chlamydophila infections

Summary

Summary: Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDOPHILA.

Top Publications

  1. McCauley L, Lancaster M, Young P, Butler K, Ainsworth C. Comparison of ELISA and CFT assays for Chlamydophila abortus antibodies in ovine sera. Aust Vet J. 2007;85:325-8 pubmed
    ..To compare the sensitivity and specificity of Chlamydophila abortus antibody assays, to find a suitable serological assay for testing sheep for export...
  2. Kurz H, Göpfrich H, Wabnegger L, Apfalter P. Role of Chlamydophila pneumoniae in children hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia in Vienna, Austria. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2009;44:873-6 pubmed publisher
    ..pneumoniae) as causative agent in youths and children hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). These data would serve as a rationale for empiric antimicrobial therapy...
  3. Yetkin G. Chlamydia pneumoniae and coronary artery disease: controversial results of serological studies. Int Immunopharmacol. 2006;6:1524-5 pubmed
    ..pneumoniae by using both ELISA and MIF method. There are several factors which may underly the controversial results of seroepidemiological studies. I have commented on the report of Carratelli et al. regarding some of these factors...
  4. Frikha Gargouri O, Znazen A, Gdoura R, Gargouri B, Arab N, Jemaa M, et al. Usefulness of enzyme linked immunosorbent assays species specific in the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydophila pneumoniae IgG antibodies in patients with genital infections or respiratory tract infections. Pathol Biol (Paris). 2008;56:143-7 pubmed publisher
    ..SeroCT was highly specific and could diminish considerably the extent of cross-reactions. Whilst, SeroCP test was not specific enough to distinguish between the presence of IgG antibodies and Cpn or Ct...
  5. Borel N, Pospischil A, Dowling R, Dumrese C, Gaydos C, Bunk S, et al. Antigens of persistent Chlamydia pneumoniae within coronary atheroma from patients undergoing heart transplantation. J Clin Pathol. 2012;65:171-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Current theory suggests that C pneumoniae may persist at the site of infection via an alternative replicative form, known as an aberrant body...
  6. Prakash H, Albrecht M, Becker D, Kuhlmann T, Rudel T. Deficiency of XIAP leads to sensitization for Chlamydophila pneumoniae pulmonary infection and dysregulation of innate immune response in mice. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:20291-302 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrated a role of XIAP for the integrity of both innate and cellular immune responses during C. pneumoniae infection...
  7. Greco G, Corrente M, Buonavoglia D, Campanile G, Di Palo R, Martella V, et al. Epizootic abortion related to infections by Chlamydophila abortus and Chlamydophila pecorum in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Theriogenology. 2008;69:1061-9 pubmed publisher
    ..in water buffalo (B. Bubalis) herds...
  8. Schöier J, Högdahl M, Söderlund G, Kihlström E. Chlamydia (Chlamydophila) pneumoniae-induced cell death in human coronary artery endothelial cells is caspase-independent and accompanied by subcellular translocations of Bax and apoptosis-inducing factor. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2006;47:207-16 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that C. pneumoniae-induced apoptosis in human coronary artery endothelial cells is caspase-independent and regulated by Bax and apoptosis-inducing factor...
  9. Hahn D, Peeling R. Airflow limitation, asthma, and Chlamydia pneumoniae-specific heat shock protein 60. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2008;101:614-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The pathogenesis of C trachomatis disease associations is thought to include molecular mimicry (autoimmunity), direct activation of the innate immune response via the CD14/toll-like receptor 4 complex, or both...

More Information

Publications70

  1. Kumar S, Hammerschlag M. Acute respiratory infection due to Chlamydia pneumoniae: current status of diagnostic methods. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44:568-76 pubmed
    ..Adoption of a more unified approach, both for choices of diagnostic methods and for validation of new molecular assays, is long overdue and will be critically important for development of a standardized test for clinical laboratories...
  2. Contini C, Seraceni S, Castellazzi M, Granieri E, Fainardi E. Chlamydophila pneumoniae DNA and mRNA transcript levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis. Neurosci Res. 2008;62:58-61 pubmed publisher
    ..These preliminary findings suggest that C. pneumoniae may occur in a persistent and metabolically active state at both peripheral and intrathecal levels in MS, but not in OIND and NIND...
