bordetella infections

Summary

Summary: Infections with bacteria of the genus BORDETELLA.

Top Publications

  1. Bemis D, Shek W, Clifford C. Bordetella bronchiseptica infection of rats and mice. Comp Med. 2003;53:11-20 pubmed
    ..bronchiseptica infections and present information gained from recent experimental infection studies in murine hosts. We also discuss the potential impact of natural B. bronchiseptica infections on research and methods of control. ..
  2. Goebel E, Wolfe D, Elder K, Stibitz S, Harvill E. O antigen protects Bordetella parapertussis from complement. Infect Immun. 2008;76:1774-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that O antigen enables B. parapertussis to efficiently colonize the lower respiratory tract by protecting against complement-mediated control and clearance...
  3. Pilione M, Agosto L, Kennett M, Harvill E. CD11b is required for the resolution of inflammation induced by Bordetella bronchiseptica respiratory infection. Cell Microbiol. 2006;8:758-68 pubmed
    ..bronchiseptica. These data provide new insight into the key role CD11b plays in the resolution of damage in the lower respiratory tract, as well as the B. bronchiseptica virulence determinant that induces it. ..
  4. Brockmeier S, Register K, Magyar T, Lax A, Pullinger G, Kunkle R. Role of the dermonecrotic toxin of Bordetella bronchiseptica in the pathogenesis of respiratory disease in swine. Infect Immun. 2002;70:481-90 pubmed
    ..Therefore, production of DNT by B. bronchiseptica is necessary to produce the lesions of turbinate atrophy and bronchopneumonia in pigs infected with this organism...
  5. Irie Y, Yuk M. In vivo colonization profile study of Bordetella bronchiseptica in the nasal cavity. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2007;275:191-8 pubmed
    ..bronchiseptica in the unciliated olfactory epithelia of the nasal cavity...
  6. Pathak A, Boag B, Poss M, Harvill E, Cattadori I. Seasonal breeding drives the incidence of a chronic bacterial infection in a free-living herbivore population. Epidemiol Infect. 2011;139:1210-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Infection appeared to be mainly driven by mother-to-litter contacts rather than by interactions with other members of the community. By age 2 months, 65% of the kittens were seropositive. ..
  7. Kirimanjeswara G, Agosto L, Kennett M, Bjornstad O, Harvill E. Pertussis toxin inhibits neutrophil recruitment to delay antibody-mediated clearance of Bordetella pertussis. J Clin Invest. 2005;115:3594-601 pubmed
    ..Together these results indicate that PTx inhibits neutrophil recruitment, which consequently allows B. pertussis to avoid rapid antibody-mediated clearance and therefore successfully infect immune hosts. ..
  8. Elahi S, Thompson D, Strom S, O Connor B, Babiuk L, Gerdts V. Infection with Bordetella parapertussis but not Bordetella pertussis causes pertussis-like disease in older pigs. J Infect Dis. 2008;198:384-92 pubmed publisher
    ..pertussis disease in older pigs. The development of this new model will assist us in better understanding the pathogenesis of this disease and in the development of more-effective vaccines against pertussis...
  9. Mann P, Goebel E, Barbarich J, Pilione M, Kennett M, Harvill E. Use of a genetically defined double mutant strain of Bordetella bronchiseptica lacking adenylate cyclase and type III secretion as a live vaccine. Infect Immun. 2007;75:3665-72 pubmed
    ..This novel B. bronchiseptica vaccine candidate induces strong local immunity while eliminating damage caused by the two predominant cytotoxic mechanisms. ..

More Information

Publications74

  1. Wolfe D, Goebel E, Bjornstad O, Restif O, Harvill E. The O antigen enables Bordetella parapertussis to avoid Bordetella pertussis-induced immunity. Infect Immun. 2007;75:4972-9 pubmed
    ..parapertussis confers asymmetrical cross-immunity between the causative agents of whooping cough. We propose that these findings warrant investigation of the relative role of B. parapertussis in the resurgence of whooping cough...
  2. Bjørnstad O, Harvill E. Evolution and emergence of Bordetella in humans. Trends Microbiol. 2005;13:355-9 pubmed
    ..The evolutionarily favored strategies of both of the human bordetellae result in immunizing infections and acute epidemics...
