relapsing fever

Summary

Summary: An acute infection characterized by recurrent episodes of PYREXIA alternating with asymptomatic intervals of apparent recovery. This condition is caused by SPIROCHETES of the genus BORRELIA. It is transmitted by the BITES of either the body louse (PEDICULUS humanus corporis), for which humans are the reservoir, or by soft ticks of the genus ORNITHODOROS, for which rodents and other animals are the principal reservoirs.

Top Publications

  1. Cutler S. Possibilities for relapsing fever reemergence. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:369-74 pubmed
    b>Relapsing fever Borrelia infections have attracted little attention in recent years; however, where endemic, these infections still result in considerable illness and death...
  2. Gebbia J, Monco J, Degen J, Bugge T, Benach J. The plasminogen activation system enhances brain and heart invasion in murine relapsing fever borreliosis. J Clin Invest. 1999;103:81-7 pubmed
    The role of the plasminogen activation system (PAS) was investigated during the course of infection of a relapsing fever Borrelia species in plasminogen-deficient (plg -/-) and control (plg +/+ and plg +/-) mice...
  3. Nordstrand A, Bunikis I, Larsson C, Tsogbe K, Schwan T, Nilsson M, et al. Tickborne relapsing fever diagnosis obscured by malaria, Togo. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:117-23 pubmed
    Given the prevalence of relapsing fever (RF) in Senegal, this disease may cause illness and death in other areas of West Africa...
  4. Richter D, Schlee D, Matuschka F. Relapsing fever-like spirochetes infecting European vector tick of Lyme disease agent. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9:697-701 pubmed
    To determine whether relapsing fever-like spirochetes associated with hard ticks may infect Ixodes ricinus ticks in central Europe, we screened questing ticks for 16S rDNA similar to that of Asian and American relapsing fever-like ..
  5. Barbour A, Bundoc V. In vitro and in vivo neutralization of the relapsing fever agent Borrelia hermsii with serotype-specific immunoglobulin M antibodies. Infect Immun. 2001;69:1009-15 pubmed
    The antigenic variation of the relapsing fever agent Borrelia hermsii is associated with changes in the expression of the Vlp and Vsp outer membrane lipoproteins...
  6. Schwan T, Hinnebusch B. Bloodstream- versus tick-associated variants of a relapsing fever bacterium. Science. 1998;280:1938-40 pubmed
    The relapsing fever spirochete, Borrelia hermsii, alternates infections between a mammal and a tick vector...
  7. Roux V, Raoult D. Body lice as tools for diagnosis and surveillance of reemerging diseases. J Clin Microbiol. 1999;37:596-9 pubmed
    ..of epidemic typhus; Bartonella quintana, the agent of trench fever; and Borrelia recurrentis, the agent of relapsing fever. A recrudescence of body lice is being observed as the numbers of individuals living under social conditions ..
  8. McConnell J. Tick-borne relapsing fever under-reported. Lancet Infect Dis. 2003;3:604 pubmed
  9. Anda P, Gebbia J, Backenson P, Coleman J, Benach J. A glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase homolog in Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia hermsii. Infect Immun. 1996;64:262-8 pubmed
    ..GAPDH) in Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent, and Borrelia hermsii, an agent of American relapsing fever. This monoclonal antibody also recognized GAPDH from other pathogenic spirochetes and other prokaryotes and ..

More Information

Publications94

  1. Bárcena Uribarri I, Thein M, Sacher A, Bunikis I, Bonde M, Bergstrom S, et al. P66 porins are present in both Lyme disease and relapsing fever spirochetes: a comparison of the biophysical properties of P66 porins from six Borrelia species. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1798:1197-203 pubmed publisher
    The genus Borrelia is the cause of the two human diseases: Lyme disease (LD) and relapsing fever (RF). Both LD and RF Borrelia species are obligate parasites and are dependent on nutrients provided by their hosts...
  2. Schwan T, Raffel S, Schrumpf M, Webster L, Marques A, Spano R, et al. Tick-borne relapsing fever and Borrelia hermsii, Los Angeles County, California, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1026-31 pubmed publisher
    The primary cause of tick-borne relapsing fever in western North America is Borrelia hermsii, a rodent-associated spirochete transmitted by the fast-feeding soft tick Ornithodoros hermsi...
  3. Brown V, Larouze B, Desve G, Rousset J, Thibon M, Fourrier A, et al. Clinical presentation of louse-borne relapsing fever among Ethiopian refugees in northern Somalia. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1988;82:499-502 pubmed
    Louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) is still endemic among Ethiopian populations...
