bovine brucellosis

Summary

Summary: A disease of cattle caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA leading to abortion in late pregnancy. BRUCELLA ABORTUS is the primary infective agent.

Top Publications

  1. Deqiu S, Donglou X, Jiming Y. Epidemiology and control of brucellosis in China. Vet Microbiol. 2002;90:165-82 pubmed
  2. Portanti O, Tittarelli M, Di Febo T, Luciani M, Mercante M, Conte A, et al. Development and validation of a competitive ELISA kit for the serological diagnosis of ovine, caprine and bovine brucellosis. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health. 2006;53:494-8 pubmed
    ..Results demonstrated that the Brucella-Ab c-ELISA is a valuable tool for the serological diagnosis of bovine and ovine/caprine brucellosis...
  3. Cadmus S, Adesokan H, Adedokun B, Stack J. Seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis in trade cattle slaughtered in Ibadan, Nigeria, from 2004-2006. J S Afr Vet Assoc. 2010;81:50-3 pubmed
    ..from 2004 to 2006 with a view to determining the breed, sex and age distribution in the seropositivity of bovine brucellosis. In total, 1642 animals were examined for antibodies to Brucella abortus using the Rose Bengal test...
  4. Luna Martínez J, Mejía Terán C. Brucellosis in Mexico: current status and trends. Vet Microbiol. 2002;90:19-30 pubmed
    ..Also the trends in control and eventual eradication strategies and perspectives for the near future of Mexico are presented...
  5. Darwish M, Benkirane A. Field investigations of brucellosis in cattle and small ruminants in Syria, 1990-1996. Rev Sci Tech. 2001;20:769-75 pubmed
    ..Further, well-structured studies are required, the results of which could be used to plan an appropriate national control programme for brucellosis...
  6. McGiven J, Hendry L, Brown D, Stack J, Perrett L, Mawhinney I. The improved specificity of bovine brucellosis testing in Great Britain. Res Vet Sci. 2008;84:38-40 pubmed
    ..These simple modifications have had a large impact in reducing the cost of the surveillance programme due to reductions in confirmatory test requirements and a knock on effect of reducing costly field intervention...
  7. Adone R, Ciuchini F, Olsen S. Field validation of the use of RB51 as antigen in a complement fixation test to identify calves vaccinated with Brucella abortus RB51. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2001;8:385-7 pubmed
  8. Silva I, Dangolla A, Kulachelvy K. Seroepidemiology of Brucella abortus infection in bovids in Sri Lanka. Prev Vet Med. 2000;46:51-9 pubmed
    ..This infection might be an important cause of abortion in bovids in Sri Lanka. However, there is also evidence of other causes for abortion, repeat breeding and retained placenta...
  9. Olsen S, Tatum F. Bovine brucellosis. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2010;26:15-27, table of contents pubmed publisher
    Infection of cattle caused by Brucella abortus (ie, bovine brucellosis) has been of political importance in the United States for many decades...

More Information

Publications82

  1. Mainar Jaime R, Muñoz P, de Miguel M, Grilló M, Marin C, Moriyon I, et al. Specificity dependence between serological tests for diagnosing bovine brucellosis in Brucella-free farms showing false positive serological reactions due to Yersinia enterocolitica O:9. Can Vet J. 2005;46:913-6 pubmed
    ..In this situation, highly specific tests, such as the indirect ELISA used alone, may be more adequate than serial testing...
  2. Yoon H, Moon O, Her M, Carpenter T, Kim Y, Jung S, et al. Impact of bovine brucellosis eradication programs in the Republic of Korea. Prev Vet Med. 2010;95:288-91 pubmed publisher
    This study concerns a quantitative analysis of the bovine brucellosis eradication program in the Republic of Korea to provide insight into how to plan better future control strategies...
  3. Haileselassie Mekonnen -, Shewit Kalayou -, Moses Kyule -. Serological survey of bovine brucellosis in barka and arado breeds (Bos indicus) of western Tigray, Ethiopia. Prev Vet Med. 2010;94:28-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, screening tests aiming at culling seropositive barka was recommended before distribution to other poverty-prone areas of the region...
