glanders

Summary

Summary: A contagious disease of horses that can be transmitted to humans. It is caused by BURKHOLDERIA MALLEI and characterized by ulceration of the respiratory mucosa and an eruption of nodules on the skin.

Top Publications

  1. Whitlock G, Estes D, Torres A. Glanders: off to the races with Burkholderia mallei. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2007;277:115-22 pubmed
    Burkholderia mallei, the etiologic agent of the disease known as glanders, is primarily a disease affecting horses and is transmitted to humans by direct contact with infected animals. The use of B...
  2. Shanks J, Burtnick M, Brett P, Waag D, Spurgers K, Ribot W, et al. Burkholderia mallei tssM encodes a putative deubiquitinase that is secreted and expressed inside infected RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. Infect Immun. 2009;77:1636-48 pubmed publisher
    ..mallei, a category B biothreat agent, is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes the zoonotic disease glanders. The B...
  3. Heine H, England M, Waag D, Byrne W. In vitro antibiotic susceptibilities of Burkholderia mallei (causative agent of glanders) determined by broth microdilution and E-test. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2001;45:2119-21 pubmed
    ..E-test values were always lower than the broth dilution values. Establishing and comparing antibiotic susceptibilities of specific B. mallei strains will provide reference information for assessing new antibiotic agents...
  4. Kumar S, Malik P, Verma S, Pal V, Gautam V, Mukhopadhyay C, et al. Use of a recombinant burkholderia intracellular motility a protein for immunodiagnosis of glanders. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2011;18:1456-61 pubmed publisher
    b>Glanders, caused by the Gram-negative, nonmotile bacterium Burkholderia mallei, is a contagious and highly fatal disease of equines. During the last decade, the number of glanders outbreaks has increased steadily...
  5. Judy B, Whitlock G, Torres A, Estes D. Comparison of the in vitro and in vivo susceptibilities of Burkholderia mallei to Ceftazidime and Levofloxacin. BMC Microbiol. 2009;9:88 pubmed publisher
    ..The effect of two antibiotics with different modes of action on Burkholderia mallei strain ATCC23344 was investigated by using in vitro and in vivo studies...
  6. Lehavi O, Aizenstien O, Katz L, Hourvitz A. [Glanders--a potential disease for biological warfare in humans and animals]. Harefuah. 2002;141 Spec No:88-91, 119 pubmed
    ..mallei) can cause a subcutaneous infection known as "farcy" or can disseminate to condition known as Glanders. It is primarily a disease affecting horses, donkeys and mules...
  7. Bowers J, Engelthaler D, Ginther J, Pearson T, Peacock S, Tuanyok A, et al. BurkDiff: a real-time PCR allelic discrimination assay for Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15413 pubmed publisher
    ..Concordance of results with traditional speciation methods and no cross-reactivity to non-target species show BurkDiff is a robust, highly validated assay for the detection and differentiation of B. pseudomallei and B. mallei...
  8. Galyov E, Brett P, DeShazer D. Molecular insights into Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei pathogenesis. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2010;64:495-517 pubmed publisher
    ..the specific virulence factors employed by these pathogens and their roles in the pathogenesis of melioidosis and glanders. In particular, the contributions of recently identified virulence factors are described in the context of the ..
  9. Waag D, McCluskie M, Zhang N, Krieg A. A CpG oligonucleotide can protect mice from a low aerosol challenge dose of Burkholderia mallei. Infect Immun. 2006;74:1944-8 pubmed
    ..Protection was associated with enhanced levels of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-inducible protein 10, interleukin-12 (IL-12), IFN-gamma, and IL-6. Preexposure therapy with CpG ODNs may protect victims of a biological attack from glanders.

More Information

Publications62

  1. Ulrich M, Norwood D, Christensen D, Ulrich R. Using real-time PCR to specifically detect Burkholderia mallei. J Med Microbiol. 2006;55:551-9 pubmed
    Burkholderia mallei is the causative agent of human and animal glanders and is a category B biothreat agent. Rapid diagnosis of B. mallei and immediate prophylactic treatment are essential for patient survival...
  2. Lopez J, Copps J, Wilhelmsen C, Moore R, Kubay J, St Jacques M, et al. Characterization of experimental equine glanders. Microbes Infect. 2003;5:1125-31 pubmed
    ..immunization studies in small animals, and due to the fact that the horse is the target mammalian species for glanders, we have initiated experimental studies on glanders in horses. Intratracheal deposition of B...