  3. Harvill E, Preston A, Cotter P, Allen A, Maskell D, Miller J. Multiple roles for Bordetella lipopolysaccharide molecules during respiratory tract infection. Infect Immun. 2000;68:6720-8 pubmed
  4. Njamkepo E, Bonacorsi S, Debruyne M, Gibaud S, Guillot S, Guiso N. Significant finding of Bordetella holmesii DNA in nasopharyngeal samples from French patients with suspected pertussis. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:4347-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Bordetella holmesii DNA was detected in 20.3% samples collected from adolescents and adults...
  5. Mazumder S, Cleveland K. Bordetella bronchiseptica bacteremia in a patient with AIDS. South Med J. 2010;103:934-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The patient described herein, who had a history of AIDS, was likely infected with B bronchiseptica as a result of his hemodialysis catheter. The patient was successfully treated with antibiotics without the removal of the catheter...
  6. Brickman T, Vanderpool C, Armstrong S. Heme transport contributes to in vivo fitness of Bordetella pertussis during primary infection in mice. Infect Immun. 2006;74:1741-4 pubmed
    ..pertussis in the mouse infection model and indicate that heme utilization may be most important for adaptation to host conditions existing during the later stages of infection...
  7. Magyar T, King V, Kovacs F. Evaluation of vaccines for atrophic rhinitis--a comparison of three challenge models. Vaccine. 2002;20:1797-802 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the best assessment of protection is provided if the two specific challenges are performed separately...
  8. McCavit T, Grube S, Revell P, Quinn C. Bordetella holmesii bacteremia in sickle cell disease. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2008;51:814-6 pubmed publisher
    ..holmesii infection from other invasive bacterial infections in SCD. Providers for patients with SCD should be aware of this pathogen and ensure that their microbiology laboratories are capable of isolating and identifying this organism...
  9. Harrington A, Castellanos J, Ziedalski T, Clarridge J, Cookson B. Isolation of Bordetella avium and novel Bordetella strain from patients with respiratory disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:72-4 pubmed publisher
    ..However, 16S rRNA gene sequencing identified 2 isolates from 2 humans with respiratory disease as B. avium and a novel B. avium-like strain. Thus, B. avium and B. avium-like organisms are rare opportunistic human pathogens...
  10. Wolfe D, Kirimanjeswara G, Goebel E, Harvill E. Comparative role of immunoglobulin A in protective immunity against the Bordetellae. Infect Immun. 2007;75:4416-22 pubmed
    ..bronchiseptica infection of the upper respiratory tract, immunization strategies aimed at inducing B. bronchiseptica-specific IgA may be beneficial to preventing the spread of this bacterium among domestic animal populations...
  11. Guthrie J, Robertson A, Tang P, Jamieson F, Drews S. Novel duplex real-time PCR assay detects Bordetella holmesii in specimens from patients with Pertussis-like symptoms in Ontario, Canada. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:1435-7 pubmed publisher
    ..holmesii was misidentified as Bordetella pertussis and to establish the prevalence of B. holmesii in Ontario patients with pertussis-like symptoms...
  12. Wolfe D, Kirimanjeswara G, Harvill E. Clearance of Bordetella parapertussis from the lower respiratory tract requires humoral and cellular immunity. Infect Immun. 2005;73:6508-13 pubmed
    ..pertussis. Together these data support a model for the mechanism of protective immunity to B. parapertussis that is similar but distinct from that of B. pertussis...
  13. Monnier S, Therby A, Couzon B, Doucet Populaire F, Greder Belan A. [Bordetella holmesii bacteremia in a 26-year-old patient with sickle cell disease]. Med Mal Infect. 2010;40:299-301 pubmed publisher
    ..The outcome was favorable with amoxicillin. It is useful to know about B. holmesii, especially for physicians managing sickle cell or hyposplenic patients, because of its variable susceptibility to beta-lactams...
  14. Dragsted D, Dohn B, Madsen J, Jensen J. Comparison of culture and PCR for detection of Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis under routine laboratory conditions. J Med Microbiol. 2004;53:749-54 pubmed
    ..The PCR assay is considered highly specific due to the amplification of two different sequences in two separate assays...