  4. Brahim H, Perrier Gros Claude J, Postic D, Baranton G, Jambou R. Identifying relapsing fever Borrelia, Senegal. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:474-5 pubmed
    ..Borrelia crocidurae was the only species identified. ..
  5. LaRocca T, Katona L, Thanassi D, Benach J. Bactericidal action of a complement-independent antibody against relapsing fever Borrelia resides in its variable region. J Immunol. 2008;180:6222-8 pubmed
    ..chain variable fragment (scFv) of CB515, a complement-independent bactericidal monoclonal IgM against a relapsing fever Borrelia, was constructed to investigate the region wherein the unique bactericidal function resides...
  6. Guo B, Teneberg S, Münch R, Terunuma D, Hatano K, Matsuoka K, et al. Relapsing fever Borrelia binds to neolacto glycans and mediates rosetting of human erythrocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:19280-5 pubmed publisher
    A hallmark of acute relapsing fever borreliosis is severe bacteremia. Some Borrelia species, such as B. duttonii and B. crocidurae, associate with erythrocytes and induce aggregation recognized as erythrocyte rosetting...
  7. Trape J, Diatta G, Arnathau C, Bitam I, Sarih M, Belghyti D, et al. The epidemiology and geographic distribution of relapsing fever borreliosis in West and North Africa, with a review of the Ornithodoros erraticus complex (Acari: Ixodida). PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e78473 pubmed publisher
    b>Relapsing fever is the most frequent bacterial disease in Africa. Four main vector / pathogen complexes are classically recognized, with the louse Pediculus humanus acting as vector for B...
  8. Scoles G, Papero M, Beati L, Fish D. A relapsing fever group spirochete transmitted by Ixodes scapularis ticks. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2001;1:21-34 pubmed
    ..Phylogenetic analysis showed the unknown Borrelia to cluster with relapsing fever group spirochetes rather than with Lyme disease spirochetes...
  9. Raoult D, Birtles R, Montoya M, Perez E, Tissot Dupont H, Roux V, et al. Survey of three bacterial louse-associated diseases among rural Andean communities in Peru: prevalence of epidemic typhus, trench fever, and relapsing fever. Clin Infect Dis. 1999;29:434-6 pubmed
    ..quintana DNA was amplified from lice. Epidemic typhus remains extant in the area, and B. quintana infections were encountered and documented for the first time in South America...
  10. Rebaudet S, Parola P. Epidemiology of relapsing fever borreliosis in Europe. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2006;48:11-5 pubmed
    Tick-borne relapsing fever is a bacterial infection caused by spirochetes of the genus Borrelia. This zoonotic disease is transmitted to humans through the bite of soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros...
  11. Guyard C, Battisti J, Raffel S, Schrumpf M, Whitney A, Krum J, et al. Relapsing fever spirochaetes produce a serine protease that provides resistance to oxidative stress and killing by neutrophils. Mol Microbiol. 2006;60:710-22 pubmed
    The spirochaetes that cause tick-borne relapsing fever and Lyme disease are closely related human pathogens, yet they differ significantly in their ecology and pathogenicity...
  12. Schwan T, Piesman J. Vector interactions and molecular adaptations of lyme disease and relapsing fever spirochetes associated with transmission by ticks. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:115-21 pubmed
    ..Borrelia burgdorferi, is transmitted by the slow-feeding ixodid tick Ixodes scapularis, whereas the relapsing fever spirochete, B. hermsii, is transmitted by Ornithodoros hermsi, a fast-feeding argasid tick...
  13. Schwan T, Policastro P, Miller Z, Thompson R, Damrow T, Keirans J. Tick-borne relapsing fever caused by Borrelia hermsii, Montana. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9:1151-4 pubmed
    Five persons contracted tick-borne relapsing fever after staying in a cabin in western Montana...
  14. Toledo A, Anda P, Escudero R, Larsson C, Bergstrom S, Benach J. Phylogenetic analysis of a virulent Borrelia species isolated from patients with relapsing fever. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:2484-9 pubmed publisher
    ..used to clarify the taxonomic status of a virulent Borrelia organism previously isolated from patients with relapsing fever and from ticks in Spain that is designated the Spanish relapsing fever (SRF) Borrelia...
