borrelia infections


Summary: Infections with bacteria of the genus BORRELIA.

Top Publications

  1. Lescot M, Audic S, Robert C, Nguyen T, Blanc G, Cutler S, et al. The genome of Borrelia recurrentis, the agent of deadly louse-borne relapsing fever, is a degraded subset of tick-borne Borrelia duttonii. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000185 pubmed publisher
    ..The correlation between gene loss and increased virulence of B. recurrentis parallels that of Rickettsia prowazekii, with both species being genomic subsets of less-virulent strains...
  2. Salazar J, Duhnam Ems S, La Vake C, Cruz A, Moore M, Caimano M, et al. Activation of human monocytes by live Borrelia burgdorferi generates TLR2-dependent and -independent responses which include induction of IFN-beta. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000444 pubmed publisher
  3. Gassner F, Verbaarschot P, Smallegange R, Spitzen J, Van Wieren S, Takken W. Variations in Ixodes ricinus density and Borrelia infections associated with cattle introduced into a woodland in The Netherlands. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:7138-44 pubmed publisher
    The effect of introduced large herbivores on the abundance of Ixodes ricinus ticks and their Borrelia infections was studied in a natural woodland in The Netherlands. Oak and pine plots, either ungrazed or grazed by cattle, were selected...
  4. Schwan T, Battisti J, Porcella S, Raffel S, Schrumpf M, Fischer E, et al. Glycerol-3-phosphate acquisition in spirochetes: distribution and biological activity of glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GlpQ) among Borrelia species. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:1346-56 pubmed
    ..The unique ability of relapsing-fever spirochetes to hydrolyze phospholipids may contribute to their higher cell densities in blood than those of Lyme disease spirochetes...
  5. Wooten R, Ma Y, Yoder R, Brown J, Weis J, Zachary J, et al. Toll-like receptor 2 is required for innate, but not acquired, host defense to Borrelia burgdorferi. J Immunol. 2002;168:348-55 pubmed
    ..Thus, while TLR2-dependent signaling pathways play a major role in the innate host defense to B. burgdorferi, both inflammatory responses and the development of the acquired humoral response can occur in the absence of TLR2...
  6. Gruntar I, Malovrh T, Murgia R, Cinco M. Conversion of Borrelia garinii cystic forms to motile spirochetes in vivo. APMIS. 2001;109:383-8 pubmed
  7. James A, Liveris D, Wormser G, Schwartz I, Montecalvo M, Johnson B. Borrelia lonestari infection after a bite by an Amblyomma americanum tick. J Infect Dis. 2001;183:1810-4 pubmed
    ..DNA amplification of the flagellin gene flaB produced B. lonestari sequences from the skin of the patient that were identical to those found in the attached tick. B. lonestari is a probable cause of erythema migrans in humans...
  8. Cadavid D, Pachner A, Estanislao L, Patalapati R, Barbour A. Isogenic serotypes of Borrelia turicatae show different localization in the brain and skin of mice. Infect Immun. 2001;69:3389-97 pubmed
    ..VspA, VspB, and the periplasmic flagellin protein were expressed in all tissues examined. These findings indicate that isogenic but antigenically distinct Borrelia serotypes can have marked differences in their localization in tissues...
  9. Behera A, Hildebrand E, Uematsu S, Akira S, Coburn J, Hu L. Identification of a TLR-independent pathway for Borrelia burgdorferi-induced expression of matrix metalloproteinases and inflammatory mediators through binding to integrin alpha 3 beta 1. J Immunol. 2006;177:657-64 pubmed
    ..burgdorferi to integrin alpha(3)beta(1) results in the release of inflammatory mediators and is proposed as a TLR-independent pathway for activation of the innate immune response by the organism...

More Information


  1. Barbour A, Bunikis J, Travinsky B, Hoen A, Diuk Wasser M, Fish D, et al. Niche partitioning of Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia miyamotoi in the same tick vector and mammalian reservoir species. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009;81:1120-31 pubmed publisher
    ..miyamotoi averaged approximately 0.20 and approximately 0.02, respectively. Co-infections of P. leucopus or I. scapularis with both B. burgdorferi and B. miyamotoi were neither more nor less common than random expectations...
