lymphogranuloma venereum

Summary

Summary: Subacute inflammation of the inguinal lymph glands caused by certain immunotypes of CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS. It is a sexually transmitted disease in the U.S. but is more widespread in developing countries. It is distinguished from granuloma venereum (see GRANULOMA INGUINALE), which is caused by Calymmatobacterium granulomatis.

Top Publications

  1. Gallegos M, Bradly D, Jakate S, Keshavarzian A. Lymphogranuloma venereum proctosigmoiditis is a mimicker of inflammatory bowel disease. World J Gastroenterol. 2012;18:3317-21 pubmed publisher
    There has been an increasing prevalence of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) or Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) cases among the men who have sex with men (MSM) population, particularly in Europe and North America...
  2. Ward H, Martin I, MacDonald N, Alexander S, Simms I, Fenton K, et al. Lymphogranuloma venereum in the United kingdom. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44:26-32 pubmed
    Over the past 2 years, lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), caused by L serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis, has emerged as a significant problem among men who have sex with men (MSM)...
  3. Templeton D, Grulich A, Yew J, Twin J, Jin F, Prestage G, et al. Lymphogranuloma venereum is rare in Australian community-based samples of men who have sex with men. Sex Transm Dis. 2011;38:48-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) typing was performed on chlamydia-positive samples obtained in Sydney, Australia, between 2005 and 2007, from community-based cohorts of predominantly asymptomatic HIV-infected and -uninfected men who have ..
  4. Götz H, van Doornum G, Niesters H, den Hollander J, Thio H, de Zwart O. A cluster of acute hepatitis C virus infection among men who have sex with men--results from contact tracing and public health implications. AIDS. 2005;19:969-74 pubmed
    ..In the period of his seroconversion he was also diagnosed with a rectal lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) infection, and was part of a cluster of 15 LGV cases in 2003...
  5. Waalboer R, van der Snoek E, van der Meijden W, Mulder P, Ossewaarde J. Analysis of rectal Chlamydia trachomatis serovar distribution including L2 (lymphogranuloma venereum) at the Erasmus MC STI clinic, Rotterdam. Sex Transm Infect. 2006;82:207-11 pubmed
    ..sexual behaviour, clinical manifestations, rectal symptoms, and chlamydial serovars including L2 (lymphogranuloma venereum)...
  6. Dean D, Millman K. Molecular and mutation trends analyses of omp1 alleles for serovar E of Chlamydia trachomatis. Implications for the immunopathogenesis of disease. J Clin Invest. 1997;99:475-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the mutation trends, phylogeny, and molecular epidemiology of E variants is essential for designing public health control interventions and a vaccine...
  7. Liassine N, Caulfield A, Ory G, Restellini A, de Barbeyrac B, Sitavanc R, et al. First confirmed case of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) in Switzerland. Euro Surveill. 2005;10:E050714.4 pubmed
  8. Quint K, Bom R, Bruisten S, van Doorn L, Nassir Hajipour N, Melchers W, et al. Comparison of three genotyping methods to identify Chlamydia trachomatis genotypes in positive men and women. Mol Cell Probes. 2010;24:266-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The pmpH real-time PCR is suitable as second assay to differentiate between an LGV and non-LGV infection, but not as primary detection assay, due to its low sensitivity for non-LGV strains. ..
  9. van de Laar M, Koedijk F, Gotz H, de Vries H. A slow epidemic of LGV in the Netherlands in 2004 and 2005. Euro Surveill. 2006;11:150-2 pubmed
    ..The evolution of the LGV outbreak appears to have slowed down and only a few cases were found in the first months of 2006. ..

More Information

Publications81

  1. Martin Iguacel R, Llibre J, Nielsen H, Heras E, Matas L, Lugo R, et al. Lymphogranuloma venereum proctocolitis: a silent endemic disease in men who have sex with men in industrialised countries. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2010;29:917-25 pubmed publisher
    b>Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by serovars L1-L3 of Chlamydia trachomatis...
  2. Dosekun O, Edmonds S, Stockwell S, French P, White J. Lymphogranuloma venereum detected from the pharynx in four London men who have sex with men. Int J STD AIDS. 2013;24:495-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is an established cause of proctitis in men who have sex with men (MSM)...
  3. Hamill M, Benn P, Carder C, Copas A, Ward H, Ison C, et al. The clinical manifestations of anorectal infection with lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) versus non-LGV strains of Chlamydia trachomatis: a case-control study in homosexual men. Int J STD AIDS. 2007;18:472-5 pubmed
    b>Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) has recently been reported in men who have sex with men...