  4. Greiner M, Verloo D, De Massis F. Meta-analytical equivalence studies on diagnostic tests for bovine brucellosis allowing assessment of a test against a group of comparative tests. Prev Vet Med. 2009;92:373-81 pubmed publisher
    ..We illustrate and discuss the method using a case study on tests for bovine brucellosis.
  5. Muñoz P, Marin C, Monreal D, Gonzalez D, Garin Bastuji B, Diaz R, et al. Efficacy of several serological tests and antigens for diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in the presence of false-positive serological results due to Yersinia enterocolitica O:9. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2005;12:141-51 pubmed
    ..Although no serological test and antigen combination fully resolved the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in the presence of FPSR, some are simple and practical alternatives to the brucellin skin test currently ..
  6. Carvalho Neta A, Mol J, Xavier M, Paixao T, Lage A, Santos R. Pathogenesis of bovine brucellosis. Vet J. 2010;184:146-55 pubmed publisher
    b>Bovine brucellosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases worldwide, and is of particular significance in developing countries...
  7. Godfroid J, Saegerman C, Wellemans V, Walravens K, Letesson J, Tibor A, et al. How to substantiate eradication of bovine brucellosis when aspecific serological reactions occur in the course of brucellosis testing. Vet Microbiol. 2002;90:461-77 pubmed
    ..work was financed by the EU to develop and assess new diagnostic tools that can differentiate between bovine brucellosis and bovine infections due to Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 either in conjunction with, or as an alternative to,..
  8. Rivera S, Ramírez M, Lopetegui I. Eradication of bovine brucellosis in the 10th Region de Los Lagos, Chile. Vet Microbiol. 2002;90:45-53 pubmed
    The process of Bovine Brucellosis Eradication that began in 1996 in the 10th Region de Los Lagos of Chile will be reviewed...
  9. Lee B, Higgins I, Moon O, Clegg T, McGrath G, Collins D, et al. Surveillance and control of bovine brucellosis in the Republic of Korea during 2000-2006. Prev Vet Med. 2009;90:66-79 pubmed publisher
    b>Bovine brucellosis is a major animal health problem in the Republic of Korea. Further, a number of human cases of brucellosis have recently been detected...
  10. Refai M. Incidence and control of brucellosis in the Near East region. Vet Microbiol. 2002;90:81-110 pubmed
    ..The most commonly used vaccines are B. abortus S19 and B. melitensis Rev.1 vaccines. B. abortus RB51 vaccine is used in some countries on small scale. Vaccination is limited to cattle and small ruminants...
  11. Gall D, Nielsen K. Serological diagnosis of bovine brucellosis: a review of test performance and cost comparison. Rev Sci Tech. 2004;23:989-1002 pubmed
    ..In addition, a fee comparison suggested that the primary binding tests were price competitive with conventional tests for the diagnosis of brucellosis and, therefore, had a better combined cost/efficiency rating...
  12. Samartino L. Brucellosis in Argentina. Vet Microbiol. 2002;90:71-80 pubmed
    ..Actually, the estimate of prevalence is that between 10 and 13% of the farm animals are infected with bovine brucellosis with an individual rate of 4-5%. The annual economical losses have been estimated at 60,000,000 US dollars...
  13. Ibrahim N, Belihu K, Lobago F, Bekana M. Sero-prevalence of bovine brucellosis and its risk factors in Jimma zone of Oromia Region, South-western Ethiopia. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2010;42:35-40 pubmed publisher
    ..sero-prevalence study was conducted on 1,595 cattle in Jimma zone, Ethiopia to investigate the status of bovine brucellosis and identify potential risk factors...
  14. Martins H, Garin Bastuji B, Lima F, Flor L, Pina Fonseca A, Boinas F. Eradication of bovine brucellosis in the Azores, Portugal-Outcome of a 5-year programme (2002-2007) based on test-and-slaughter and RB51 vaccination. Prev Vet Med. 2009;90:80-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Bovine brucellosis is an important contagious disease that can cause abortions and infertility in cattle, and can be transmitted to humans...