  2. Gassner F, van Vliet A, Burgers S, Jacobs F, Verbaarschot P, Hovius E, et al. Geographic and temporal variations in population dynamics of Ixodes ricinus and associated Borrelia infections in The Netherlands. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011;11:523-32 pubmed publisher
    ..ricinus nymphs and adults were observed in the winter months. Mean monthly Borrelia infections in nymphs varied from 0% to 29...
  3. Glockner G, Schulte Spechtel U, Schilhabel M, Felder M, Sühnel J, Wilske B, et al. Comparative genome analysis: selection pressure on the Borrelia vls cassettes is essential for infectivity. BMC Genomics. 2006;7:211 pubmed
  4. Clark K. Borrelia species in host-seeking ticks and small mammals in northern Florida. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:5076-86 pubmed
    ..The presence of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto strains in host-seeking lone star ticks at two sites in Florida suggests that A. americanum should still be considered a possible vector of B. burgdorferi sensu lato...
  5. Cutler S, Akintunde C, Moss J, Fukunaga M, Kurtenbach K, Talbert A, et al. Successful in vitro cultivation of Borrelia duttonii and its comparison with Borrelia recurrentis. Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1999;49 Pt 4:1793-9 pubmed
    ..7% homology with three strains deposited by others in GenBank. The rrs gene of eight representative clinical isolates of B. recurrentis confirmed their close similarity with B. duttonii...
  6. Zhong J, Barbour A. Cross-species hybridization of a Borrelia burgdorferi DNA array reveals infection- and culture-associated genes of the unsequenced genome of the relapsing fever agent Borrelia hermsii. Mol Microbiol. 2004;51:729-48 pubmed
    ..Orthologues of BBP07 in B. hermsii were identified, and increased expression in infected mice was demonstrated by quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction...
  7. Dennis V, Dixit S, O Brien S, Alvarez X, Pahar B, Philipp M. Live Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes elicit inflammatory mediators from human monocytes via the Toll-like receptor signaling pathway. Infect Immun. 2009;77:1238-45 pubmed publisher
    ..burgdorferi spirochetes and furthermore suggest that the TLR-dependent interaction between these cells and live spirochetes is mediated by spirochetal lipoproteins but not by flagellin...
  8. Gebbia J, Monco J, Degen J, Bugge T, Benach J. The plasminogen activation system enhances brain and heart invasion in murine relapsing fever borreliosis. J Clin Invest. 1999;103:81-7 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate a role for the PAS in heart and brain invasion by relapsing fever Borrelia, resulting in organ injury...
  9. Battisti J, Raffel S, Schwan T. A system for site-specific genetic manipulation of the relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia hermsii. Methods Mol Biol. 2008;431:69-84 pubmed
    ..The methods described here are applicable for the inactivation of other loci in B. hermsii and should be adaptable for other species of relapsing fever spirochetes...
  10. Connolly S, Benach J. The versatile roles of antibodies in Borrelia infections. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2005;3:411-20 pubmed
  11. Bär K, Jochum T, Häger F, Meissner W, Sauer H. Painful hallucinations and somatic delusions in a patient with the possible diagnosis of neuroborreliosis. Clin J Pain. 2005;21:362-3 pubmed
    ..Although this patient might have suffered from late-onset schizophrenia with painful hallucinations right from the start of her disease, the case highlights psychiatric complications that might be associated with neuroborreliosis. ..
  12. Whitney M, Schwan T, Sultemeier K, McDonald P, Brillhart M. Spirochetemia caused by Borrelia turicatae infection in 3 dogs in Texas. Vet Clin Pathol. 2007;36:212-6 pubmed
    ..B turicatae is transmitted by the soft tick, Ornithodoros turicata, and infection should be considered in dogs with spirochetemia and possible exposure to the tick vector...
  13. Z ckert W, Meyer J, Barbour A. Comparative analysis and immunological characterization of the Borrelia Bdr protein family. Infect Immun. 1999;67:3257-66 pubmed
    ..Together, these data indicate that Bdr proteins constitute a family of cross-reactive Borrelia proteins which are expressed in the course of Lyme disease and in vitro...