  4. Spaargaren J, Fennema H, Morre S, de Vries H, Coutinho R. New lymphogranuloma venereum Chlamydia trachomatis variant, Amsterdam. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:1090-2 pubmed
    ..We found that symptomatic (73%) as well as asymptomatic (43%) patients were infected with a new C. trachomatis LGV variant. ..
  5. Pinsk I, Saloojee N, Friedlich M. Lymphogranuloma venereum as a cause of rectal stricture. Can J Surg. 2007;50:E31-2 pubmed
  6. Korhonen S, Hiltunen Back E, Puolakkainen M. Genotyping of Chlamydia trachomatis in rectal and pharyngeal specimens: identification of LGV genotypes in Finland. Sex Transm Infect. 2012;88:465-9 pubmed
    b>Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis L types have recently emerged in Europe among HIV-positive men having sex with men...
  7. McLean C, Stoner B, Workowski K. Treatment of lymphogranuloma venereum. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44 Suppl 3:S147-52 pubmed
    b>Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) classically presents with 1 or more genital ulcers or papules, as well as inguinal lymphadenopathy (buboes)...
  8. Schaeffer A, Henrich B. Rapid detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and typing of the Lymphogranuloma venereum associated L-Serovars by TaqMan PCR. BMC Infect Dis. 2008;8:56 pubmed publisher
    ..transmitted bacterial disease of global health significance, and especially the L-serovars causing lymphogranuloma venereum are increasingly being found in Europe in men who have sex with men...
  9. Klint M, Löfdahl M, Ek C, Airell A, Berglund T, Herrmann B. Lymphogranuloma venereum prevalence in Sweden among men who have sex with men and characterization of Chlamydia trachomatis ompA genotypes. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:4066-71 pubmed
    An outbreak of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) infections has recently been reported from The Netherlands and other European countries...
  10. Robertson A, Azariah S, Bromhead C, Tabrizi S, Blackmore T. Case report: lymphogranuloma venereum in New Zealand. Sex Health. 2008;5:369-70 pubmed
    We report New Zealand's first two cases of anorectal lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV)...
  11. van Weel J. Rare sexually transmitted disease hits Europe. Lancet Infect Dis. 2004;4:720 pubmed
  12. Jutras I, Abrami L, Dautry Varsat A. Entry of the lymphogranuloma venereum strain of Chlamydia trachomatis into host cells involves cholesterol-rich membrane domains. Infect Immun. 2003;71:260-6 pubmed
    ..Chlamydia binding to cholesterol-rich domains may lead to coalescence of the bacterial cells, which could trigger internalization by host cells...
  13. Regan D, Wilson D, Hocking J. Coverage is the key for effective screening of Chlamydia trachomatis in Australia. J Infect Dis. 2008;198:349-58 pubmed publisher
    ..In response, the Australian government is planning to implement systematic screening and testing. Several decisions must be made, including whom to screen...
  14. Blank S, Schillinger J, Harbatkin D. Lymphogranuloma venereum in the industrialised world. Lancet. 2005;365:1607-8 pubmed
  15. Mabey D, Peeling R. Lymphogranuloma venereum. Sex Transm Infect. 2002;78:90-2 pubmed
    b>Lymphogranuloma venereum is caused by serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis. It is rare in industrialised countries, but is endemic in parts of Africa, Asia, South America, and the Caribbean...
  16. de Vries H, van der Bij A, Fennema J, Smit C, de Wolf F, Prins M, et al. Lymphogranuloma venereum proctitis in men who have sex with men is associated with anal enema use and high-risk behavior. Sex Transm Dis. 2008;35:203-8 pubmed
    In the industrialized world, lymphogranuloma venereum proctitis (LGVP) has been reported only in men who have sex with men. Factors responsible for the outbreak remain to be elucidated.
  17. Albay D, Mathisen G. Head and neck manifestations of lymphogranuloma venereum. Ear Nose Throat J. 2008;87:478-80 pubmed
    b>Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV)--caused by Chlamydia trachomatis serovars L1, L2, or L3--rarely occurs in the United States. The disease clinically manifests in three stages: primary, secondary, and tertiary...