  15. Battisti J, Raffel S, Schwan T. A system for site-specific genetic manipulation of the relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia hermsii. Methods Mol Biol. 2008;431:69-84 pubmed
    The lack of a system for genetic manipulation has hindered studies on the molecular pathogenesis of relapsing fever Borrelia...
  16. Cobey F, Goldbarg S, Levine R, Patton C. Short report: Detection of borrelia (relapsing fever) in rural Ethiopia by means of the quantitative buffy coat technique. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2001;65:164-5 pubmed
    The diagnosis of louse-borne relapsing fever is commonly made on the basis of the detection of Borrelia spirochetes on Giemsa-stained thin blood films...
  17. Webster G, Schiffman J, Dosanjh A, Amieva M, Gans H, Sectish T. Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction associated with ciprofloxacin administration for tick-borne relapsing fever. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2002;21:571-3 pubmed
    ..Her outpatient peripheral blood smear was reviewed, revealing spirochetes consistent with Borrelia sp. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction to ciprofloxacin. ..
  18. Platonov A, Karan L, Kolyasnikova N, Makhneva N, Toporkova M, Maleev V, et al. Humans infected with relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi, Russia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:1816-23 pubmed publisher
    ..scapularis ticks in the United States. B. miyamotoi infection may cause relapsing fever and Lyme disease-like symptoms throughout the Holarctic region of the world because of the widespread ..
  19. McCall P, Hume J, Motshegwa K, Pignatelli P, Talbert A, Kisinza W. Does tick-borne relapsing fever have an animal reservoir in East Africa?. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2007;7:659-66 pubmed
    ..This increases understanding of the epidemiology and control of this important but neglected human disease...
  20. Rustenhoven Spaan I, Melkert P, Nelissen E, van Roosmalen J, Stekelenburg J. Maternal mortality in a rural Tanzanian hospital: fatal Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction in a case of relapsing fever in pregnancy. Trop Doct. 2013;43:138-41 pubmed publisher
    b>Relapsing fever is a disease caused by one of the species of Borrelia...
  21. Raoult D, Ndihokubwayo J, Tissot Dupont H, Roux V, Faugere B, Abegbinni R, et al. Outbreak of epidemic typhus associated with trench fever in Burundi. Lancet. 1998;352:353-8 pubmed
    ..Reports of sutama among the civilian population date back to late 1995 and, in association with body-louse infestation, the disease has subsequently swept across the higher and colder regions of the country...
  22. Wyplosz B, Mihaila Amrouche L, Baixench M, Bigel M, Berardi Grassias L, Fontaine C, et al. Imported tickborne relapsing fever, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:1801-3 pubmed
  23. Uhlmann E, Seed P, Schwan T, Storch G. Tick-borne relapsing fever polymerase chain reaction of tick-borne relapsing fever caused by Borrelia hermsii. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007;26:267-9 pubmed
    A patient presented to our hospital with symptoms consistent with relapsing fever. A blood specimen was positive by genus-specific polymerase chain reaction, and sequencing revealed Borrelia hermsii...
  24. Londoño D, Bai Y, Zückert W, Gelderblom H, Cadavid D. Cardiac apoptosis in severe relapsing fever borreliosis. Infect Immun. 2005;73:7669-76 pubmed
    Previous studies revealed that the heart suffers significant injury during experimental Lyme and relapsing fever borreliosis when the immune response is impaired (D. Cadavid, Y. Bai, E. Hodzic, K. Narayan, S. W. Barthold, and A. R...
  25. Bolz D, Sundsbak R, Ma Y, Akira S, Weis J, Schwan T, et al. Dual role of MyD88 in rapid clearance of relapsing fever Borrelia spp. Infect Immun. 2006;74:6750-60 pubmed
    b>Relapsing fever Borrelia spp. undergo antigenic variation, achieve high levels in blood, and require rapid production of immunoglobulin M (IgM) for clearance...
  26. Davis H, Vincent J, Lynch J. Tick-borne relapsing fever caused by Borrelia turicatae. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2002;21:703-5 pubmed
    Tick-borne relapsing fever manifests as relapsing episodes of fever with significant morbidity and mortality. We report a case of Borrelia turicatae disease in a 13-year-old male youth with outdoor exposures in Texas...
  27. Oshaghi M, Rafinejad J, Choubdar N, Piazak N, Vatandoost H, Telmadarraiy Z, et al. Discrimination of relapsing fever Borrelia persica and Borrelia microtti by diagnostic species-specific primers and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011;11:201-7 pubmed publisher
    Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is endemic in Africa and Eurasia and attributed to different Borrelia species...