  14. Gallien S, Sarfati C, Haas L, Lagrange Xelot M, Molina J. Borreliosis: a rare and alternative diagnosis in travellers' febrile illness. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2007;5:247-50 pubmed
    ..All symptoms rapidly resolved following tetracycline therapy. Epidemiological and clinical features of borreliosis, diagnostic tools and management are discussed. ..
  15. Skarphedinsson S, Søgaard P, Pedersen C. Seroprevalence of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in high-risk groups in Denmark. Scand J Infect Dis. 2001;33:206-10 pubmed
    ..Our study indicates that HGE infection with or without concomitant or previous Borrelia burgdorferi infection is common in tick-exposed individuals > 20 y old in the county of Funen, Denmark. ..
  16. Garcia Monco J, Benach J. A disconnect between the neurospirochetoses in humans and rodent models of disease. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003288 pubmed publisher
  17. Lin T, Oliver J, Gao L. Genetic diversity of the outer surface protein C gene of southern Borrelia isolates and its possible epidemiological, clinical, and pathogenetic implications. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:2572-83 pubmed
    ..Currently, strain MI-2 appears to be the only southern isolate among the 20 we analyzed that clusters with an OspC invasive group and thus might be invasive for humans...
  18. Zlobin V. [Tick-borne encephalitis in the Russian Federation: state-of-the-art and prevention policy]. Vopr Virusol. 2005;50:26-32 pubmed
    ..Under the present conditions, the strategy of TBE control should be radically revised towards mass vaccination of the population living in the highly endemic areas, which will drastically reduced morbidity in the country. ..
  19. Schwan T, Raffel S, Schrumpf M, Webster L, Marques A, Spano R, et al. Tick-borne relapsing fever and Borrelia hermsii, Los Angeles County, California, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1026-31 pubmed publisher
    ..hermsii and the presence of rodents that were seropositive for the spirochete. We determined that this tick-borne disease is endemic to the San Gabriel Mountains near the greater Los Angeles metropolitan area. ..
  20. Zajkowska J, Moniuszko A, Czupryna P, Pancewicz S, Grygorczuk S, Kondrusik M. [STARI--a new tick borne spirochetosis]. Przegl Epidemiol. 2009;63:19-22 pubmed
    ..In diagnostic of STARI traditional methods are not effective. The decision of antibiotic treatment (similar to Lyme borreliosis) still remain based on clinical picture. ..
  21. Cisak E, Chmielewska Badora J, Dutkiewicz J, Zwolinski J. Preliminary studies on the relationship between Ixodes ricinus activity and tick-borne infection among occupationally-exposed inhabitants of eastern Poland. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2001;8:293-5 pubmed
    ..A significant correlation between tick activity and seroprevalence to both TBEV and B. burgdorferi antigen was found in farmers and in the total examined population. ..
  22. Fotso Fotso A, Mediannikov O, Nappez C, Azza S, Raoult D, Drancourt M. Monoclonal Antibodies for the Diagnosis of Borrelia crocidurae. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2016;94:61-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These first-ever MAbs directed against African relapsing fever borreliae are available for the scientific community to promote research in this neglected field. ..
  23. Gouveia E, Alves M, Mantovani E, Oyafuso L, Bonoldi V, Yoshinari N. Profile of patients with Baggio-Yoshinari Syndrome admitted at "Instituto de Infectologia Emilio Ribas". Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2010;52:297-303 pubmed
  24. Hanincová K, Schafer S, Etti S, Sewell H, Taragelova V, Ziak D, et al. Association of Borrelia afzelii with rodents in Europe. Parasitology. 2003;126:11-20 pubmed
    ..afzelii is specifically maintained by European rodents, validating the concept of host-association of B. burgdorferi s.l. ..
  25. Policastro P, Raffel S, Schwan T. Borrelia hermsii acquisition order in superinfected ticks determines transmission efficiency. Infect Immun. 2013;81:2899-908 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that dual GGI-GGII spirochete infections can persist in ticks and that transmission to a vertebrate host is dependent on the order of tick acquisition and the interval between acquisition and transmission events. ..
  26. Hovis K, Freedman J, Zhang H, Forbes J, Marconi R. Identification of an antiparallel coiled-coil/loop domain required for ligand binding by the Borrelia hermsii FhbA protein: additional evidence for the role of FhbA in the host-pathogen interaction. Infect Immun. 2008;76:2113-22 pubmed publisher
    ..hermsii. ..