  15. Yamamoto T, Tsutsui T, Nishiguchi A, Kobayashi S. Evaluation of surveillance strategies for bovine brucellosis in Japan using a simulation model. Prev Vet Med. 2008;86:57-74 pubmed publisher
    b>Bovine brucellosis is caused by Brucella abortus and induces abortions in female cattle, with other cattle at risk of infection from the aborted fetus or contaminated placenta...
  16. Baek B, Lim C, Rahman M, Kim C, Oluoch A, Kakoma I. Brucella abortus infection in indigenous Korean dogs. Can J Vet Res. 2003;67:312-4 pubmed
    ..The only possible source of infection was infected cattle on the same farm. It is suggested that dogs be routinely included in brucellosis surveillance and eradication programs...
  17. Abernethy D, Pfeiffer D, Watt R, Denny G, McCullough S, McDowell S. Epidemiology of bovine brucellosis in Northern Ireland between 1990 and 2000. Vet Rec. 2006;158:717-21 pubmed
    ..Abortions in an infected herd and the disease-risk status of the disclosure test were positively associated with an increased within-herd prevalence...
  18. Gall D, Colling A, Marino O, Moreno E, Nielsen K, Perez B, et al. Enzyme immunoassays for serological diagnosis of bovine brucellosis: A trial in Latin America. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1998;5:654-61 pubmed
  19. Al Majali A, Talafha A, Ababneh M, Ababneh M. Seroprevalence and risk factors for bovine brucellosis in Jordan. J Vet Sci. 2009;10:61-5 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, the use of disinfectants (OR = 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.1) and the presence of adequate veterinary services (OR = 1.6; 95% CI: 1.2, 3.2) were identified as protective factors...
  20. Kumar S, Tuteja U, Kumar A, Batra H. Expression and purification of the 26 kDa periplasmic protein of Brucella abortus: a reagent for the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis. Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 2008;49:213-8 pubmed
    ..The purified rBP26 was used to develop an in-house plate ELISA and was further tested with a panel of 75 bovine brucellosis sera samples characterized previously by conventional serological tests...
  21. Chaudhuri P, Prasad R, Kumar V, Gangaplara A. Recombinant OMP28 antigen-based indirect ELISA for serodiagnosis of bovine brucellosis. Mol Cell Probes. 2010;24:142-5 pubmed publisher
    ..7%, specificity of 93.8% and accuracy of 92.9%. It was concluded that recombinant B. melitensis OMP28 could be used as a protein antigen for diagnosis of brucellosis in domestic animals...
  22. Saegerman C, De Waele L, Gilson D, Godfroid J, Thiange P, Michel P, et al. Evaluation of three serum i-ELISAs using monoclonal antibodies and protein G as peroxidase conjugate for the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis. Vet Microbiol. 2004;100:91-105 pubmed
    ..e. animals classified negative by classical serological tests) among imported animals...
  23. Amin K, Rahman M, Rahman M, Han J, Park J, Chae J. Prevalence of Brucella antibodies in sera of cows in Bangladesh. J Vet Sci. 2005;6:223-6 pubmed
    ..The study revealed that number of Red Shindi was the highest and the prevalence of brucellosis in Bangladesh cow population is not negligible and it is worthwhile to consider adoption of preventive measures...
  24. Kittelberger R, Reichel M, Joyce M, Staak C. Serological crossreactivity between Brucella abortus and Yersinia enterocolitica 0:9. III. Specificity of the in vitro antigen-specific gamma interferon test for bovine brucellosis diagnosis in experimentally Yersinia enterocolitica 0:9-infected catt. Vet Microbiol. 1997;57:361-71 pubmed
    ..0. These findings show, in contrast to a previous study, that the Brucellergen-specific IFN-gamma assay cannot be used as a specific and discriminatory test for B. abortus infections...
  25. Magona J, Walubengo J, Galiwango T, Etoori A. Seroprevalence and potential risk of bovine brucellosis in zerograzing and pastoral dairy systems in Uganda. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2009;41:1765-71 pubmed publisher
  26. Bernués A, Manrique E, Maza M. Economic evaluation of bovine brucellosis and tuberculosis eradication programmes in a mountain area of Spain. Prev Vet Med. 1997;30:137-49 pubmed
    We applied social cost-benefit analysis to the economic evaluation of the bovine brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis eradication programmes carried out by the public eradication authority for mountain areas in the Spanish Central Pyrenees...