  3. Derbyshire J. The eradication of glanders in Canada. Can Vet J. 2002;43:722-6 pubmed
  4. Waag D, England M, DeShazer D. Humoral immune responses in a human case of glanders. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012;19:814-6 pubmed publisher
    Within 2 months of acquiring glanders, a patient developed 8-, 16-, and 4-fold increases, respectively, in specific IgA, IgG, and IgM serological titers against Burkholderia mallei...
  5. Elschner M, Scholz H, Melzer F, Saqib M, Marten P, Rassbach A, et al. Use of a Western blot technique for the serodiagnosis of glanders. BMC Vet Res. 2011;7:4 pubmed publisher
    The in vivo diagnosis of glanders relies on the highly sensitive complement fixation test (CFT). Frequently observed false positive results are troublesome for veterinary authorities and cause financial losses to animal owners...
  6. Song H, Hwang J, Yi H, Ulrich R, Yu Y, Nierman W, et al. The early stage of bacterial genome-reductive evolution in the host. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000922 pubmed publisher
    ..The detailed IS intervention, unveiled for the first time in this study, may represent the key component of a general mechanism for early bacterial evolution in the host...
  7. Sarkar Tyson M, Smither S, Harding S, Atkins T, Titball R. Protective efficacy of heat-inactivated B. thailandensis, B. mallei or B. pseudomallei against experimental melioidosis and glanders. Vaccine. 2009;27:4447-51 pubmed publisher
    ..pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei are gram-negative bacilli that are the causative agents of melioidosis and glanders, respectively. Both humans and animals are susceptible to both diseases...
  8. Burtnick M, Heiss C, Roberts R, Schweizer H, Azadi P, Brett P. Development of capsular polysaccharide-based glycoconjugates for immunization against melioidosis and glanders. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2012;2:108 pubmed publisher
    Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei, the etiologic agents of melioidosis and glanders, respectively, cause severe disease in humans and animals and are considered potential agents of biological warfare and terrorism...
  9. Tomaso H, Scholz H, Al Dahouk S, Eickhoff M, Treu T, Wernery R, et al. Development of a 5'-nuclease real-time PCR assay targeting fliP for the rapid identification of Burkholderia mallei in clinical samples. Clin Chem. 2006;52:307-10 pubmed
    Burkholderia mallei is a potential biological agent that causes glanders or farcy in solipeds, a disease notifiable to the Office International des Epizooties (OIE)...
  10. Katz J, Dewald R, Nicholson J. Procedurally similar competitive immunoassay systems for the serodiagnosis of Babesia equi, Babesia caballi, Trypanosoma equiperdum, and Burkholderia mallei infection in horses. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2000;12:46-50 pubmed
    ..of Babesia equi and Babesia caballi (piroplasmosis), Trypanosoma equiperdum (dourine), and Burkholderia mallei (glanders) infections in horses. Apparent test specificities for the B. equi, B. caballi, T. equiperdum, and B...
  11. Sprague L, Zachariah R, Neubauer H, Wernery R, Joseph M, Scholz H, et al. Prevalence-dependent use of serological tests for diagnosing glanders in horses. BMC Vet Res. 2009;5:32 pubmed publisher
    The internationally mandatory complement fixation test (CFT) for testing of equine sera for the absence of glanders has repeatedly led to discrepant results...
  12. Zhang S, Feng S, Li B, Kim H, Rodriguez J, Tsai S, et al. In Vitro and In Vivo studies of monoclonal antibodies with prominent bactericidal activity against Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2011;18:825-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The result is compatible with that of our in vitro study. The MAbs with the highest protective efficacy are those reactive to either the capsular PS or LPS of the Burkholderia bacteria...
  13. Naureen A, Saqib M, Muhammad G, Hussain M, Asi M. Comparative evaluation of Rose Bengal plate agglutination test, mallein test, and some conventional serological tests for diagnosis of equine glanders. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2007;19:362-7 pubmed
    The Rose Bengal plate agglutination test (RBT) was evaluated for the diagnosis of equine glanders, and its diagnostic efficiency was compared with that of mallein and other serological tests, including indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT)..
  14. Chantratita N, Vesaratchavest M, Wuthiekanun V, Tiyawisutsri R, Ulziitogtokh T, Akcay E, et al. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis as a discriminatory typing technique for the biothreat agent burkholderia mallei. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006;74:345-7 pubmed
    ..We demonstrated good resolution by PFGE together with clustering of some geographically related isolates, and confirmed previous observations that B. mallei is clonal as defined by MLST...