  15. Kirimanjeswara G, Mann P, Harvill E. Role of antibodies in immunity to Bordetella infections. Infect Immun. 2003;71:1719-24 pubmed
  16. Lorenzo Pajuelo B, Villanueva J, Rodríguez Cuesta J, Vergara Irigaray N, Bernabeu Wittel M, García Curiel A, et al. Cavitary pneumonia in an AIDS patient caused by an unusual Bordetella bronchiseptica variant producing reduced amounts of pertactin and other major antigens. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:3146-54 pubmed
  17. Sukumar N, Love C, Conover M, Kock N, Dubey P, Deora R. Active and passive immunizations with Bordetella colonization factor A protect mice against respiratory challenge with Bordetella bronchiseptica. Infect Immun. 2009;77:885-95 pubmed publisher
    ..These results also provide a model for the development of cell-free vaccines against B. bronchiseptica...
  18. Kuwae A, Matsuzawa T, Ishikawa N, Abe H, Nonaka T, Fukuda H, et al. BopC is a novel type III effector secreted by Bordetella bronchiseptica and has a critical role in type III-dependent necrotic cell death. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:6589-600 pubmed
    ..This report reveals for the first time that a novel type III effector, BopC, is required for the induction of necrotic cell death during Bordetella infection...
  19. Buboltz A, Nicholson T, Karanikas A, Preston A, Harvill E. Evidence for horizontal gene transfer of two antigenically distinct O antigens in Bordetella bronchiseptica. Infect Immun. 2009;77:3249-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data are consistent with the idea that the O-antigen loci of B. bronchiseptica are horizontally transferred between strains and encode antigenically distinct serotypes, resulting in inefficient cross-immunity...
  20. Stark D, Riley L, Harkness J, Marriott D. Bordetella petrii from a clinical sample in Australia: isolation and molecular identification. J Med Microbiol. 2007;56:435-7 pubmed
    ..This is the first reported case of B. petrii causing suppurative mastoiditis and only the second documented case of a clinically significant B. petrii isolate...
  21. Thakar J, Pilione M, Kirimanjeswara G, Harvill E, Albert R. Modeling systems-level regulation of host immune responses. PLoS Comput Biol. 2007;3:e109 pubmed
    ..This type of modeling provides new insights into the virulence, pathogenesis, and host adaptation of disease-causing microorganisms and allows systems-level analysis that is not always possible using traditional methods...
  22. Iemura R, Tsukatani R, Micallef M, Taneno A. Simultaneous analysis of the nasal shedding kinetics of field and vaccine strains of Bordetella bronchiseptica. Vet Rec. 2009;165:747-51 pubmed
    ..0) and 10(8.0) cfu/dose) shed the challenge strain transiently or not at all. Only the group vaccinated with 10(6.0) cfu/dose exhibited clinical signs after challenge...
  23. Bonhoeffer J, Bar G, Riffelmann M, Soler M, Heininger U. The role of Bordetella infections in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis. Infection. 2005;33:13-7 pubmed
    ..Bordetella pertussis, which causes whooping cough, has not been studied in this context. We aimed to assess the role of Bordetella infections in patients with AECB.
  24. Panagopoulos M, Saint Jean M, Brun D, Guiso N, Bekal S, Ovetchkine P, et al. Bordetella holmesii bacteremia in asplenic children: report of four cases initially misidentified as Acinetobacter lwoffii. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:3762-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We report four cases of B. holmesii bacteremia in asplenic children occurring within the last 4 years. In all cases, B. holmesii was misidentified by an automated system as Acinetobacter lwoffii...
  25. Russell F, Davis J, Whipp M, Janssen P, Ward P, Vyas J, et al. Severe Bordetella holmesii infection in a previously healthy adolescent confirmed by gene sequence analysis. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;33:129-30 pubmed
    ..We describe an immunocompetent adolescent who presented with exceptionally severe Bordetella holmesii infection, including previously undescribed manifestations. Sequelae included a severe restrictive lung defect due to pulmonary fibrosis...