  3. Kaltenboeck B, Heinen E, Schneider R, Wittenbrink M, Schmeer N. OmpA and antigenic diversity of bovine Chlamydophila pecorum strains. Vet Microbiol. 2009;135:175-80 pubmed publisher
    ..pecorum OmpA proteins in a host species can occupy the entire evolutionary bandwidth within C. pecorum. The variant immunoblot reactivities support the notion of considerable genomic plasticity of C. pecorum...
  4. Mitchell C, Mathews S, Theodoropoulos C, Timms P. In vitro characterisation of koala Chlamydia pneumoniae: morphology, inclusion development and doubling time. Vet Microbiol. 2009;136:91-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings have provided new insights and identified key differences in the in vitro doubling time, size and morphology of an animal C. pneumoniae isolate...
  5. Sachse K, Vretou E, Livingstone M, Borel N, Pospischil A, Longbottom D. Recent developments in the laboratory diagnosis of chlamydial infections. Vet Microbiol. 2009;135:2-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, a combination of a specific real-time PCR assay and a microarray test for chlamydiae is proposed as an alternative reference standard to isolation by cell culture...
  6. Hvidsten D, Halvorsen D, Berdal B, Gutteberg T. Chlamydophila pneumoniae diagnostics: importance of methodology in relation to timing of sampling. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2009;15:42-9 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of these findings, a combination of nasopharyngeal swabbing for PCR detection and specific single-serum IgM measurement is recommended in cases of acute respiratory C. pneumoniae infection...
  7. Burillo A, Bouza E. Chlamydophila pneumoniae. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2010;24:61-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Meanwhile, adequate prospective studies have met with ethical and logistic barriers. Despite these limitations, North American guidelines recommend the antimicrobial treatment of patients with acute C pneumoniae respiratory infection...
  8. Droemann D, Rupp J, Goldmann T, Uhlig U, Branscheid D, Vollmer E, et al. Disparate innate immune responses to persistent and acute Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2007;175:791-7 pubmed
    ..Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn) infection may play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Few data are available comparing persistent and acute infection of this pathogen in the human respiratory tract...
  9. Cortes C, Rzomp K, Tvinnereim A, Scidmore M, Wizel B. Chlamydia pneumoniae inclusion membrane protein Cpn0585 interacts with multiple Rab GTPases. Infect Immun. 2007;75:5586-96 pubmed
    ..pneumoniae inclusion for chlamydial replication...
  10. Borel N, Summersgill J, Mukhopadhyay S, Miller R, Ramirez J, Pospischil A. Evidence for persistent Chlamydia pneumoniae infection of human coronary atheromas. Atherosclerosis. 2008;199:154-61 pubmed
    ..In the current study, we demonstrated the presence of aberrant bodies of C. pneumoniae in vivo in archival coronary atheromatous heart tissues by the immunogold electron microscopy technique...
  11. Blasi F, Aliberti S, Allegra L, Piatti G, Tarsia P, Ossewaarde J, et al. Chlamydophila pneumoniae induces a sustained airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation in mice. Respir Res. 2007;8:83 pubmed
    ..pneumoniae is involved in the initiation and promotion of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Surprisingly, the effect of C. pneumoniae on airway function has never been investigated...
  12. Di Francesco A, Donati M, Mattioli L, Naldi M, Salvatore D, Poglayen G, et al. Chlamydophila pneumoniae in horses: a seroepidemiological survey in Italy. New Microbiol. 2006;29:303-5 pubmed
    ..No antibody titre > or = 32 was detected in sera to C. abortus. Only few sera with a high antibody titre to C. pneumoniae reacted weakly with C. psittaci at the dilution of 1:32...
  13. Cao F, Castrillo A, Tontonoz P, Re F, Byrne G. Chlamydia pneumoniae--induced macrophage foam cell formation is mediated by Toll-like receptor 2. Infect Immun. 2007;75:753-9 pubmed
    ..pneumoniae, Pam, and E. coli LPS). Overall, our results suggest that activation of the LXR signaling pathway may affect potentially atherogenic processes modulated by the TLR ligands...
  14. Herrmann M, Schuhmacher A, Mühldorfer I, Melchers K, Prothmann C, Dammeier S. Identification and characterization of secreted effector proteins of Chlamydophila pneumoniae TW183. Res Microbiol. 2006;157:513-24 pubmed
    ..Here we report the putatively type III-dependent secretion of CpMip into the inclusion membrane as well as the effect of its inhibition on C. pneumoniae infection of HEp-2 cells...