  15. Barnes K, Steward J, Thwaite J, Lever M, Davies C, Armstrong S, et al. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole) prophylaxis is effective against acute murine inhalational melioidosis and glanders. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2013;41:552-7 pubmed publisher
    ..pseudomallei and its close phylogenetic relative Burkholderia mallei, the causative agent of glanders. Co-trimoxazole was effective against an inhalational infection with B. pseudomallei or B. mallei...
  16. Ulrich R, Amemiya K, Waag D, Roy C, DeShazer D. Aerogenic vaccination with a Burkholderia mallei auxotroph protects against aerosol-initiated glanders in mice. Vaccine. 2005;23:1986-92 pubmed
    Burkholderia mallei is an obligate mammalian pathogen that causes the zoonotic disease glanders. Two live attenuated B...
  17. Horn J. Bacterial agents used for bioterrorism. Surg Infect (Larchmt). 2003;4:281-7 pubmed
    ..Bacterial pathogens and their products are potential agents of biological terrorism and biological warfare. These agents can be deployed through simple aerosol delivery systems and thereby cause widespread disease and death...
  18. Whitlock G, Estes D, Young G, Young B, Torres A. Construction of a reporter system to study Burkholderia mallei type III secretion and identification of the BopA effector protein function in intracellular survival. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2008;102 Suppl 1:S127-33 pubmed publisher
    Burkholderia mallei, the aetiological agent of glanders disease, is a Gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium. Despite numerous studies, the detailed mechanism of its pathogenesis is almost unknown...
  19. Amemiya K, Meyers J, Trevino S, Chanh T, Norris S, Waag D. Interleukin-12 induces a Th1-like response to Burkholderia mallei and limited protection in BALB/c mice. Vaccine. 2006;24:1413-20 pubmed
    ..mallei and IL-12 when challenged, compared to mice that received only B. mallei or IL-12. The results suggest that IL-12 can enhance the Th1-like immune response to B. mallei and mediate limited protection from a lethal challenge...
  20. Goodyear A, Kellihan L, Bielefeldt Ohmann H, Troyer R, Propst K, Dow S. Protection from pneumonic infection with burkholderia species by inhalational immunotherapy. Infect Immun. 2009;77:1579-88 pubmed publisher
    Burkholderia mallei and B. pseudomallei are important human pathogens and cause the diseases glanders and melioidosis, respectively...
  21. Romero C, DeShazer D, Feldblyum T, Ravel J, Woods D, Kim H, et al. Genome sequence alterations detected upon passage of Burkholderia mallei ATCC 23344 in culture and in mammalian hosts. BMC Genomics. 2006;7:228 pubmed
    ..mallei ATCC 23344 isolates, one from each source, were sequenced from culture, a mouse, a horse, and two isolates from a single human patient, and the sequence compared to the published B. mallei ATCC 23344 genome sequence...
  22. Dvorak G, Spickler A. Glanders. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2008;233:570-7 pubmed publisher
  23. Hornstra H, Pearson T, Georgia S, Liguori A, Dale J, Price E, et al. Molecular epidemiology of glanders, Pakistan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:2036-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that recent outbreaks are genetically distinct from available whole genome sequences and that these genotypes are persistent and ubiquitous in Punjab, probably due to human-mediated movement of equines...
  24. Rosenbloom M, Leikin J, Vogel S, Chaudry Z. Biological and chemical agents: a brief synopsis. Am J Ther. 2002;9:5-14 pubmed
    ..The information provided outlines the bare essentials needed to deal with any emergency or catastrophic event involving these agents...
  25. Thibault F, Valade E, Vidal D. Identification and discrimination of Burkholderia pseudomallei, B. mallei, and B. thailandensis by real-time PCR targeting type III secretion system genes. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:5871-4 pubmed
    Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei are two highly pathogenic bacteria, responsible for melioidosis and glanders, respectively. The two are closely related and can also be mistaken for B. thailandensis, a nonpathogenic species...
  26. Estes D, Dow S, Schweizer H, Torres A. Present and future therapeutic strategies for melioidosis and glanders. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2010;8:325-38 pubmed publisher
    Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei are the causative agents of melioidosis and glanders, respectively. Both Gram-negative pathogens are endemic in many parts of the world...