  28. Masoumi Asl H, Goya M, Vatandoost H, Zahraei S, Mafi M, Asmar M, et al. The epidemiology of tick-borne relapsing fever in Iran during 1997-2006. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2009;7:160-4 pubmed publisher
    Tick-borne relapsing fever is an acute febrile and endemic disease in Iran. For many reasons, the incidence of disease is on decrease, however tick-borne relapsing fever is still a health issue in the rural areas for travelers...
  29. Connolly S, Thanassi D, Benach J. Generation of a complement-independent bactericidal IgM against a relapsing fever Borrelia. J Immunol. 2004;172:1191-7 pubmed
    The spirochetemia of relapsing fever in mice is cleared by a complement-independent, polyclonal IgM response with reactivity to two prominent Ags of 20 and 35 kDa...
  30. Barbour A, Carter C, Sohaskey C. Surface protein variation by expression site switching in the relapsing fever agent Borrelia hermsii. Infect Immun. 2000;68:7114-21 pubmed
    Borrelia hermsii, an agent of relapsing fever, undergoes antigenic variation of serotype-specifying membrane proteins during mammalian infections. When B...
  31. Guyard C, Raffel S, Schrumpf M, Dahlstrom E, Sturdevant D, Ricklefs S, et al. Periplasmic flagellar export apparatus protein, FliH, is involved in post-transcriptional regulation of FlaB, motility and virulence of the relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia hermsii. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e72550 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we characterize a spontaneous non-motile mutant of the relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia hermsii that was straight, non-motile and deficient in periplasmic flagella...
  32. Fukunaga M, Ushijima Y, Aoki L, Talbert A. Detection of Borrelia duttonii, a tick-borne relapsing fever agent in central Tanzania, within ticks by flagellin gene-based nested polymerase chain reaction. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2001;1:331-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The third type of sequence was different from that of any other Old World relapsing fever borreliae, and the tick was thought to be infected with an unknown Borrelia species...
  33. Lundqvist J, Larsson C, Nelson M, Andersson M, Bergstrom S, Persson C. Concomitant infection decreases the malaria burden but escalates relapsing fever borreliosis. Infect Immun. 2010;78:1924-30 pubmed publisher
    About 500 million cases of malaria occur annually. However, a substantial number of patients who actually have relapsing fever (RF) Borrelia infection can be misdiagnosed with malaria due to similar manifestations and geographic ..
  34. Cutler S. Relapsing fever--a forgotten disease revealed. J Appl Microbiol. 2010;108:1115-22 pubmed publisher
    Borrelial relapsing fever was once a major worldwide epidemic disease that made a significant impact on Livingstone during his epic travels through Africa and throughout Europe...
  35. Schwan T, Raffel S, Schrumpf M, Gill J, Piesman J. Characterization of a novel relapsing fever spirochete in the midgut, coxal fluid, and salivary glands of the bat tick Carios kelleyi. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2009;9:643-7 pubmed publisher
    Bat ticks, Carios kelleyi, from Iowa were examined for the presence of relapsing fever group borreliae...
  36. Walker R, Read D, Hayes D, Nordhausen R. Equine abortion associated with the Borrelia parkeri-B. turicatae tick-borne relapsing fever spirochete group. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:1558-62 pubmed
    ..turicatae tick-borne relapsing fever spirochete group with a late-term abortion in a mare are described.
  37. Alugupalli K, Michelson A, Barnard M, Robbins D, Coburn J, Baker E, et al. Platelet activation by a relapsing fever spirochaete results in enhanced bacterium-platelet interaction via integrin alphaIIbbeta3 activation. Mol Microbiol. 2001;39:330-40 pubmed
    Borrelia hermsii, a spirochaete responsible for relapsing fever in humans, grows to high density in the bloodstream and causes thrombocytopenia. We show here that B. hermsii binds to human platelets...
  38. Picken R. Polymerase chain reaction primers and probes derived from flagellin gene sequences for specific detection of the agents of Lyme disease and North American relapsing fever. J Clin Microbiol. 1992;30:99-114 pubmed
    ..the design of oligonucleotide probes that were able to differentiate the three species of North American relapsing fever spirochetes into two separate groups...
  39. McDowell J, Tran E, Hamilton D, Wolfgang J, Miller K, Marconi R. Analysis of the ability of spirochete species associated with relapsing fever, avian borreliosis, and epizootic bovine abortion to bind factor H and cleave c3b. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:3905-10 pubmed
    ..In this report we demonstrate that some Borrelia species associated with relapsing fever bind fH, but not those associated with avian borreliosis and epizootic bovine abortion...