  26. Medhekar B, Shrivastava R, Mattoo S, Gingery M, Miller J. Bordetella Bsp22 forms a filamentous type III secretion system tip complex and is immunoprotective in vitro and in vivo. Mol Microbiol. 2009;71:492-504 pubmed publisher
    ..Given its immunogenic and immunoprotective properties and high degree of conservation among Bordetella species, Bsp22 and its homologues may prove useful for diagnostics and next-generation subunit vaccines...
  27. Mann P, Elder K, Kennett M, Harvill E. Toll-like receptor 4-dependent early elicited tumor necrosis factor alpha expression is critical for innate host defense against Bordetella bronchiseptica. Infect Immun. 2004;72:6650-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that one critical role for TLR4 is the generation of a robust but transient TNF-alpha response that is critical to innate host defense during acute gram-negative respiratory infection...
  28. Shepard C, Daneshvar M, Kaiser R, Ashford D, Lonsway D, Patel J, et al. Bordetella holmesii bacteremia: a newly recognized clinical entity among asplenic patients. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38:799-804 pubmed
    ..There were no deaths. Our findings support evidence that B. holmesii may be a true pathogen associated with bacteremia among asplenic patients...
  29. Mooi F, Bruisten S, Linde I, Reubsaet F, Heuvelman K, van der Lee S, et al. Characterization of Bordetella holmesii isolates from patients with pertussis-like illness in The Netherlands. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2012;64:289-91 pubmed publisher
    ..All isolates contained a locus involved in iron uptake, previously suggested to originate from B. pertussis. The causes for the apparent increase in the isolation of B. holmesii are discussed...
  30. Reischl U, Lehn N, Sanden G, Loeffelholz M. Real-time PCR assay targeting IS481 of Bordetella pertussis and molecular basis for detecting Bordetella holmesii. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:1963-6 pubmed
    ..holmesii. These results, and culture of B. holmesii from patients with cough, suggest that the specificity and predictive value of IS481-based PCR assays for pertussis may be compromised...
  31. Brinig M, Register K, Ackermann M, Relman D. Genomic features of Bordetella parapertussis clades with distinct host species specificity. Genome Biol. 2006;7:R81 pubmed publisher
  32. Buboltz A, Nicholson T, Parette M, Hester S, Parkhill J, Harvill E. Replacement of adenylate cyclase toxin in a lineage of Bordetella bronchiseptica. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:5502-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that there may be ecological niches in which CyaA is not critical for the success of B. bronchiseptica...
  33. Kirimanjeswara G, Mann P, Pilione M, Kennett M, Harvill E. The complex mechanism of antibody-mediated clearance of Bordetella from the lungs requires TLR4. J Immunol. 2005;175:7504-11 pubmed
  34. Mann P, Wolfe D, Latz E, Golenbock D, Preston A, Harvill E. Comparative toll-like receptor 4-mediated innate host defense to Bordetella infection. Infect Immun. 2005;73:8144-52 pubmed
    ..Thus, it appears that in adapting to infect humans, B. pertussis and B. parapertussis independently modified their LPS to reduce TLR4-mediated responses, which may compensate for slower growth rates and facilitate host colonization...
  35. Skinner J, Pilione M, Shen H, Harvill E, Yuk M. Bordetella type III secretion modulates dendritic cell migration resulting in immunosuppression and bacterial persistence. J Immunol. 2005;175:4647-52 pubmed
  36. Belen O, Campos J, Cogen P, Jantausch B. Postsurgical meningitis caused by Bordetella bronchiseptica. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2003;22:380-1 pubmed
  37. Spears P, Temple L, Miyamoto D, Maskell D, Orndorff P. Unexpected similarities between Bordetella avium and other pathogenic Bordetellae. Infect Immun. 2003;71:2591-7 pubmed
  38. Mattoo S, Foreman Wykert A, Cotter P, Miller J. Mechanisms of Bordetella pathogenesis. Front Biosci. 2001;6:E168-86 pubmed
  39. French C, Panina E, Yeh S, Griffith N, Arambula D, Miller J. The Bordetella type III secretion system effector BteA contains a conserved N-terminal motif that guides bacterial virulence factors to lipid rafts. Cell Microbiol. 2009;11:1735-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Lipid raft targeting sequences from a T3SS effector (Plu4750) and an RTX-type toxin (Plu3217) from Photorhabdus luminescens directed fusion proteins to lipid rafts in a manner identical to the N-terminus of BteA...