  27. Patrat Delon S, Drogoul A, Le Ho H, Biziraguzenyuka J, Rabier V, Arvieux C, et al. [Recurrent tick-borne fever: a possible diagnosis in patients returning from Senegal]. Med Mal Infect. 2008;38:396-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients who return form Senegal with unexplained fever should be investigated with careful examination of blood smears and PCR on blood samples. ..
  28. Hu C, Wilske B, Fingerle V, Lobet Y, Gern L. Transmission of Borrelia garinii OspA serotype 4 to BALB/c mice by Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in the field. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:1169-71 pubmed
    ..afzelii. The infected mice transmitted mainly OspA serotype 4 to xenodiagnostic ticks, preferentially in combination with B. afzelii. ..
  29. Bestor A, Rego R, Tilly K, Rosa P. Competitive advantage of Borrelia burgdorferi with outer surface protein BBA03 during tick-mediated infection of the mammalian host. Infect Immun. 2012;80:3501-11 pubmed publisher
    ..burgdorferi. These results suggest that BBA03 provides a competitive advantage to spirochetes carrying this protein during tick transmission to a mammalian host in the natural infectious cycle. ..
  30. von Aulock S, Diterich I, Hareng L, Hartung T. G-CSF: boosting endogenous production--a new strategy?. Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2004;5:1148-52 pubmed
    ..New research into the production and regulation of G-CSF in health and disease may now enable tailored strategies to induce or boost G-CSF formation. Similarly, new forms of application may increase its effectiveness. ..
  31. Kybicová K, Kurzová Z, Hulinska D. Molecular and serological evidence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in wild rodents in the Czech Republic. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2008;8:645-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Total seroprevalence was higher in Apodemus spp. than in C. glareolus. In conclusion, our data indicate that in the Czech Republic small wild rodents can serve as hosts for B. burgdorferi s. s. as well as for B. afzelii. ..
  32. Weller M, Stevens A, Sommer N, Wietholter H. Are CSF or serum ganglioside antibodies related to peripheral nerve demyelination in neuroborreliosis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, or chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy?. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1992;242:122-6 pubmed
    ..The lack of specific ganglioside antibody patterns in these four patients suggests that ganglioside antibodies are not the link between Borrelia burgdorferi infection and the demyelination of peripheral nerves in GBS and CIDP. ..
  33. Masters E, Grigery C, Masters R. STARI, or Masters disease: Lone Star tick-vectored Lyme-like illness. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2008;22:361-76, viii pubmed publisher
    ..More research is needed to fully understand this newly recognized zoonosis. Clinicians are encouraged to increase their knowledge and awareness of this Lyme disease mimic. ..
  34. Pal U, Dai J, Li X, Neelakanta G, Luo P, Kumar M, et al. A differential role for BB0365 in the persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi in mice and ticks. J Infect Dis. 2008;197:148-55 pubmed publisher
    ..burgdorferi life cycle. ..
  35. Yabsley M, Murphy S, Luttrell M, Little S, Massung R, Stallknecht D, et al. Experimental and field studies on the suitability of raccoons (Procyon lotor) as hosts for tick-borne pathogens. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2008;8:491-503 pubmed publisher
    ..ewingii, or B. lonestari. However, raccoons are experimentally susceptible and naturally exposed to E. chaffeensis, and these data support the previous finding that raccoons may be involved in the natural history of A. phagocytophilum...
  36. Hovette P, Kraemer P, Chaudier B. [Image ... of Borrelia]. Med Trop (Mars). 2002;62:488 pubmed
  37. Mayegga E, Ljøstad U, Mygland A, Monstad P. Absence of focal neurological involvement in tick-borne relapsing fever in northern Tanzania. Eur J Neurol. 2005;12:449-52 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, tick-borne relapsing fever is a common disease in the Northern highland of Tanzania, but in contrast to other parts of the world, neurological involvement is uncommon in this area. ..
  38. Marcsisin R, Campeau S, Lopez J, Barbour A. Alp, an arthropod-associated outer membrane protein of Borrelia species that cause relapsing fever. Infect Immun. 2012;80:1881-90 pubmed publisher
    ..hermsii antigens but not detectably to native or recombinant Alp...