  18. de Vries H, Smelov V, Ouburg S, Pleijster J, Geskus R, Speksnijder A, et al. Anal lymphogranuloma venereum infection screening with IgA anti-Chlamydia trachomatis-specific major outer membrane protein serology. Sex Transm Dis. 2010;37:789-95 pubmed publisher
    Anal lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) infections, caused by Chlamydia trachomatis biovar L (Ct+/LGV+), are endemic among men who have sex with men (MSM)...
  19. Hughes G, Alexander S, Simms I, Conti S, Ward H, Powers C, et al. Lymphogranuloma venereum diagnoses among men who have sex with men in the U.K.: interpreting a cross-sectional study using an epidemic phase-specific framework. Sex Transm Infect. 2013;89:542-7 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the drivers behind the epidemic expansion of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) cases in late 2009 to help inform infection control.
  20. Morre S, Spaargaren J, Fennema J, de Vries H. Molecular diagnosis of lymphogranuloma venereum: PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism and real-time PCR. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:5412-3; author reply 5412-3 pubmed
  21. Pelgrom J, Vogelaers D, Colle I. Hepatitis C-seroconversion within three to six months after having contracted clinical syphilis and/or lymphogranuloma venereum rectitis in five homosexually active, HIV seropositive men. Acta Clin Belg. 2008;63:335-8 pubmed
    ..All of them had clinical syphilis and/or lymphogranuloma venereum rectitis within three to six months before the hepatitis C-seroconversion was detected...
  22. MacDonald N, Ison C, Martin I, Alexander S, Lowndes C, Simms I, et al. Initial results of enhanced surveillance for lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) in England. Euro Surveill. 2005;10:E050127.5 pubmed
  23. Bremer V, Meyer T, Marcus U, Hamouda O. Lymphogranuloma venereum emerging in men who have sex with men in Germany. Euro Surveill. 2006;11:152-4 pubmed
    A resurgence of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) has been observed in several European countries. LGV is not a mandatorily notifiable disease in Germany...
  24. Kropp R, Wong T. Emergence of lymphogranuloma venereum in Canada. CMAJ. 2005;172:1674-6 pubmed
  25. den Hollander J, Ossewaarde J, de Marie S. Anorectal ulcer in HIV patients, don't forget lymphogranuloma venereum!. AIDS. 2004;18:1484-5 pubmed
  26. Ahdoot A, Kotler D, Suh J, Kutler C, Flamholz R. Lymphogranuloma venereum in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals in New York City. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2006;40:385-90 pubmed
    b>Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), or chlamydial proctitis, is a classic sexually transmitted disease with prominent gastrointestinal manifestations...
  27. Spaargaren J, Schachter J, Moncada J, de Vries H, Fennema H, Pena A, et al. Slow epidemic of lymphogranuloma venereum L2b strain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:1787-8 pubmed
    We traced the Chlamydia trachomatis L2b variant in Amsterdam and San Francisco. All recent lymphogranuloma venereum cases in Amsterdam were caused by the L2b variant. This variant was also present in the 1980s in San Francisco...
  28. Gomes J, Nunes A, Florindo C, Ferreira M, Santo I, Azevedo J, et al. Lymphogranuloma venereum in Portugal: unusual events and new variants during 2007. Sex Transm Dis. 2009;36:88-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Nonetheless, circulating LGV strains could eventually be detected through the routine Chlamydia trachomatis ompA genotyping procedure held in the Portuguese National Institute of Health (NIH)...
  29. Nieuwenhuis R, Ossewaarde J, van der Meijden W, Neumann H. Unusual presentation of early lymphogranuloma venereum in an HIV-1 infected patient: effective treatment with 1 g azithromycin. Sex Transm Infect. 2003;79:453-5 pubmed
    The incidence of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is low in the western world. Early LGV is characterised by bubonic disease following a painless papule or small ulcer...
  30. Almeida F, Borges V, Ferreira R, Borrego M, Gomes J, Mota L. Polymorphisms in inc proteins and differential expression of inc genes among Chlamydia trachomatis strains correlate with invasiveness and tropism of lymphogranuloma venereum isolates. J Bacteriol. 2012;194:6574-85 pubmed publisher
    ..infections restricted to epithelial cells of the conjunctiva and genital mucosa, respectively, and lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) strains, which can infect macrophages and spread into lymph nodes. However, C...
  31. Gomes J, Nunes A, Bruno W, Borrego M, Florindo C, Dean D. Polymorphisms in the nine polymorphic membrane proteins of Chlamydia trachomatis across all serovars: evidence for serovar Da recombination and correlation with tissue tropism. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:275-86 pubmed
    ..The mean genetic distance among all serovars varied from 0.1% for pmpA to 7.0% for pmpF. Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) serovars were the most closely related for the pmp genes and were also the most divergent, compared ..