  15. Chen C, Yang B, Lin T, Lee C, Hsiue T. Chronic and repeated Chlamydophila pneumoniae lung infection can result in increasing IL-4 gene expression and thickness of airway subepithelial basement membrane in mice. J Formos Med Assoc. 2009;108:45-52 pubmed publisher
    ..This study evaluated immune responses in the lung and airway pathology of BALB/c mice with chronic and repeated C. pneumoniae infections...
  16. Alavi S, Ahmadi F, Abeshtan A. Is Chlamydia pneumoniae seropositivity associated with atherothrombotic cerebrovascular infarction?. J Infect Public Health. 2009;2:96-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Since these studies have reported controversial results, we performed this study to identify whether Cp-immunoglobulin was associated with atherothrombotic cerebrovascular infarction (ACI) in Iranian patients...
  17. Fainardi E, Castellazzi M, Seraceni S, Granieri E, Contini C. Under the microscope: focus on Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and multiple sclerosis. Curr Neurovasc Res. 2008;5:60-70 pubmed
    ..pneumoniae could induce a chronic persistent brain infection acting as a cofactor in the development of the disease. Thus, the actual involvement of C. pneumoniae in MS still remains to be elucidated...
  18. Bossone E, Trimarchi S, Esposito G, Aliberti S, Citro R, Allegra L, et al. Chlamydia pneumoniae and acute aortic syndrome: a call for a multi-institutional study. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis. 2008;70:68-70 pubmed
    ..pneumoniae and acute aortic dissection. Well-designed large prospective studies are needed in order to clarify the pathophysiologic role of CP infection in acute and chronic aortic disease...
  19. Livingstone M, Wheelhouse N, Maley S, Longbottom D. Molecular detection of Chlamydophila abortus in post-abortion sheep at oestrus and subsequent lambing. Vet Microbiol. 2009;135:134-41 pubmed publisher
    ..In terms of flock management, the products of abortion should be considered the major and principal source of infection for transmission to naïve ewes...
  20. Loens K, Beck T, Ursi D, Overdijk M, Sillekens P, Goossens H, et al. Development of real-time multiplex nucleic acid sequence-based amplification for detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and Legionella spp. in respiratory specimens. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:185-91 pubmed
    ..pneumoniae, C. pneumoniae, and Legionella spp. in respiratory specimens, regarding handling, speed, and number of samples that can be analyzed in a single run...
  21. Tiszlavicz Z, Somogyvari F, Kocsis A, Szolnoki Z, Sztriha L, Kis Z, et al. Relevance of the genetic polymorphism of NOD1 in Chlamydia pneumoniae seropositive stroke patients. Eur J Neurol. 2009;16:1224-9 pubmed publisher
    ..NOD1 is a potent cytosolic receptor for C. pneumoniae. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic polymorphism of NOD1 from the aspect of the development of stroke...
  22. Nabipour I, Vahdat K, Jafari S, Amiri M, Shafeiae E, Riazi A, et al. Correlation of hyperhomocysteinaemia and Chlamydia pneumoniae IgG seropositivity with coronary artery disease in a general population. Heart Lung Circ. 2007;16:416-22 pubmed
    ..The correlation between hyperhomocysteinaemia, C. pneumoniae infection and coronary artery disease (CAD) have not been investigated in the general population...
  23. Kēniņa V, Auce P, Millers A. The relationship between seropositivity against Chlamydia pneumoniae and stroke and its subtypes in a Latvian population. Medicina (Kaunas). 2011;47:657-60 pubmed
    ..This study showed that IgG seropositivity to Chlamydia pneumoniae was associated with stroke and all the analyzed etiological subtypes of stroke. ..
  24. Jaeger J, Liebler Tenorio E, Kirschvink N, Sachse K, Reinhold P. A clinically silent respiratory infection with Chlamydophila spp. in calves is associated with airway obstruction and pulmonary inflammation. Vet Res. 2007;38:711-28 pubmed
    ..Data obtained in this study provide new insight illustrating the impact of nearly ubiquitous subclinical infections on the respiratory system...
  25. Alamowitch S, Labreuche J, Touboul P, Eb F, Amarenco P. Chlamydia pneumoniae seropositivity in aetiological subtypes of brain infarction and carotid atherosclerosis: a case control study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2008;79:147-51 pubmed
    ..We investigated Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in a large cohort of patients with BI according to aetiological subtypes and carotid atherosclerosis...