  39. Raberg L. Infection intensity and infectivity of the tick-borne pathogen Borrelia afzelii. J Evol Biol. 2012;25:1448-53 pubmed publisher
    ..This shows that interspecific variation in host resistance does not necessarily translate into a difference in infectivity. ..
  40. Aydogan K, Karadogan S, Adim S, Tunali S. Borrelial lymphocytoma cutis successfully treated with intralesional interferon-alpha-2A. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2006;20:1030-2 pubmed
  41. Ferreri A, Ernberg I, Copie Bergman C. Infectious agents and lymphoma development: molecular and clinical aspects. J Intern Med. 2009;265:421-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Molecular, biological and clinical features as well as therapeutic implications of these associations are analysed and future perspectives in this field are discussed. ..
  42. Ataliba A, Resende J, Yoshinari N, Labruna M. Isolation and molecular characterization of a Brazilian strain of Borrelia anserina, the agent of fowl spirochaetosis. Res Vet Sci. 2007;83:145-9 pubmed
    ..The isolate was successfully isolated in BSK medium, with seven passages performed. The spirochaete strain isolated in the present study was genetically identified as B. anserina labeled as strain PL. ..
  43. Alugupalli K, Leong J, Woodland R, Muramatsu M, Honjo T, Gerstein R. B1b lymphocytes confer T cell-independent long-lasting immunity. Immunity. 2004;21:379-90 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that B1b lymphocytes can provide long-lasting T cell-independent IgM memory. ..
  44. Mackensen F, Zimmermann S, Alle W, Max R, Jakob E, Becker M, et al. Difficulties of interpreting Borrelia serology in patients with uveitis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2011;19:227-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Looking at posttest-probability shows a lot of false-positive test results when testing all uveitis patients for Borrelia routinely. ..
  45. Londoño D, Marques A, Hornung R, Cadavid D. IL-10 helps control pathogen load during high-level bacteremia. J Immunol. 2008;181:2076-83 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that at times of high pathogen load, as during peak bacteremia in relapsing fever borreliosis, IL-10 protects innate immune cells from apoptosis via inhibition of TNF resulting in improved pathogen control. ..
  46. Labarthe N, de Campos Pereira M, Barbarini O, McKee W, Coimbra C, Hoskins J. Serologic prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, and Borrelia burgdorferi infections in Brazil. Vet Ther. 2003;4:67-75 pubmed
    ..burgdorferi and E. canis antibodies and D. immitis antigen. D. immitis infection was detected in 51 dogs (2.0%) and E. canis antibodies were present in 505 dogs 19.8%). Only one dog tested positive for B. burgdorferi antibodies...
  47. Eggers C, Caimano M, Malizia R, Kariu T, Cusack B, Desrosiers D, et al. The coenzyme A disulphide reductase of Borrelia burgdorferi is important for rapid growth throughout the enzootic cycle and essential for infection of the mammalian host. Mol Microbiol. 2011;82:679-97 pubmed publisher
  48. Bhide M, Travnicek M, Levkutova M, Curlik J, Revajova V, Levkut M. Sensitivity of Borrelia genospecies to serum complement from different animals and human: a host-pathogen relationship. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2005;43:165-72 pubmed
    ..In short, this study reviews Borrelia-host relationship and its relevance in reservoir competence nature of animals...
  49. Rudenko N, Golovchenko M, Ruzek D, Piskunova N, Mallátová N, Grubhoffer L. Molecular detection of Borrelia bissettii DNA in serum samples from patients in the Czech Republic with suspected borreliosis. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2009;292:274-81 pubmed publisher
    ..bissettii in LB in Europe...
  50. Mancardi G, Del Sette M, Primavera A, Farinelli M, Fumarola D. A prospective study of acute idiopathic neuropathy II antecedent events. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1989;52:424-5 pubmed
  51. Shirani D, Rakhshanpoor A, Cutler S, Ghazinezhad B, Naddaf S. A case of canine borreliosis in Iran caused by Borrelia persica. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2016;7:424-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This may pose a threat to household members who buy and keep these puppies and as a result may come into close contact with infected ticks. ..