  32. Bauwens J, Orlander H, Gomez M, Lampe M, Morse S, Stamm W, et al. Epidemic Lymphogranuloma venereum during epidemics of crack cocaine use and HIV infection in the Bahamas. Sex Transm Dis. 2002;29:253-9 pubmed
    ..Since the early 1980s, the Bahamas has experienced sequential epidemics of freebase/crack cocaine use, genital ulcer-inguinal adenopathy disease (GUD), and heterosexual HIV infection...
  33. Chen C, Chi K, Alexander S, Ison C, Ballard R. A real-time quadriplex PCR assay for the diagnosis of rectal lymphogranuloma venereum and non-lymphogranuloma venereum Chlamydia trachomatis infections. Sex Transm Infect. 2008;84:273-6 pubmed publisher
    To develop and evaluate a real-time quadriplex PCR for the diagnosis of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) and non-LGV chlamydial infections using rectal swab specimens.
  34. Kamarashev J, Riess C, Mosimann J, Lauchli S. Lymphogranuloma venereum in Zurich, Switzerland: Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 proctitis among men who have sex with men. Swiss Med Wkly. 2010;140:209-12 pubmed publisher
    Whereas until 2003 Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) was rare in industrialised countries, there have been increasing reports of cases of LGV proctitis in men having sex with men (MSM) over the last six years in Europe, America and Australia.
  35. de Vries H, Smelov V, Middelburg J, Pleijster J, Speksnijder A, Morré S. Delayed microbial cure of lymphogranuloma venereum proctitis with doxycycline treatment. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48:e53-6 pubmed publisher
    Microbial cure of chlamydia proctitis (lymphogranuloma venereum [LGV] and non-LGV) with doxycycline treatment was evaluated by chlamydia DNA and RNA persistence in anal swab specimens. In LGV proctitis, RNA persisted for up to 16 days...
  36. Htun Y, Morse S, Dangor Y, Fehler G, Radebe F, Trees D, et al. Comparison of clinically directed, disease specific, and syndromic protocols for the management of genital ulcer disease in Lesotho. Sex Transm Infect. 1998;74 Suppl 1:S23-8 pubmed
    ..To evaluate two protocols for the syndromic management of genital ulcer disease (GUD) in Lesotho, southern Africa and to compare the performance of these protocols with that of a conventional disease specific approach...
  37. Schachter J, Moncada J. Lymphogranuloma venereum: how to turn an endemic disease into an outbreak of a new disease? Start looking. Sex Transm Dis. 2005;32:331-2 pubmed
  38. French P, Ison C, Macdonald N. Lymphogranuloma venereum in the United Kingdom. Sex Transm Infect. 2005;81:97-8 pubmed
  39. Ward H, Alexander S, Carder C, Dean G, French P, Ivens D, et al. The prevalence of lymphogranuloma venereum infection in men who have sex with men: results of a multicentre case finding study. Sex Transm Infect. 2009;85:173-5 pubmed publisher
    To determine the prevalence of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) and non-LGV associated serovars of urethral and rectal Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection in men who have sex with men (MSM).
  40. Annan N, Sullivan A, Nori A, Naydenova P, Alexander S, McKenna A, et al. Rectal chlamydia--a reservoir of undiagnosed infection in men who have sex with men. Sex Transm Infect. 2009;85:176-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the prevalence of rectal chlamydia infection in a cohort of men who have sex with men (MSM) and the proportion of infection that would be missed without routine screening...
  41. Halse T, Musser K, Limberger R. A multiplexed real-time PCR assay for rapid detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and identification of serovar L-2, the major cause of Lymphogranuloma venereum in New York. Mol Cell Probes. 2006;20:290-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is caused by a rare form of Chlamydia trachomatis that is difficult to diagnose, since culture is not readily available, and since other methods are not reliable or lack sensitivity...
  42. Halioua B, Bohbot J, Monfort L, Nassar N, de Barbeyrac B, Monsonego J, et al. Ano-rectal lymphogranuloma venereum: 22 cases reported in a sexually transmited infections center in Paris. Eur J Dermatol. 2006;16:177-80 pubmed
    ..of Sexually Transmitted Infections Network (ESSTI) issued an international alert regarding an outbreak of Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) in Rotterdam in a sexual network of men who have sex with men (MSM)...