  27. McDermott J, Arimi S. Brucellosis in sub-Saharan Africa: epidemiology, control and impact. Vet Microbiol. 2002;90:111-34 pubmed
    ..The prevalence of risk factors for infections are best understood for bovine brucellosis and to a lesser extent for ovine and caprine brucellosis...
  28. Samartino L, Gall D, Gregoret R, Nielsen K. Validation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis. Vet Microbiol. 1999;70:193-200 pubmed
    ..indirect enzyme immunoassay (IELISA) and the competitive enzyme immunoassay (CELISA) for the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in comparison to conventional serological tests routinely used in Argentina...
  29. Dajer A, Luna Martinez E, Zapata D, Villegas S, Gutierrez E, Pena G, et al. Evaluation of a fluorescence-polarization assay for the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in México. Prev Vet Med. 1999;40:67-73 pubmed
    A homogeneous fluorescence-polarization assay (FPA) was used for the serological diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in México...
  30. Martinez R, Toro R, Montoya F, Burbano M, Tobon J, Gallego J, et al. Bovine SLC11A1 3' UTR SSCP genotype evaluated by a macrophage in vitro killing assay employing a Brucella abortus strain. J Anim Breed Genet. 2008;125:271-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Because only nine animals had the BB genotype, the results require some confirmation in more extensive populations. ..
  31. Rivera D, Rueda O, Calderon C, Mariño O, Gall D, Nielsen K. [Comparative evaluation of the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay in milk for the detection of cattle infected with Brucella abortus, in herds located in the province of Cundinamarca, Colombia]. Rev Sci Tech. 2003;22:1065-75 pubmed
  32. Paixao T, Poester F, Carvalho Neta A, Borges A, Lage A, Santos R. NRAMP1 3' untranslated region polymorphisms are not associated with natural resistance to Brucella abortus in cattle. Infect Immun. 2007;75:2493-9 pubmed
    ..This study aimed to evaluate the association between NRAMP1 3'UTR polymorphisms and resistance against bovine brucellosis in experimental and natural infections. In experimentally infected pregnant cows, abortion occurred in 42...
  33. Mailybayeva A, Yespembetov B, Ryskeldinova S, Zinina N, Sansyzbay A, Renukaradhya G, et al. Improved influenza viral vector based Brucella abortus vaccine induces robust B and T-cell responses and protection against Brucella melitensis infection in pregnant sheep and goats. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0186484 pubmed publisher
    We previously developed a potent candidate vaccine against bovine brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus using the influenza viral vector expressing Brucella Omp16 and L7/L12 proteins (Flu-BA)...
  34. Samaha H, Mohamed T, Khoudair R, Ashour H. Serodiagnosis of brucellosis in cattle and humans in Egypt. Immunobiology. 2009;214:223-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The high prevalence rates of human brucellosis call for more strict application of hygienic measures to prevent the spread of brucellosis from cattle and other livestock to humans...
  35. Fosgate G, Adesiyun A, Hird D, Johnson W, Hietala S, Schurig G, et al. Estimation of receiver-operating characteristic curves to determine accuracy of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the serodiagnosis of Brucella infection in domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle. Am J Vet Res. 2003;64:57-64 pubmed
    ..A cutoff value of 35% inhibition for the c-ELISA was found to be most appropriate for confirmation of Brucella infection in cattle and water buffalo. ..
  36. Garofolo G, Foster J, Drees K, Zilli K, Platone I, Ancora M, et al. Genome Sequences of 11 Brucella abortus Isolates from Persistently Infected Italian Regions. Genome Announc. 2015;3: pubmed publisher
    b>Bovine brucellosis, typically caused by Brucella abortus, has been eradicated from much of the developed world. However, the disease remains prevalent in southern Italy, persisting as a public and livestock health concern...