  27. Schell M, Ulrich R, Ribot W, Brueggemann E, Hines H, Chen D, et al. Type VI secretion is a major virulence determinant in Burkholderia mallei. Mol Microbiol. 2007;64:1466-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Purified His-tagged BMAA0742 was recognized by glanders antiserum from a horse, a human and mice, indicating that this Hcp-family protein is produced in vivo during ..
  28. Tiyawisutsri R, Holden M, Tumapa S, Rengpipat S, Clarke S, Foster S, et al. Burkholderia Hep_Hag autotransporter (BuHA) proteins elicit a strong antibody response during experimental glanders but not human melioidosis. BMC Microbiol. 2007;7:19 pubmed
    The bacterial biothreat agents Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei are the cause of glanders and melioidosis, respectively. Genomic and epidemiological studies have shown that B...
  29. Voskuhl G, Cornea P, Bronze M, Greenfield R. Other bacterial diseases as a potential consequence of bioterrorism: Q fever, brucellosis, glanders, and melioidosis. J Okla State Med Assoc. 2003;96:214-7 pubmed
  30. Godoy D, Randle G, Simpson A, Aanensen D, Pitt T, Kinoshita R, et al. Multilocus sequence typing and evolutionary relationships among the causative agents of melioidosis and glanders, Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:2068-79 pubmed
    ..However, isolates of B. mallei, the causative agent of glanders, recovered from three continents over a 30-year period had identical allelic profiles, and the B...
  31. Howe C, Miller W. Human glanders; report of six cases. Ann Intern Med. 1947;26:93-115 pubmed
  32. Thibault F, Hernandez E, Vidal D, Girardet M, Cavallo J. Antibiotic susceptibility of 65 isolates of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei to 35 antimicrobial agents. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2004;54:1134-8 pubmed
    ..Fifty isolates of Burkholderia pseudomallei and 15 isolates of Burkholderia mallei were tested for their susceptibilities to 35 antimicrobial agents, including agents not previously tested against these bacteria...
  33. Bondi S, Goldberg J. Strategies toward vaccines against Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2008;7:1357-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Burkholderia pseudomallei are Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria, and are the causative agents of the diseases glanders and melioidosis, respectively...
  34. Khan I, Wieler L, Melzer F, Elschner M, Muhammad G, Ali S, et al. Glanders in animals: a review on epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and countermeasures. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2013;60:204-21 pubmed publisher
    b>Glanders or farcy, caused by Burkholderia mallei, is an infectious and zoonotic disease of solipeds. Horses, donkeys and mules are the only known natural reservoir of B. mallei...
  35. Cheng A, Dance D, Currie B. Bioterrorism, Glanders and melioidosis. Euro Surveill. 2005;10:E1-2; author reply E1-2 pubmed
  36. Trevino S, Permenter A, England M, Parthasarathy N, Gibbs P, Waag D, et al. Monoclonal antibodies passively protect BALB/c mice against Burkholderia mallei aerosol challenge. Infect Immun. 2006;74:1958-61 pubmed
    b>Glanders is a debilitating disease with no vaccine available...
  37. Bandara A, DeShazer D, Inzana T, Sriranganathan N, Schurig G, Boyle S. A disruption of ctpA encoding carboxy-terminal protease attenuates Burkholderia mallei and induces partial protection in CD1 mice. Microb Pathog. 2008;45:207-16 pubmed publisher
    Burkholderia mallei is the etiologic agent of glanders in solipeds (horses, mules and donkeys), and incidentally in carnivores and humans. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms of B. mallei pathogenesis...
  38. Nierman W, DeShazer D, Kim H, Tettelin H, Nelson K, Feldblyum T, et al. Structural flexibility in the Burkholderia mallei genome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:14246-51 pubmed
    ..B. mallei, the etiologic agent of glanders, has come under renewed scientific investigation as a result of recent concerns about its past and potential ..
  39. Amemiya K, Meyers J, DeShazer D, Riggins R, Halasohoris S, England M, et al. Detection of the host immune response to Burkholderia mallei heat-shock proteins GroEL and DnaK in a glanders patient and infected mice. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2007;59:137-47 pubmed
    ..The patient was the first reported human glanders case in 50 years in the United States...
  40. Russell P, Eley S, Ellis J, Green M, Bell D, Kenny D, et al. Comparison of efficacy of ciprofloxacin and doxycycline against experimental melioidosis and glanders. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2000;45:813-8 pubmed
    Melioidosis and glanders are caused by the closely related species Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei, respectively. Whereas melioidosis is a significant cause of morbidity in south-east Asia, glanders is extremely rare...