  43. Sethi G, Allason Jones E, Richens J, Annan N, Hawkins D, Ekbote A, et al. Lymphogranuloma venereum presenting as genital ulceration and inguinal syndrome in men who have sex with men in London, UK. Sex Transm Infect. 2009;85:165-70 pubmed publisher
    To describe a series of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) cases presenting as inguinal syndrome and/or genital ulceration seen among men who have sex with men (MSM) in London, UK.
  44. Morre S, Spaargaren J, Fennema J, de Vries H, Coutinho R, Pena A. Real-time polymerase chain reaction to diagnose lymphogranuloma venereum. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:1311-2 pubmed
  45. de Vrieze N, van Rooijen M, Speksnijder A, de Vries H. Urethral lymphogranuloma venereum infections in men with anorectal lymphogranuloma venereum and their partners: the missing link in the current epidemic?. Sex Transm Dis. 2013;40:607-8 pubmed publisher
    Urethral lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is not screened routinely. We found that in 341 men having sex with men with anorectal LGV, 7 (2.1%) had concurrent urethral LGV. Among 59 partners, 4 (6.8%) had urethral LGV infections...
  46. Ikryannikova L, Shkarupeta M, Shitikov E, Il ina E, Govorun V. Comparative evaluation of new typing schemes for urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis isolates. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2010;59:188-96 pubmed publisher
    ..trachomatis population in Central Russia using MLST. We conclude that the MLST(7) scheme is the best possible choice for global epidemiological purposes, whereas MLST(5) is more appropriate for tracing local outbreaks...
  47. Vall Mayans M, Sanz Colomo B, Ossewaarde J. First case of LGV confirmed in Barcelona. Euro Surveill. 2005;10:E050203.2 pubmed
  48. Nieuwenhuis R, Ossewaarde J, Götz H, Dees J, Thio H, Thomeer M, et al. Resurgence of lymphogranuloma venereum in Western Europe: an outbreak of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar l2 proctitis in The Netherlands among men who have sex with men. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;39:996-1003 pubmed
    b>Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) and is rare in the Western world. Recently, 3 men who have sex with men presented with LGV proctitis at the Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands...
  49. Herida M, de Barbeyrac B, Sednaoui P, Scieux C, Lemarchand N, Kreplak G, et al. Rectal lymphogranuloma venereum surveillance in France 2004-2005. Euro Surveill. 2006;11:155-6 pubmed
    b>Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by Chlamydia trachomatis strains belonging to the L1, L2 or L3 genotype...
  50. Haar K, Dudareva Vizule S, Wisplinghoff H, Wisplinghoff F, Sailer A, Jansen K, et al. Lymphogranuloma venereum in men screened for pharyngeal and rectal infection, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19:488-92 pubmed publisher
    To determine prevalence of lymphogranuloma venereum among men who have sex with men in Germany, we conducted a multicenter study during 2009-2010 and found high rates of rectal and pharyngeal infection in men positive for the causative ..
  51. Singhrao T, Higham E, French P. Lymphogranuloma venereum presenting as perianal ulceration: an emerging clinical presentation?. Sex Transm Infect. 2011;87:123-4 pubmed publisher
    An outbreak of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) infection has been recognised in the UK since 2004, predominantly affecting HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). Patients typically present with proctitis symptoms...
  52. Jeffrey B, Suchland R, Quinn K, Davidson J, Stamm W, Rockey D. Genome sequencing of recent clinical Chlamydia trachomatis strains identifies loci associated with tissue tropism and regions of apparent recombination. Infect Immun. 2010;78:2544-53 pubmed publisher
    ..This work demonstrated that whole-genome sequencing along with comparative genomics is an effective approach for discovering variable loci in Chlamydia spp. that are associated with clinical presentation...
  53. de la Maza L, Fielder T, Carlson E, Markoff B, Peterson E. Sequence diversity of the 60-kilodalton protein and of a putative 15-kilodalton protein between the trachoma and lymphogranuloma venereum biovars of Chlamydia trachomatis. Infect Immun. 1991;59:1196-201 pubmed
    ..When compared with the L3 serovar, the C and E serovars had 14 and 16 amino acid differences, respectively...
  54. Dean D, Bruno W, Wan R, Gomes J, Devignot S, Mehari T, et al. Predicting phenotype and emerging strains among Chlamydia trachomatis infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1385-94 pubmed publisher
    ..001). Phylogenetic analysis showed 3 disease clusters: invasive lymphogranuloma venereum strains, globally prevalent noninvasive STI strains (ompA genotypes D/Da, E, and F), and nonprevalent STI ..