  40. Houhamdi L, Raoult D. Excretion of living Borrelia recurrentis in feces of infected human body lice. J Infect Dis. 2005;191:1898-906 pubmed
    Louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF), caused by Borrelia recurrentis, is 1 of the most dangerous arthropod-borne diseases. Infection is thought to occur through louse crushing. Lice feces have not been shown to contain living borreliae...
  41. Scott J. Typing African relapsing fever spirochetes. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:1722-9 pubmed
    b>Relapsing fever Borrelia spp. challenge microbiologic typing because they possess segmented genomes that maintain essential genes on large linear plasmids. Antigenic variation further complicates typing...
  42. Sidi G, Davidovitch N, Balicer R, Anis E, Grotto I, Schwartz E. Tickborne relapsing fever in Israel. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:1784-6 pubmed
    We evaluated the epidemiology of relapsing fever from 1971 to 2003 in Israel. In civilians, incidence declined from 0.35 to 0.11 cases per 100,000 persons annually; in military personnel it averaged 6.4 cases per 100,000 persons annually...
  43. Hovis K, McDowell J, Griffin L, Marconi R. Identification and characterization of a linear-plasmid-encoded factor H-binding protein (FhbA) of the relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia hermsii. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:2612-8 pubmed
    In North America, tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is caused by the spirochete species Borrelia hermsii, Borrelia parkeri, and Borrelia turicatae. We previously demonstrated that some isolates of B. hermsii and B...
  44. Thein M, Bunikis I, Denker K, Larsson C, Cutler S, Drancourt M, et al. Oms38 is the first identified pore-forming protein in the outer membrane of relapsing fever spirochetes. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:7035-42 pubmed publisher
    b>Relapsing fever is a worldwide, endemic disease caused by several spirochetal species belonging to the genus Borrelia...
  45. Dworkin M, Schwan T, Anderson D, Borchardt S. Tick-borne relapsing fever. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2008;22:449-68, viii pubmed publisher
    ..of and visitors to endemic regions of the western United States are exposed to the tick vectors of tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF), Ornithodoros hermsi, Ornithodoros turicata, or Ornithodoros parkeri...
  46. Ramos J, Malmierca E, Reyes F, Wolde W, Galata A, Tesfamariam A, et al. Characteristics of louse-borne relapsing fever in Ethiopian children and adults. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2004;98:191-6 pubmed
    Louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) is endemic in Ethiopia. The epidemiological and clinical aspects of LBRF and the differences between the infection in children and that in adults were investigated in a rural hospital in Ethiopia...
  47. Moemenbellah Fard M, Benafshi O, Rafinejad J, Ashraf H. Tick-borne relapsing fever in a new highland endemic focus of western Iran. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2009;103:529-37 pubmed publisher
    Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is a neglected zoonotic disease caused by infection with spirochaetes of the genus Borrelia. Humans usually contract it from the bite of infected soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros...
  48. Halperin T, Orr N, Cohen R, Hasin T, Davidovitch N, Klement E, et al. Detection of relapsing fever in human blood samples from Israel using PCR targeting the glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GlpQ) gene. Acta Trop. 2006;98:189-95 pubmed
    b>Relapsing fever caused by Borrelia persica is an acute tick-borne disease infecting people in the Middle East...
  49. Kisinza W, Talbert A, Mutalemwa P, McCall P. Community knowledge, attitudes and practices related to tick-borne relapsing fever in dodoma rural district, central Tanzania. Tanzan J Health Res. 2008;10:131-6 pubmed
    Tick-borne Relapsing Fever (TBRF) is a vector-borne disease of humans which causes serious illness, primarily for children under five years old and pregnant women...
  50. Kisinza W, McCall P, Mitani H, Talbert A, Fukunaga M. A newly identified tick-borne Borrelia species and relapsing fever in Tanzania. Lancet. 2003;362:1283-4 pubmed
    Tick-borne relapsing fever caused by the spirochaete Borrelia duttonii is a common cause of serious illness in central Tanzania...
  51. Roberts D, Carlyon J, Theisen M, Marconi R. The bdr gene families of the Lyme disease and relapsing fever spirochetes: potential influence on biology, pathogenesis, and evolution. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6:110-22 pubmed
    Species of the genus Borrelia cause human and animal infections, including Lyme disease, relapsing fever, and epizootic bovine abortion...