  52. Gordillo Pérez G, Vargas M, Solorzano Santos F, Rivera A, Polaco O, Alvarado L, et al. Demonstration of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto infection in ticks from the northeast of Mexico. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2009;15:496-8 pubmed publisher
    ..burgdorferi sensu stricto. These findings, together with reports of indigenous cases, fulfil the criteria that allow northeastern Mexico to be considered as a zone endemic for Lyme disease...
  53. MacDonald A. Alzheimer's disease Braak Stage progressions: reexamined and redefined as Borrelia infection transmission through neural circuits. Med Hypotheses. 2007;68:1059-64 pubmed
    ..Alzheimer's disease under a new paradigm, namely "Alzheimer's neuroborreliosis" in which latent Borrelia infections ascend neural circuits through the hippocampus to the higher brain centers, creating a trail of ..
  54. Takada N, Fujita H, Yano Y, Ishiguro F, Iwasaki H, Masuzawa T. First records of tick-borne pathogens, Borrelia, and spotted fever group Rickettsiae in Okinawajima Island, Japan. Microbiol Immunol. 2001;45:163-5 pubmed
    ..These are the first reports of these pathogens on Okinawajima Island...
  55. Ziemer M, Bauer H, Fluhr J, Kaatz M, Elsner P. Primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma -'crosti lymphoma': what can we learn?. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2008;9:133-6 pubmed
    ..It is also important to recognize that inability to verify monoclonality should not exclude the diagnosis of lymphoma...
  56. Takino H, Li C, Hu S, Kuo T, Geissinger E, Muller Hermelink H, et al. Primary cutaneous marginal zone B-cell lymphoma: a molecular and clinicopathological study of cases from Asia, Germany, and the United States. Mod Pathol. 2008;21:1517-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Borrelia infection and API2-MALT1 fusion are not significant in this tumor. Methylation of DAPK and p16(INK4a) genes is a frequent event in this lymphoma at its initial presentation, but may not be associated with tumor progression...
  57. Sellek R, Escudero R, Gil H, Rodriguez I, Chaparro E, Perez Pastrana E, et al. In vitro culture of Borrelia garinii results in loss of flagella and decreased invasiveness. Infect Immun. 2002;70:4851-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a multifactorial model in which the number of flagella drives the invasiveness of this agent, while plasmid-associated factors are responsible for triggering arthritogenicity...
  58. Nordstrand A, Shamaei Tousi A, Ny A, Bergstrom S. Delayed invasion of the kidney and brain by Borrelia crocidurae in plasminogen-deficient mice. Infect Immun. 2001;69:5832-9 pubmed
    ..The results show that invasion of brain and kidney occurs as early as 2 days after inoculation. Also, Plg is not required for establishment of spirochetemia by the organism, whereas it is involved in the invasion of organs...
  59. Shamaei Tousi A, Collin O, Bergh A, Bergstrom S. Testicular damage by microcirculatory disruption and colonization of an immune-privileged site during Borrelia crocidurae infection. J Exp Med. 2001;193:995-1004 pubmed
    ..These results confirmed our hypothesis that the erythrocyte rosettes produce vascular obstruction and are the main cause of histopathology seen in model animal and human infections...
  60. Gęca A, Mazurek U, Muc Wierzgoń M, Nowakowska Zajdel E, Niedworok E, Ziółko E, et al. [The role of complement factor H in the pathogenesis of Borrelia infection]. Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online). 2012;66:501-6 pubmed
  61. Owen D. Is Lyme disease always poly microbial?--The jigsaw hypothesis. Med Hypotheses. 2006;67:860-4 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that many pieces of the puzzle are missing and our knowledge of how the pieces fit together is rudimentary. It is hoped that the hypothesis will help our understanding of this complex, enigmatic condition...
  62. Nowosad A, Jenek J, Głazaczow A, Wal M. [Ticks Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus, 1758) from selected municipal forests of the city Pozna? and their infection with the spirochetes Borrelia burgdorferi senso lato]. Przegl Epidemiol. 1999;53:299-308 pubmed
    ..8% and in Pozna? slightly higher, 22.2% (tab. IV). The infection levels of the particular developmental stages are different, though: highly variable in nymphs (8.3-25.6%), and more stable in males (22.0-27.3%) and females (22.0-24.5%)...