  41. Amemiya K, Bush G, DeShazer D, Waag D. Nonviable Burkholderia mallei induces a mixed Th1- and Th2-like cytokine response in BALB/c mice. Infect Immun. 2002;70:2319-25 pubmed
    Nonviable cell preparations of Burkholderia mallei, the causative agent of glanders, were evaluated as potential vaccine candidates in a BALB/c murine model. Three different B...
  42. Gilad J. Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei: the causative micro-organisms of glanders and melioidosis. Recent Pat Antiinfect Drug Discov. 2007;2:233-41 pubmed
    Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei are the causative micro-organisms of Glanders and Melioidosis, respectively...
  43. Rowland C, Lertmemongkolchai G, Bancroft A, Haque A, Lever M, Griffin K, et al. Critical role of type 1 cytokines in controlling initial infection with Burkholderia mallei. Infect Immun. 2006;74:5333-40 pubmed
    Burkholderia mallei is a gram-negative bacterium which causes the potentially fatal disease glanders in humans; however, there is little information concerning cell-mediated immunity to this pathogen...
  44. Rowland C, Lever M, Griffin K, Bancroft G, Lukaszewski R. Protective cellular responses to Burkholderia mallei infection. Microbes Infect. 2010;12:846-53 pubmed publisher
    Burkholderia mallei is a Gram-negative bacillus causing the disease glanders in humans...
  45. Parthasarathy N, DeShazer D, England M, Waag D. Polysaccharide microarray technology for the detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei antibodies. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2006;56:329-32 pubmed
    ..pseudomallei and B. mallei serum (human and animal) antibodies. The advantages of this microarray technology over the current serodiagnosis of the above bacterial infections were discussed...
  46. Goodyear A, Troyer R, Bielefeldt Ohmann H, Dow S. MyD88-dependent recruitment of monocytes and dendritic cells required for protection from pulmonary Burkholderia mallei infection. Infect Immun. 2012;80:110-20 pubmed publisher
    ..mallei infection...
  47. Fritz D, Vogel P, Brown D, Waag D. The hamster model of intraperitoneal Burkholderia mallei (glanders). Vet Pathol. 1999;36:276-91 pubmed
    ..The results of the study indicate that the Syrian hamster is a useful small animal model for glanders.
  48. Malik P, Singha H, Khurana S, Kumar R, Kumar S, Raut A, et al. Emergence and re-emergence of glanders in India: a description of outbreaks from 2006 to 2011. Vet Ital. 2012;48:167-78 pubmed
    b>Glanders, a bacterial disease of equines caused by Burkholderia mallei, is a fatal infectious disease of equines and has zoonotic significance...
  49. Whitlock G, Lukaszewski R, Judy B, Paessler S, Torres A, Estes D. Host immunity in the protective response to vaccination with heat-killed Burkholderia mallei. BMC Immunol. 2008;9:55 pubmed publisher
    ..We performed initial cell, cytokine and complement depletion studies to investigate the possible role of these effectors in response to vaccination with heat-killed Burkholderia mallei in a susceptible BALB/c mouse model of infection...
  50. Wittig M, Wohlsein P, Hagen R, Al Dahouk S, Tomaso H, Scholz H, et al. [Glanders--a comprehensive review]. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2006;113:323-30 pubmed
    Since 1990 the number of glanders outbreaks in race, military and pleasure horses in Asia and South America is steadily increasing...
  51. Scholz H, Joseph M, Tomaso H, Al Dahouk S, Witte A, Kinne J, et al. Detection of the reemerging agent Burkholderia mallei in a recent outbreak of glanders in the United Arab Emirates by a newly developed fliP-based polymerase chain reaction assay. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2006;54:241-7 pubmed
    ..the specific detection of this organism in pure cultures and clinical samples from a recent outbreak of equine glanders. Primers deduced from the known fliP-IS407A sequence of B...
  52. Woods D. The use of animal infection models to study the pathogenesis of melioidosis and glanders. Trends Microbiol. 2002;10:483-4; discussion 484-5 pubmed
    ..This update focuses on the recent use of animal infection models to study the pathogenesis of melioidosis and glanders.
  53. Fritz D, Vogel P, Brown D, DeShazer D, Waag D. Mouse model of sublethal and lethal intraperitoneal glanders (Burkholderia mallei). Vet Pathol. 2000;37:626-36 pubmed
    ..Our findings indicate that mice are susceptible to B. mallei infection and may serve as an appropriate model for glanders infection in a resistant host such as human beings...