  26. Kis Z, Sas K, Gyulai Z, Treso B, Petrovay F, Kapusinszky B, et al. Chronic infections and genetic factors in the development of ischemic stroke. New Microbiol. 2007;30:213-20 pubmed
    ..These results are consistent with the hypothesis that certain pathogens are involved in the development of ischemic stroke...
  27. Gagliardi R, Caiaffa Filho H. Chlamydia pneumoniae and stroke: is there a direct relationship?. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2009;67:600-4 pubmed
    ..To investigate the possible relationship between atherothrombotic stroke and Chlamydia pneumoniae...
  28. Hasan Z. Association of Chlamydia pneumoniae serology and ischemic stroke. South Med J. 2011;104:319-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and ischemic stroke...
  29. Rizzo A, Domenico M, Carratelli C, Paolillo R. The role of Chlamydia and Chlamydophila infections in reactive arthritis. Intern Med. 2012;51:113-7 pubmed
  30. Godin A, Björkman C, Englund S, Johansson K, Niskanen R, Alenius S. Investigation of Chlamydophila spp. in dairy cows with reproductive disorders. Acta Vet Scand. 2008;50:39 pubmed publisher
    ..Reports worldwide indicate high prevalence of Chlamydophila spp. infection in cattle. To assess the prevalence in Sweden, 525 cows in 70 dairy herds with reproductive disorders was investigated...
  31. Lin T, Chen C, Wu H, Wang C, Chen Y, Eng H. The association of C (-260)-->T polymorphism in CD14 promoter and Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in ischemic stroke patients. Am J Clin Pathol. 2008;130:595-601 pubmed publisher
    ..3% vs 38.6%; P < .001). Our findings suggest that persistent C pneumoniae infection is independently associated with stroke in CC genotypes and the lowering of cHsp60 antibody levels in TT genotypes...
  32. Schröder N, Crother T, Naiki Y, Chen S, Wong M, Yilmaz A, et al. Innate immune responses during respiratory tract infection with a bacterial pathogen induce allergic airway sensitization. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;122:595-602.e5 pubmed publisher
    ..A mechanistic reconciliation of these findings has not yet emerged. In particular, the role of innate immunity in this context is unclear...
  33. Contini C, Seraceni S, Cultrera R, Castellazzi M, Granieri E, Fainardi E. Molecular detection of Parachlamydia-like organisms in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2008;14:564-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest a possible association between C. pneumoniae and Chlamydia-like organism brain infections as a cofactor in MS development...
  34. Nyström Rosander C, Edvinsson M, Thelin S, Hjelm E, Friman G. Chlamydophila pneumonia: Specific mRNA in aorta ascendens in patients undergoing coronary artery by-pass grafting. Scand J Infect Dis. 2006;38:758-63 pubmed
    ..Our findings of viable and metabolically active bacteria in aortic tissue add further support to the hypothesis that Cp may have an active role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis...
  35. Paldanius M, Juvonen R, Leinonen M, Bloigu A, Silvennoinen Kassinen S, Saikku P. Asthmatic persons are prone to the persistence of Chlamydia pneumoniae antibodies. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2007;59:117-22 pubmed
    ..Military recruits seem to be most vulnerable to C. pneumoniae infections during the period from January to June. The antibody titer changes were more rapid than previously thought...
  36. Shimada K, Chen S, Dempsey P, Sorrentino R, Alsabeh R, Slepenkin A, et al. The NOD/RIP2 pathway is essential for host defenses against Chlamydophila pneumoniae lung infection. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000379 pubmed publisher
    ..pneumoniae from the lungs and survival of the infectious challenge...
  37. Blasi F, Tarsia P, Aliberti S. Chlamydophila pneumoniae. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2009;15:29-35 pubmed publisher
    ..pneumoniae infection. New macrolides, ketolides and fluoroquinolones are other potentially effective drugs. This review analyses the most recent data concerning the involvement of C. pneumoniae in human diseases...
  38. Nyström Rosander C, Frisk P, Edvinsson M, Hjelm E, Thelin S, Friman G, et al. Thoracic aortic aneurysm patients with Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection showed a shift in trace element levels in serum and diseased aortic tissue. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2009;23:100-6 pubmed publisher
    ..pneumoniae-positive compared with C. pneumoniae-negative patients. The results are compatible with active infection and/or inflammation, possibly initiated by C. pneumoniae...