  52. Cutler S, Bonilla E, Singh R. Population structure of East African relapsing fever Borrelia spp. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:1076-80 pubmed publisher
    Differentiation of endemic East African tick-borne relapsing fever Borrelia duttonii spirochetes from epidemic louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) B. recurrentis spirochetes into different species has been questioned...
  53. Hinnebusch B, Barbour A, Restrepo B, Schwan T. Population structure of the relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia hermsii as indicated by polymorphism of two multigene families that encode immunogenic outer surface lipoproteins. Infect Immun. 1998;66:432-40 pubmed
    The tick-borne relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia hermsii evades the mammalian immune system by periodically switching expression among members of two multigene families that encode immunogenic, antigenically distinct outer surface ..
  54. Benoit V, Petrich A, Alugupalli K, Marty Roix R, Moter A, Leong J, et al. Genetic control of the innate immune response to Borrelia hermsii influences the course of relapsing fever in inbred strains of mice. Infect Immun. 2010;78:586-94 pubmed publisher
    ..spirochetes that are capable of infecting a wide range of mammalian hosts, causing Lyme disease and relapsing fever. Relapsing fever is associated with high-level bacteremia, as well as hematologic manifestations, such as ..
  55. Porcella S, Raffel S, Anderson D, Gilk S, Bono J, Schrumpf M, et al. Variable tick protein in two genomic groups of the relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia hermsii in western North America. Infect Immun. 2005;73:6647-58 pubmed
    Borrelia hermsii is the primary cause of tick-borne relapsing fever in North America...
  56. Guyard C, Chester E, Raffel S, Schrumpf M, Policastro P, Porcella S, et al. Relapsing fever spirochetes contain chromosomal genes with unique direct tandemly repeated sequences. Infect Immun. 2005;73:3025-37 pubmed
    Genome sequencing of the relapsing fever spirochetes Borrelia hermsii and Borrelia turicatae identified three open reading frames (ORFs) on the chromosomes that contained internal, tandemly repeated amino acid sequences that were absent ..
  57. Hasin T, Davidovitch N, Cohen R, Dagan T, Romem A, Orr N, et al. Postexposure treatment with doxycycline for the prevention of tick-borne relapsing fever. N Engl J Med. 2006;355:148-55 pubmed
    Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is an acute febrile illness. In Israel, TBRF is caused by Borrelia persica and is transmitted by Ornithodoros tholozani ticks. We examined the safety and efficacy of postexposure treatment to prevent TBRF.
  58. Assous M, Wilamowski A. Relapsing fever borreliosis in Eurasia--forgotten, but certainly not gone!. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2009;15:407-14 pubmed publisher
    Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) has been reported in Eurasia and attributed mainly to Borrelia persica, although other entities have also been described...
  59. Vial L, Durand P, Arnathau C, Halos L, Diatta G, Trape J, et al. Molecular divergences of the Ornithodoros sonrai soft tick species, a vector of human relapsing fever in West Africa. Microbes Infect. 2006;8:2605-11 pubmed
    The soft tick Ornithodoros sonrai is recognized as the only vector of Borrelia crocidurae causing human relapsing fever in West Africa...
  60. Tordini G, Giaccherini R, Corbisiero R, Zanelli G. Relapsing fever in a traveller from Senegal: determination of Borrelia species using molecular methods. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2006;100:992-4 pubmed
    ..febrile patient returning from Senegal in which haemoscopic and molecular investigation confirmed tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF), suggesting Borrelia crocidurae as the causative agent...
  61. Dworkin M, Shoemaker P, Fritz C, Dowell M, Anderson D. The epidemiology of tick-borne relapsing fever in the United States. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2002;66:753-8 pubmed
    ..of and visitors to endemic regions of the western United States are exposed to the vector of tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF), an underrecognized and underreported disease...
  62. Larsson C, Andersson M, Bergstrom S. Current issues in relapsing fever. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2009;22:443-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Relapsing fever has the highest incidence of any bacterial disease in Africa and a massive epidemic potential due to current political turmoil in the Horn of Africa...
  63. Schwan T, Anderson J, Lopez J, Fischer R, Raffel S, McCoy B, et al. Endemic foci of the tick-borne relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia crocidurae in Mali, West Africa, and the potential for human infection. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1924 pubmed publisher
    Tick-borne relapsing fever spirochetes are maintained in endemic foci that involve a diversity of small mammals and argasid ticks in the genus Ornithodoros...