  37. Whatmore A, Perrett L, Macmillan A. Characterisation of the genetic diversity of Brucella by multilocus sequencing. BMC Microbiol. 2007;7:34 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, by using the phylogenetic backbone described here, robust and rationally selected markers for use in diagnostic assay development can be identified. ..
  38. Rojas N, Zamora O, Cascante J, Garita D, Moreno E. Comparison of the antibody response in adult cattle against different epitopes of Brucella abortus lipopolysaccharide. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health. 2001;48:623-9 pubmed
    ..It should be emphasized that the humoral response of cattle to Brucella LPS contains significant amounts of antibodies to other antigenic moieties of this important surface molecule, which may contribute to the immunity to brucellosis. ..
  39. Kaushik P, Singh D, Kumar S, Tiwari A, Shukla G, Dayal S, et al. Protection of mice against Brucella abortus 544 challenge by vaccination with recombinant OMP28 adjuvanted with CpG oligonucleotides. Vet Res Commun. 2010;34:119-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of the present study indicate that rOMP28 could be an immunogen capable of inducing both humoral and cellular immune response. The humoral response was biased towards Th1 type when it was co-administered with CpG. ..
  40. Wyckoff J, Howland J, Scott C, Smith R, Confer A. Recombinant bovine interleukin 2 enhances immunity and protection induced by Brucella abortus vaccines in cattle. Vet Microbiol. 2005;111:77-87 pubmed
    ..Overall, rBoIL 2-treatment was associated with fewer infections, sero-conversions and a significant (P = 0.02) level of protection against abortion as compared to vaccination alone or no treatment. ..
  41. Junqueira D, Dorneles E, Gonçalves V, Santana J, Almeida V, Nicolino R, et al. Brucellosis in working equines of cattle farms from Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Prev Vet Med. 2015;121:380-5 pubmed publisher
    ..conclusion, the present study showed a low but widespread prevalence of antibodies against smooth Brucella in equines kept in cattle farms in Minas Gerais, a state where bovine brucellosis is also widespread albeit with low prevalence.
  42. Schurig G, Sriranganathan N, Corbel M. Brucellosis vaccines: past, present and future. Vet Microbiol. 2002;90:479-96 pubmed
    ..abortus RB51 strain. This strain has proved safe and effective in the field against bovine brucellosis and exhibits negligible interference with diagnostic serology...
  43. Killian G, Kreeger T, Rhyan J, Fagerstone K, Miller L. Observations on the use of GonaCon in captive female elk (Cervus elaphus). J Wildl Dis. 2009;45:184-8 pubmed
    ..The results indicated that either dose of GonaCon prevented pregnancy of elk cows for at least 3 yr. We concluded that GonaCon use for population management of elk warrants consideration as part of a strategy to control brucellosis. ..
  44. Stephen F. Withdrawal of routine brucellosis testing in beef herds. Vet Rec. 2007;160:599 pubmed
  45. Jergefa T, Kelay B, Bekana M, Teshale S, Gustafson H, Kindahl H. Epidemiological study of bovine brucellosis in three agro-ecological areas of central Oromiya, Ethiopia. Rev Sci Tech. 2009;28:933-43 pubmed
    A cross-sectional sero-epidemiological study of bovine brucellosis was conducted between September 2005 and March 2006 in three separate agroecological areas of central Oromiya, Ethiopia...
  46. de Alencar Mota A, Ferreira F, Ferreira Neto J, Dias R, Amaku M, Hildebrand Grisi Filho J, et al. Large-scale study of herd-level risk factors for bovine brucellosis in Brazil. Acta Trop. 2016;164:226-232 pubmed publisher
    b>Bovine brucellosis is an important zoonosis caused by Brucella abortus that negatively impacts livestock productivity...
  47. Kakoma I, Oluoch A, Baek B, Rahman M, Matsuda K. More attention warranted on Brucella abortus in animals. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2003;222:284 pubmed
  48. Chimana H, Muma J, Samui K, Hangombe B, Munyeme M, Matope G, et al. A comparative study of the seroprevalence of brucellosis in commercial and small-scale mixed dairy-beef cattle enterprises of Lusaka province and Chibombo district, Zambia. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2010;42:1541-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that testing and stamping out of infected animals is likely to improve the situation and significantly reduce the public health risk associated with Brucella infections in animals. ..