  39. Jha H, Prasad J, Mittal A. High immunoglobulin A seropositivity for combined Chlamydia pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori infection, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in coronary artery disease patients in India can serve as atherosclerotic marker. Heart Vessels. 2008;23:390-6 pubmed publisher
    ..pylori, CMV, and hs-CRP in CAD patients. Association of hs-CRP with IgA specific for C. pneumoniae and H. pylori suggests the role of chronic infection in the development of CAD and may be used as a marker to target the population...
  40. Hedayat D, Jebeli M, Mandegar M, Bagheri J, Nabavi S, Eghtesadi Araghi P, et al. The association between Chlamydia pneumoniae DNA in arherosclerotic plaque and major risk factors in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Kardiol Pol. 2009;67:981-6 pubmed
  41. Vretou E, Radouani F, Psarrou E, Kritikos I, Xylouri E, Mangana O. Evaluation of two commercial assays for the detection of Chlamydophila abortus antibodies. Vet Microbiol. 2007;123:153-61 pubmed
    ..The C. abortus ELISA by the Institut Pourquier identified less OEA-positive sera than the other assays though it identified correctly 9 of 10 OEA-positive flocks. The basis of the discordant results is discussed...
  42. Jha H, Srivastava P, Sarkar R, Prasad J, Mittal A. Chlamydia pneumoniae IgA and elevated level of IL-6 may synergize to accelerate coronary artery disease. J Cardiol. 2008;52:140-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Also the physiological and baseline characteristics in IL-6 positive CAD patients were studied...
  43. Reinhold P, Jaeger J, Liebler Tenorio E, Berndt A, Bachmann R, Schubert E, et al. Impact of latent infections with Chlamydophila species in young cattle. Vet J. 2008;175:202-11 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, naturally occurring infections with Chlamydophila species in calves were found to be associated with chronic effects on animal health at a subclinical level...
  44. Borel N, Thoma R, Spaeni P, Weilenmann R, Teankum K, Brugnera E, et al. Chlamydia-related abortions in cattle from Graubunden, Switzerland. Vet Pathol. 2006;43:702-8 pubmed
    ..The significance of chlamydia-like isolates other than Waddlia chondrophila remains an open question in abortion and needs further investigation...
  45. Loens K, Beck T, Ursi D, Overdijk M, Sillekens P, Goossens H, et al. Evaluation of different nucleic acid amplification techniques for the detection of M. pneumoniae, C. pneumoniae and Legionella spp. in respiratory specimens from patients with community-acquired pneumonia. J Microbiol Methods. 2008;73:257-62 pubmed publisher
    ..It's practical attractiveness pleads for further optimalisation of the multiplex approach...
  46. Carralot J, Dumrese C, Wessel R, Riessen R, Autenrieth I, Walter S, et al. CD8+ T cells specific for a potential HLA-A*0201 epitope from Chlamydophila pneumoniae are present in the PBMCs from infected patients. Int Immunol. 2005;17:591-7 pubmed
    ..Our studies pave the way to the immunomonitoring of the anti-Cpn CTL immune response present in patients suffering from different diseases potentially linked to Cpn or anti-Cpn immunity. ..
  47. Rodriguez N, Wantia N, Fend F, Dürr S, Wagner H, Miethke T. Differential involvement of TLR2 and TLR4 in host survival during pulmonary infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae. Eur J Immunol. 2006;36:1145-55 pubmed
    ..All TLR2(-/-) x TLR4(d/d) mice succumbed to the infection, while about 50% of TLR2(-/-) mice died. Taken together, the function of TLR2 and TLR4 is required to survive pulmonary infection with C. pneumoniae. ..
  48. Wolf S, Mayer O, Jurgens S, Vonthein R, Schultze G, Risler T, et al. Chlamydia pneumoniae IgA seropositivity is associated with increased risk for atherosclerotic vascular disease, myocardial infarction and stroke in dialysis patients. Clin Nephrol. 2003;59:273-9 pubmed
    ..IgA positivity seems to be a separate prospective risk factor in patients with chronic renal failure and hemodialysis for premature cardiovascular death. ..
  49. García de la Fuente J, Gutiérrez Martín C, Ortega N, Rodriguez Ferri E, Del Rio M, Gonzalez O, et al. Efficacy of different commercial and new inactivated vaccines against ovine enzootic abortion. Vet Microbiol. 2004;100:65-76 pubmed
    ..The new vaccine M7 especially showed no abortions, a good antibody response, the highest newborn lamb weights and the lowest level of C. abortus shedding at lambing...