  40. Tatti K, Sparks K, Boney K, Tondella M. Novel multitarget real-time PCR assay for rapid detection of Bordetella species in clinical specimens. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:4059-66 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the use of this multitarget RT-PCR approach increases specificity, while it decreases the amount of time, reagents, and specimen necessary for RT-PCRs used for accurate diagnosis of pertussis-like illness...
  41. Nei T, Hyodo H, Sonobe K, Dan K, Saito R. First report of infectious pericarditis due to Bordetella holmesii in an adult patient with malignant lymphoma. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:1815-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, we describe a unique B. holmesii infectious pericarditis patient with malignant lymphoma...
  42. Kamiya H, Otsuka N, Ando Y, Odaira F, Yoshino S, Kawano K, et al. Transmission of Bordetella holmesii during pertussis outbreak, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:1166-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Six patients were infected; 4 patients were students and a teacher at the same junior high school. Epidemiologic links were found between 5 patients. B. holmesii may have been transmitted from person to person...
  43. He Q, Viljanen M, Arvilommi H, Aittanen B, Mertsola J. Whooping cough caused by Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis in an immunized population. JAMA. 1998;280:635-7 pubmed
    ..The prevalence of Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis infections among outpatients in an immunized population is not known...
  44. Fry N, Duncan J, Malnick H, Cockcroft P. The first UK isolate of 'Bordetella ansorpii' from an immunocompromised patient. J Med Microbiol. 2007;56:993-5 pubmed
    ..The only previously documented isolation of 'B. ansorpii' was following the initial culture of a single strain from an epidermal cyst of a patient in Korea...
  45. Gopinathan L, Kirimanjeswara G, Wolfe D, Kelley M, Harvill E. Different mechanisms of vaccine-induced and infection-induced immunity to Bordetella bronchiseptica. Microbes Infect. 2007;9:442-8 pubmed
    ..Together these findings highlight substantial differences between the mechanisms involved in vaccine- and infection-induced protective immunity...
  46. van der Zee A, Mooi F, van Embden J, Musser J. Molecular evolution and host adaptation of Bordetella spp.: phylogenetic analysis using multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and typing with three insertion sequences. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:6609-17 pubmed
    ..Only a few examples of putative recombinational exchange of an IS element were detected. Based on the results of this study, we tried to reconstruct the evolutionary history of different host-adapted lineages...
  47. Greig J, Gunda S, Kwan JTC -. Bordetella holmesii bacteraemia in an individual on haemodialysis. Scand J Infect Dis. 2001;33:716-7 pubmed
    ..B. holmesii is a rare cause of bacteraemia, endocarditis and pneumonia in the immunosuppressed and may also cause a pertussis-like illness...
  48. Vojtova J, Kamanova J, Sebo P. Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin: a swift saboteur of host defense. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2006;9:69-75 pubmed
    ..Such uncontrolled cAMP signaling can also drive CD11b-expressing immature dendritic cells into a semi-mature state, possibly hijacking them to shape the local adaptive immune response towards tolerance of the pathogen...
  49. Riffelmann M, Wirsing von König C, Caro V, Guiso N. Nucleic Acid amplification tests for diagnosis of Bordetella infections. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:4925-9 pubmed
  50. Fry N, Duncan J, Malnick H, Warner M, Smith A, Jackson M, et al. Bordetella petrii clinical isolate. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:1131-3 pubmed
    ..The only previously documented isolation of B. petrii occurred after the initial culture of a single strain from an environmental source...
  51. Mattoo S, Cherry J. Molecular pathogenesis, epidemiology, and clinical manifestations of respiratory infections due to Bordetella pertussis and other Bordetella subspecies. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2005;18:326-82 pubmed
    ..It is also hoped that data gathered from molecular Bordetella research will lead to a new generation of DTaP vaccines which provide greater efficacy than is provided by today's vaccines...
  52. Wolfe D, Buboltz A, Harvill E. Inefficient Toll-like receptor-4 stimulation enables Bordetella parapertussis to avoid host immunity. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4280 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results indicate that inefficient TLR4 stimulation by B. parapertussis enables it to avoid host immunity and grow to high numbers in the respiratory tract of naïve and immunized hosts...