  49. Ica T, Aydin F, Erdenlig S, Guler L, Buyukcangaz E. Characterisation of Brucella abortus biovar 3 isolates from Turkey as biovar 3b. Vet Rec. 2008;163:659-61 pubmed
    ..4 kb deletion, different from that in the Tulya strain (B abortus biovar 3, atcc 23450), was identified in all of them. As a result, they were subtyped as B abortus biovar 3b. ..
  50. Sklyarov O, Shumilov K, Klimanov A, Denisov A. Targeted prevention of brucellosis in cattle, sheep, and goats in the Russian Federation. Vaccine. 2010;28 Suppl 5:F54-8 pubmed publisher
  51. Gall D, Nielsen K, Nicola A, Renteria T. A proficiency testing method for detecting antibodies against Brucella abortus in quantitative and qualitative serological tests. Rev Sci Tech. 2008;27:819-28 pubmed
    ..The conventional serological tests all passed the panel. Comparing data from both the quantitative and qualitative tests demonstrated that this proficiency testing scheme was fit for the purpose for which it was designed...
  52. Zhu Y, Oliveira S, Splitter G. Isolation of Brucella abortus ssb and uvrA genes from a genomic library by use of lymphocytes as probes. Infect Immun. 1993;61:5339-44 pubmed
  53. Bankole A, Saegerman C, Berkvens D, Fretin D, Geerts S, Ieven G, et al. Phenotypic and genotypic characterisation of Brucella strains isolated from cattle in the Gambia. Vet Rec. 2010;166:753-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The multiple locus variable number tandem repeat analysis assay clustered the isolates as B abortus with the same profile for the three isolates, suggesting a common origin of contamination...
  54. Lavaroni O, Aguirre N, Vanzini V, Lugaresi C, Torioni de Echaide S. [Assessment of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to diagnose brucellosis in a Brucella infected herd]. Rev Argent Microbiol. 2004;36:101-6 pubmed
    The diagnosis of bovine brucellosis using PCR in blood and milk samples from two dairy herds were compared to in vitro isolation, complement fixation test (CF), competitive ELISA (C-ELISA) in serum, and indirect ELISA (I-ELISA) in milk...
  55. Nielsen K, Smith P, Widdison J, Gall D, Kelly L, Kelly W, et al. Serological relationship between cattle exposed to Brucella abortus, Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 and Escherichia coli O157:H7. Vet Microbiol. 2004;100:25-30 pubmed
    ..coli O157:H7, Y. enterocilitica O:9 and B. abortus is dependent on the test used. Thus, extensive cross reaction was observed with the IELISA with much less reactivity in the FPA and the CELISA...
  56. Sproat J. Withdrawal of routine brucellosis testing in beef herds. Vet Rec. 2007;160:451 pubmed
  57. Edmonds M, Cloeckaert A, Booth N, Fulton W, Hagius S, Walker J, et al. Attenuation of a Brucella abortus mutant lacking a major 25 kDa outer membrane protein in cattle. Am J Vet Res. 2001;62:1461-6 pubmed
    ..To determine the virulence of a Brucella abortus mutant, BA25, lacking a major 25 kd outer membrane protein (Omp25) in cattle...
  58. Hayes M, Kilroy A, Ashe S, Power S, Kenny K, Collins D, et al. Outbreak of bovine brucellosis in County Clare, Ireland, in 2005. Vet Rec. 2010;166:107-11 pubmed publisher
    This paper describes an investigation of an outbreak of bovine brucellosis in County Clare, Ireland, during 2005. It is likely that infection on the index farm was linked to a previous outbreak of brucellosis in County Clare...
  59. Maurin M. [Brucellosis at the dawn of the 21st century]. Med Mal Infect. 2005;35:6-16 pubmed
  60. Oliveira S, Soeurt N, Splitter G. Molecular and cellular interactions between Brucella abortus antigens and host immune responses. Vet Microbiol. 2002;90:417-24 pubmed
    ..Also, identifying Brucella proteins expressed at particular times during infection will also yield insights into Brucella pathogenesis...