  55. Herring A, Richens J. Lymphogranuloma venereum. Sex Transm Infect. 2006;82 Suppl 4:iv23-5 pubmed
  56. Thomson N, Holden M, Carder C, Lennard N, Lockey S, Marsh P, et al. Chlamydia trachomatis: genome sequence analysis of lymphogranuloma venereum isolates. Genome Res. 2008;18:161-71 pubmed
    ..trachomatis: trachoma (serotypes A-C) and two sexually transmitted pathovars; serotypes D-K and lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV)...
  57. White J. Manifestations and management of lymphogranuloma venereum. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2009;22:57-66 pubmed publisher
    This review was prompted by a sustained outbreak of lymphogranuloma venereum that has been observed among men who have sex with men (MSM) worldwide since 2004...
  58. Stary G, Meyer T, Bangert C, Kohrgruber N, Gmeinhart B, Kirnbauer R, et al. New Chlamydia trachomatis L2 strains identified in a recent outbreak of lymphogranuloma venereum in Vienna, Austria. Sex Transm Dis. 2008;35:377-82 pubmed publisher
    Since 2003, an ongoing outbreak of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), caused by Chlamydia trachomatis biovar L2b, has been reported among men who have sex with men.
  59. Soni S, Srirajaskanthan R, Lucas S, Alexander S, Wong T, White J. Lymphogranuloma venereum proctitis masquerading as inflammatory bowel disease in 12 homosexual men. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2010;32:59-65 pubmed publisher
    b>Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a recognized cause of proctitis. Symptoms, endoscopy and histology findings are similar in IBD and LGV proctitis.
  60. Somboonna N, Wan R, Ojcius D, Pettengill M, Joseph S, Chang A, et al. Hypervirulent Chlamydia trachomatis clinical strain is a recombinant between lymphogranuloma venereum (L(2)) and D lineages. MBio. 2011;2:e00045-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Sporadic and ongoing outbreaks of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) strains among men who have sex with men (MSM) support the need for research on virulence factors ..
  61. Jalal H, Stephen H, Alexander S, Carne C, Sonnex C. Development of real-time PCR assays for genotyping of Chlamydia trachomatis. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45:2649-53 pubmed
    ..and used it specifically for the typing of either eight genovars from D to K or three genovars of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV)...
  62. Kang E, Gao X, Yin Y, Wang F, Yao W, Gong X, et al. Lymphogranuloma venereum caused by Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L3: a case report. Chin Med J (Engl). 2007;120:601-4 pubmed
  63. Stark D, van Hal S, Hillman R, Harkness J, Marriott D. Lymphogranuloma venereum in Australia: anorectal Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2b in men who have sex with men. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45:1029-31 pubmed
    b>Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted infection that is causing an ongoing epidemic in men who have sex with men (MSM) in Europe, the United Kingdom, and North America...
  64. de Vrieze N, van Rooijen M, Schim van der Loeff M, de Vries H. Anorectal and inguinal lymphogranuloma venereum among men who have sex with men in Amsterdam, The Netherlands: trends over time, symptomatology and concurrent infections. Sex Transm Infect. 2013;89:548-52 pubmed publisher
    To examine lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) trends over time among men who have sex with men (MSM) visiting the Amsterdam sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic; to investigate anal LGV symptomatology; and to examine the positivity and ..
  65. Morre S, Ouburg S, van Agtmael M, de Vries H. Lymphogranuloma venereum diagnostics: from culture to real-time quadriplex polymerase chain reaction. Sex Transm Infect. 2008;84:252-3 pubmed publisher
  66. Kapoor S. Re-emergence of lymphogranuloma venereum. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2008;22:409-16 pubmed publisher
    b>Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the L1, L2 and L3 serotypes of Chlamydia trachomatis. The disease has been in the spotlight recently because of recent outbreaks in Europe as well as the USA...
  67. Behets F, Andriamiadana J, Randrianasolo D, Randriamanga R, Rasamilalao D, Chen C, et al. Chancroid, primary syphilis, genital herpes, and lymphogranuloma venereum in Antananarivo, Madagascar. J Infect Dis. 1999;180:1382-5 pubmed
    ..001). Sixteen patients (8%) were clinically diagnosed with lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV); 1 plausible case of LGV was found by MIF...
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