  64. Safdie G, Farrah I, Yahia R, Marva E, Wilamowski A, Sawalha S, et al. Molecular characterization of Borrelia persica, the agent of tick borne relapsing fever in Israel and the Palestinian Authority. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e14105 pubmed publisher
    The identification of the Tick Borne Relapsing Fever (TBRF) agent in Israel and the Palestinian Authority relies on the morphology and the association of Borrelia persica with its vector Ornithodoros tholozani. Molecular based data on B...
  65. Yparraguirre L, Machado Ferreira E, Ullmann A, Piesman J, Zeidner N, Soares C. A hard tick relapsing fever group spirochete in a Brazilian Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2007;7:717-21 pubmed
    ..theileri and B. lonestari. Thus, hard tick relapsing fever group spirochetes represent a clade of widespread bacteria and herein we describe the first molecular ..
  66. Gelderblom H, Schmidt J, Londoño D, Bai Y, Quandt J, Hornung R, et al. Role of interleukin 10 during persistent infection with the relapsing fever Spirochete Borrelia turicatae. Am J Pathol. 2007;170:251-62 pubmed
    b>Relapsing fever is an infection characterized by peaks of spirochetemia attributable to antibody selection against variable serotypes. In the absence of B cells, serotypes cannot be cleared, resulting in persistent infection...
  67. Rossmann E, Kraiczy P, Herzberger P, Skerka C, Kirschfink M, Simon M, et al. Dual binding specificity of a Borrelia hermsii-associated complement regulator-acquiring surface protein for factor H and plasminogen discloses a putative virulence factor of relapsing fever spirochetes. J Immunol. 2007;178:7292-301 pubmed
    Tick-borne relapsing fever in North America is primarily caused by the spirochete Borrelia hermsii...
  68. Fukunaga M, Okada K, Nakao M, Konishi T, Sato Y. Phylogenetic analysis of Borrelia species based on flagellin gene sequences and its application for molecular typing of Lyme disease borreliae. Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1996;46:898-905 pubmed publisher
    ..analysis showed that the genus Borrelia was divided into the following three major clusters: New World relapsing fever borreliae (Borrelia turicatae, Borrelia parkeri, and Borrelia hermsii), Old World relapsing fever borreliae (..
  69. Lopez J, Schrumpf M, Nagarajan V, Raffel S, McCoy B, Schwan T. A novel surface antigen of relapsing fever spirochetes can discriminate between relapsing fever and Lyme borreliosis. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010;17:564-71 pubmed publisher
    ..of Borrelia hermsii, candidate antigens that bound IgM antibodies from mice and patients infected with relapsing fever spirochetes were identified...
  70. Zhong J, Barbour A. Cross-species hybridization of a Borrelia burgdorferi DNA array reveals infection- and culture-associated genes of the unsequenced genome of the relapsing fever agent Borrelia hermsii. Mol Microbiol. 2004;51:729-48 pubmed
    ..hermsii, another spirochete pathogen and a cause of relapsing fever. Cross-species hybridization of a DNA array representing 1628 open reading frames (ORF) of B...
  71. Elbir H, Raoult D, Drancourt M. Relapsing fever borreliae in Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2013;89:288-92 pubmed publisher
    The study of relapsing fever borreliae in Africa has long suffered from the use of non-specific laboratory tools for the direct detection of these spirochetes in clinical and vector specimens...
  72. Geller J, Nazarova L, Katargina O, Järvekülg L, Fomenko N, Golovljova I. Detection and genetic characterization of relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi in Estonian ticks. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e51914 pubmed publisher
    ..Estonian sequences of the European type were obtained from I. ricinus ticks only, whereas the Asian type of B. miyamotoi was shown for both tick species in the sympatric regions...
  73. Schwan T, Raffel S, Schrumpf M, Policastro P, Rawlings J, Lane R, et al. Phylogenetic analysis of the spirochetes Borrelia parkeri and Borrelia turicatae and the potential for tick-borne relapsing fever in Florida. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:3851-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The FCB was clearly separated with the group identified as B. turicatae, confirming this bacterium as a relapsing fever spirochete...
  74. Gelderblom H, Londoño D, Bai Y, Cabral E, Quandt J, Hornung R, et al. High production of CXCL13 in blood and brain during persistent infection with the relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia turicatae. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2007;66:208-17 pubmed
    b>Relapsing fever (RF) is a multisystemic borrelial infection with frequent neurologic involvement referred to as neuroborreliosis. The absence of an effective antibody response results in persistent infection...