  50. Zorc M, Vraspir Porenta O, Kese D, Petrovic D, Legan M. Detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae DNA in the coronary arteries and bypass in three patients with diffuse coronary artery disease. Cardiology. 2005;103:121-2 pubmed
  51. Cho Y, Kim T, Lee T, Moon K, Lee J, Kim Y, et al. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection enhances cellular proliferation and reduces steroid responsiveness of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells via a tumor necrosis factor-alpha-dependent pathway. Clin Exp Allergy. 2005;35:1625-31 pubmed
    ..A TNF-alpha inhibitor may therefore be a candidate agent for managing steroid-dependent or -resistant severe asthma. ..
  52. Njamnshi A, Blackett K, Mbuagbaw J, Gumedze F, Gupta S, Wiysonge C. Chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and stroke in Cameroon: a case-control study. Stroke. 2006;37:796-9 pubmed
    ..These findings, if confirmed, may have important policy implications (in terms of antibiotic use in stroke prevention) in sub-Saharan Africa. ..
  53. Mannonen L, Kamping E, Penttilä T, Puolakkainen M. IFN-gamma induced persistent Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in HL and Mono Mac 6 cells: characterization by real-time quantitative PCR and culture. Microb Pathog. 2004;36:41-50 pubmed
    ..pneumoniae EBs recovered decreased gradually after 3 days post inoculation, while C. pneumoniae genome load remained unaltered suggesting persistence of C. pneumoniae also in these cells. ..
  54. Ieven M, Hoymans V. Involvement of Chlamydia pneumoniae in atherosclerosis: more evidence for lack of evidence. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:19-24 pubmed
  55. Zele Starcević L, Plecko V, Budimir A, Kalenic S. [Choice of antimicrobial drug for infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydophila pneumoniae]. Acta Med Croatica. 2004;58:329-33 pubmed
    ..pneumoniae respiratory infections. Microbiologic failure has been described in C. pneumoniae infections, even after prolonged courses of azithromycin, erythromycin and doxycycline...
  56. Hammerschlag M. Pneumonia due to Chlamydia pneumoniae in children: epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2003;36:384-90 pubmed
  57. Sodeck G, Domanovits H, Khanakah G, Schillinger M, Thalmann M, Bayegan K, et al. The role of Chlamydia pneumoniae in human aortic disease-a hypothesis revisited. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2004;28:547-52 pubmed
    ..The role of Chlamydia pneumoniae in the pathogenesis of aortic aneurysm is controversial. We investigated the presence of C. pneumoniae in tissue samples excised from patients and controls...
  58. Gieffers J, van Zandbergen G, Rupp J, Sayk F, Kruger S, Ehlers S, et al. Phagocytes transmit Chlamydia pneumoniae from the lungs to the vasculature. Eur Respir J. 2004;23:506-10 pubmed
    ..This is the first description of granulocytes acting as a reservoir for Chlamydia pneumoniae early in infection...
  59. Migliorini L, Canocchi V, Zanelli G, Valassina M, Cellesi C. Outbreak and persistence of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in an Italian family. Infez Med. 2003;11:157-60 pubmed
    ..In a family member detection of C. pneumoniae on a pharyngeal swab by polymerase chain reaction was positive until four months after the onset of symptoms, despite a course of antibiotics known to be effective against Chlamydia species..
  60. Ginevra C, Barranger C, Ros A, Mory O, Stephan J, Freymuth F, et al. Development and evaluation of Chlamylege, a new commercial test allowing simultaneous detection and identification of Legionella, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae in clinical respiratory specimens by multiplex PCR. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:3247-54 pubmed
    ..These overall results demonstrate that the Chlamylege assay is sensitive, specific, and convenient for the rapid detection and identification of atypical pathogens in clinical samples from patients with respiratory infections...
  61. Sessa R, Di Pietro M, Schiavoni G, Santino I, Benedetti Valentini F, Perna R, et al. Chlamydia pneumoniae DNA in patients with symptomatic carotid atherosclerotic disease. J Vasc Surg. 2003;37:1027-31 pubmed
    ..We evaluated the correlation between the presence of Chlamydia pneumoniae in atherosclerotic carotid plaques, lymph nodes, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and symptomatic carotid atherosclerotic disease...