  61. Baumgarten D. Brucellosis: a short review of the disease situation in Paraguay. Vet Microbiol. 2002;90:63-9 pubmed
    ..Reported zoonotic cases are presented, as well as control and eradication programs, including utilization of vaccines...
  62. Adone R, Ciuchini F, La Rosa G, Marianelli C, Muscillo M. Use of polymerase chain reaction to identify Brucella abortus strain RB51 among Brucella field isolates from cattle in Italy. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health. 2001;48:107-13 pubmed
  63. Van Campen H, Rhyan J. The role of wildlife in diseases of cattle. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2010;26:147-61, table of contents pubmed publisher
  64. Ruiz Iban M, Crespo P, Diaz Peletier R, Rozado A, Lopez Pardo A. Total hip arthroplasty infected by Brucella: a report of two cases. J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong). 2006;14:99-103 pubmed
    ..As the Brucella pathogen is highly susceptible to antibiotics, standard 2-stage revision arthroplasty for loosened implant or debridement and antibiotic treatment for well-fixed implant should suffice...
  65. Fosgate G, Adesiyun A, Hird D, Hietala S. Likelihood ratio estimation without a gold standard: a case study evaluating a brucellosis c-ELISA in cattle and water buffalo of Trinidad. Prev Vet Med. 2006;75:189-205 pubmed
    ..63); 0.35-0.499 PI, 3.22 (1.39-6.84); 0.50-0.749 PI, 17.9 (6.39-77.4); > or =0.75 PI, 423 (129-infinity). LRs are important for calculation of post-test probabilities and maintaining the quantitative nature of diagnostic test results...
  66. van Dijk J. Voicing the profession's concerns. Vet Rec. 2007;160:706 pubmed
  67. Samaha H, Al Rowaily M, Khoudair R, Ashour H. Multicenter study of brucellosis in Egypt. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:1916-8 pubmed publisher
    ..showed increased prevalence rates of serologically reactive animals. All isolates were B. melitensis biovar 3. One Brucella sp. was isolated from milk of serologically nonreactive buffaloes...
  68. Sanz C, Sáez J, Alvarez J, Cortes M, Pereira G, Reyes A, et al. Mass vaccination as a complementary tool in the control of a severe outbreak of bovine brucellosis due to Brucella abortus in Extremadura, Spain. Prev Vet Med. 2010;97:119-25 pubmed publisher
    We report the evolution of an outbreak of bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus) in the region of Extremadura (Spain) involving more than 1000 herds and nearly 40,000 animals...
  69. Kouba V. A method of accelerated eradication of bovine brucellosis in the Czech Republic. Rev Sci Tech. 2003;22:1003-12 pubmed
    A method of accelerated eradication of bovine brucellosis was developed and applied in the Czech Republic, where livestock was reared primarily in large-scale units...
  70. Serić Haracić S, Salman M, Fejzić N, Cavaljuga S. Brucellosis of ruminants in Bosnia and Herzegovina: disease status, past experiences and initiation of a new surveillance strategy. Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2008;8:27-33 pubmed
    ..This has brought serious consequences to public health, animal health and production and international trade...
  71. Nicoletti P. A short history of brucellosis. Vet Microbiol. 2002;90:5-9 pubmed
  72. Hu X, Yu D, Chen S, Li S, Cai H. A combined DNA vaccine provides protective immunity against Mycobacterium bovis and Brucella abortus in cattle. DNA Cell Biol. 2009;28:191-9 pubmed publisher
    ..bovis, and the protection level induced by the combined DNA vaccine was comparable to S19 against B. abortus. This is the first report to demonstrate that a single combined DNA vaccine protects cattle against two infectious diseases...
  73. Emmerzaal A, de Wit J, Dijkstra T, Bakker D, van Zijderveld F. The Dutch Brucella abortus monitoring programme for cattle: the impact of false-positive serological reactions and comparison of serological tests. Vet Q. 2002;24:40-6 pubmed
    ..In August 1999 the Netherlands was declared officially free of bovine brucellosis by the European Union...