  75. Fritz C, Bronson L, Smith C, Schriefer M, Tucker J, Schwan T. Isolation and characterization of Borrelia hermsii associated with two foci of tick-borne relapsing fever in California. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:1123-8 pubmed
    b>Relapsing fever, caused by the spirochete Borrelia hermsii and transmitted by the soft tick Ornithodoros hermsi, is endemic in many rural mountainous areas of California...
  76. Sarih M, Garnier M, Boudebouch N, Bouattour A, Rihani A, Hassar M, et al. Borrelia hispanica relapsing fever, Morocco. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1626-9 pubmed publisher
    We found that 20.5% of patients with an unexplained fever in northwestern Morocco had tick-borne relapsing fever. Molecular detection specific for the 16S rRNA gene identified Borrelia hispanica...
  77. Rich S, Armstrong P, Smith R, Telford S. Lone star tick-infecting borreliae are most closely related to the agent of bovine borreliosis. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:494-7 pubmed
    ..was described at the turn of the century (in 1903), its relationship with borreliae causing Lyme disease or relapsing fever remains undescribed...
  78. Lescot M, Audic S, Robert C, Nguyen T, Blanc G, Cutler S, et al. The genome of Borrelia recurrentis, the agent of deadly louse-borne relapsing fever, is a degraded subset of tick-borne Borrelia duttonii. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000185 pubmed publisher
    ..The correlation between gene loss and increased virulence of B. recurrentis parallels that of Rickettsia prowazekii, with both species being genomic subsets of less-virulent strains...
  79. Ullmann A, Gabitzsch E, Schulze T, Zeidner N, Piesman J. Three multiplex assays for detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Borrelia miyamotoi sensu lato in field-collected Ixodes nymphs in North America. J Med Entomol. 2005;42:1057-62 pubmed
    ..scapularis ticks surveyed from New Jersey positive for B. burgdorferi s.s., 3.2% I. scapularis ticks positive for B. miyamotoi LB-2001, and 41.2% I. spinipalpis ticks positive for B. bissettii surveyed from Colorado...
  80. Ramos J, Malmierca E, Reyes F, Tesfamariam A. Louse-borne relapsing fever in Ethiopian children: experience of a rural hospital. Trop Doct. 2009;39:34-6 pubmed publisher
    We describe the epidemiological and clinical aspects of louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) in a series of children attending in a rural hospital in Ethiopia during 1997-2007. From a total of 249 cases of LBRF, 154 (61...
  81. Schwan T, Raffel S, Schrumpf M, Porcella S. Diversity and distribution of Borrelia hermsii. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:436-42 pubmed
    Borrelia hermsii is the most common cause of tickborne relapsing fever in North America. DNA sequences of the 16S-23S rDNA noncoding intergenic spacer (IGS) region were determined for 37 isolates of this spirochete...
  82. Parola P, Diatta G, Socolovschi C, Mediannikov O, Tall A, Bassene H, et al. Tick-borne relapsing fever borreliosis, rural senegal. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:883-5 pubmed publisher
    Detecting spirochetes remains challenging in cases of African tick-borne relapsing fever. Using real-time PCR specific for the 16S rRNA Borrelia gene, we found 27 (13%) of 206 samples from febrile patients in rural Senegal to be positive,..
  83. Vial L, Diatta G, Tall A, Bâ E, Bouganali H, Durand P, et al. Incidence of tick-borne relapsing fever in west Africa: longitudinal study. Lancet. 2006;368:37-43 pubmed
    ..led to the colonisation of west African Savanna by Ornithodoros sonrai; this tick acts as a vector for Borrelia crocidurae, which causes tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF). Our aim was to ascertain the incidence of TBRF in west Africa.
  84. Ramos J, Malmierca E, Reyes F, Tesfamariam A. Results of a 10-year survey of louse-borne relapsing fever in southern Ethiopia: a decline in endemicity. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2008;102:467-9 pubmed publisher
  85. Lopez J, Porcella S, Schrumpf M, Raffel S, Hammer C, Zhao M, et al. Identification of conserved antigens for early serodiagnosis of relapsing fever Borrelia. Microbiology. 2009;155:2641-51 pubmed publisher
    ..hermsii and Borrelia recurrentis. These results identify a much larger set of immunoreactive proteins, and could help in the early serodiagnosis of this tick-borne infection...