed publisher
    ..neurotoxin is the most potent toxin known, with as little as 30-100 ng potentially fatal, and is responsible for botulism, a severe neuroparalytic disease that affects humans, animals, and birds...
  70. Raphael B, Joseph L, McCroskey L, Luquez C, Maslanka S. Detection and differentiation of Clostridium botulinum type A strains using a focused DNA microarray. Mol Cell Probes. 2010;24:146-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Eight pairs of strains selected from separate type A botulism outbreaks were included in the 27 subtype A1-A4 strains examined in this study...
  71. Stanker L, Merrill P, Scotcher M, Cheng L. Development and partial characterization of high-affinity monoclonal antibodies for botulinum toxin type A and their use in analysis of milk by sandwich ELISA. J Immunol Methods. 2008;336:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..While botulism is rare in the U.S. it often is fatal if not treated quickly, and recovery is long, requiring intensive treatment...
  72. Sobel J, Malavet M, John S. Outbreak of clinically mild botulism type E illness from home-salted fish in patients presenting with predominantly gastrointestinal symptoms. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45:e14-6 pubmed
    ..Remnant fish tested positive for botulinum toxin type E. In patients exposed to low doses of botulinum toxin type E, gastrointestinal symptoms may predominate...
  73. Galldiks N, Nolden Hoverath S, Kosinski C, Stegelmeyer U, Schmidt S, Dohmen C, et al. Rapid geographical clustering of wound botulism in Germany after subcutaneous and intramuscular injection of heroin. Neurocrit Care. 2007;6:30-4 pubmed
    ..a rapid geographical clustering of cases in Germany in a region between Cologne, Bonn, and Aachen with wound botulism and consecutive systemic C...
  74. Morrison G, Lang C, Huda S. Botulism in a pregnant intravenous drug abuser. Anaesthesia. 2006;61:57-60 pubmed
    A case of botulism is reported in a heroin-abusing parturient who initially presented with lethargy and slurred speech...
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    In two outbreaks of food-borne botulism in France, Clostridium botulinum type A was isolated and characterized from incriminated foods...
  76. Webb R, Smith L. What next for botulism vaccine development?. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2013;12:481-92 pubmed publisher
    b>Botulism is a severe neuroparalytic disease caused by the toxins produced from several Clostridium species...
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    ..recombinant protein was as efficacious as polyclonal antiserum in a clinically-relevant mouse model of botulism. This strategy should have widespread application in antitoxin development and other therapies in which ..
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    ..chain C-fragment (H(C)50) of botulinum neurotoxin type C (BoNT/C) was evaluated as a mucosal vaccine against botulism in a mouse model...