  63. Boer A, Bresch M, Dayrit J, Falk T. Erythema migrans: a reassessment of diagnostic criteria for early cutaneous manifestations of borreliosis with particular emphasis on clonality investigations. Br J Dermatol. 2007;156:1263-71 pubmed
    ..Systematic clinicopathological, immunophenotypical and molecular pathological studies of early borreliosis are lacking...
  64. Lewis E, Marcsisin R, Campeau Miller S, Hue F, Phillips A, AuCoin D, et al. Fibronectin-binding protein of Borrelia hermsii expressed in the blood of mice with relapsing fever. Infect Immun. 2014;82:2520-31 pubmed publisher
  65. Ybañez A, Sato F, Nambo Y, Fukui T, Masuzawa T, Ohashi N, et al. Survey on tick-borne pathogens in thoroughbred horses in the Hidaka district, Hokkaido, Japan. J Vet Med Sci. 2013;75:11-5 pubmed
    ..while those from Haemaphysalis megaspinosa ticks were found positive for Anaplasma sp. closely related to A. phagocytophilum in Japan, and A. bovis. B. japonica was also detected in an H. flava tick for the first time...
  66. Nuttall P, Paesen G, Lawrie C, Wang H. Vector-host interactions in disease transmission. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2000;2:381-6 pubmed
    ..Understanding the key events at the tick vector-host interface, that promote spirochete infection and transmission, will provide a better understanding of the epidemiology and ecology of these important human pathogens...
  67. Vuyyuru R, Liu H, Manser T, Alugupalli K. Characteristics of Borrelia hermsii infection in human hematopoietic stem cell-engrafted mice mirror those of human relapsing fever. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:20707-12 pubmed publisher
    ..hermsii responses and persistent bacteremia in HISmice. These data indicate that analysis of B. hermsii infection in HISmice will serve as a model in which to study the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in controlling human RF...
  68. Carlsson S, Granlund H, Jansson C, Nyman D, Wahlberg P. Characteristics of erythema migrans in Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii infections. Scand J Infect Dis. 2003;35:31-3 pubmed
    ..The garinii erythemas developed more rapidly, and were generally larger than the afzelii erythemas. The observations call for comparison with other geographical areas with similar, and with different, borrelial infection spectra...
  69. van Dam A. Diversity of Ixodes-borne Borrelia species--clinical, pathogenetic, and diagnostic implications and impact on vaccine development. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2002;2:249-54 pubmed
    ..A vaccine against B. burgdorferi sensu stricto has been licensed, but was recently redrawn from the market because of commercial reasons. A vaccine protecting against all three pathogenic species is not yet available...
  70. Boudova L, Kazakov D, Hes O, Sůvová B, Neprasova P, Treska V, et al. [Pseudolymphoma of the breast nipple. The problem overview]. Rozhl Chir. 2005;84:66-9 pubmed
    ..Beside CPL, the differential diagnosis of the breast nipple lesions further includes Paget carcinoma, eczema, and florid papillomatosis...
  71. Václav R, Ficova M, Prokop P, Betakova T. Associations between coinfection prevalence of Borrelia lusitaniae, Anaplasma sp., and Rickettsia sp. in hard ticks feeding on reptile hosts. Microb Ecol. 2011;61:245-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, however, positive effects of Borrelia on Anaplasma seem to prevail as judged by higher-than-expected Borrelia-Anaplasma coinfection rates...
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    ..In summary, B. burgdorferi-associated LC can present with misleading histopathologic, immunophenotypic, and molecular features, and integration of all data is necessary for a correct diagnosis...
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    ..americanum spirochete uptake. These collective results indicate suboptimal conditions for B. burgdorferi uptake and colonization within A. americanum or the presence of anti-Borrelia factor(s) in this nonpermissive tick species...
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    ..and "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis" (1.3%). The diversity of tick-borne pathogens detected in this study and the frequency of co-infections should influence all infection risk evaluations following a tick bite...
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    ..Our data demonstrate that WTD are exposed to both Borrelia species, but antibody prevalence for exposure to the two species differs regionally and distributions correlate with the presence of Ixodes scapularis and A. americanum ticks...
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    ..A literature review at the respect of such association and its treatment is performed...
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