  53. Zhang X, Goebel E, Rodriguez M, Preston A, Harvill E. The O antigen is a critical antigen for the development of a protective immune response to Bordetella parapertussis. Infect Immun. 2009;77:5050-8 pubmed publisher
    ..parapertussis. These data suggest that the O antigen is a critical protective antigen of B. parapertussis and its inclusion can substantially improve whooping cough vaccine efficacy against this pathogen...
  54. Spilker T, Liwienski A, LiPuma J. Identification of Bordetella spp. in respiratory specimens from individuals with cystic fibrosis. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2008;14:504-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Consideration should be given to the presence of these organisms in the evaluation of CF sputum cultures...
  55. Pósa R, Donkó T, Bogner P, Kovacs M, Repa I, Magyar T. Interaction of Bordetella bronchiseptica, Pasteurella multocida, and fumonisin B1 in the porcine respiratory tract as studied by computed tomography. Can J Vet Res. 2011;75:176-82 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that, when combined with dual infection by B. bronchiseptica and P. multocida, dietary exposure of pigs to FB(1) toxin raises the risk of pneumonia and increases the extent and severity of the pathological changes...
  56. Mann P, Kennett M, Harvill E. Toll-like receptor 4 is critical to innate host defense in a murine model of bordetellosis. J Infect Dis. 2004;189:833-6 pubmed
    ..TLR4-deficient mice rapidly succumb following inoculation with as few as 1000 organisms, indicating that TLR4 is critical to innate host defense against bordetellosis...
  57. Raffel T, Register K, Marks S, Temple L. Prevalence of Bordetella avium infection in selected wild and domesticated birds in the eastern USA. J Wildl Dis. 2002;38:40-6 pubmed
    ..Bordetella avium is present in wild bird populations of multiple species. Transmission from free-living avian populations to domesticated poultry populations may be possible and should be examined...
  58. Burns V, Pishko E, Preston A, Maskell D, Harvill E. Role of Bordetella O antigen in respiratory tract infection. Infect Immun. 2003;71:86-94 pubmed
  59. Gross R, Keidel K, Schmitt K. Resemblance and divergence: the "new" members of the genus Bordetella. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2010;199:155-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Very little is known about most of these bacteria. In the present review, the current knowledge about these "new" Bordetella species is briefly summarized...
  60. Heininger U, Cotter P, Fescemyer H, Martinez de Tejada G, Yuk M, Miller J, et al. Comparative phenotypic analysis of the Bordetella parapertussis isolate chosen for genomic sequencing. Infect Immun. 2002;70:3777-84 pubmed
    ..pertussis (by lack of motility and cytotoxicity to a macrophage-like cell line). These results begin to provide phenotypes that can be related to genetic differences identified in the genomic sequences of bordetellae...
  61. Cummings C, Brinig M, Lepp P, van de Pas S, Relman D. Bordetella species are distinguished by patterns of substantial gene loss and host adaptation. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:1484-92 pubmed
  62. Skinner J, Reissinger A, Shen H, Yuk M. Bordetella type III secretion and adenylate cyclase toxin synergize to drive dendritic cells into a semimature state. J Immunol. 2004;173:1934-40 pubmed
    ..bronchiseptica drive DC into a semimature phenotype by altering MAPK signaling. These semimature DCs may induce tolerogenic immune responses that allow the persistent colonization of B. bronchiseptica in the host respiratory tract...
  63. Pilione M, Harvill E. The Bordetella bronchiseptica type III secretion system inhibits gamma interferon production that is required for efficient antibody-mediated bacterial clearance. Infect Immun. 2006;74:1043-9 pubmed
    ..This suggests that a mechanism involving the modulation of IFN-gamma production by the TTSS facilitates B. bronchiseptica survival in the lower respiratory tract...
  64. Llombart M, Chiner E, Senent C. [Necrotizing pneumonia due to Bordetella bronchiseptica in an immunocompetent woman]. Arch Bronconeumol. 2006;42:255-6 pubmed
  65. Bottero D, Griffith M, Lara C, Flores D, Pianciola L, Gaillard M, et al. Bordetella holmesii in children suspected of pertussis in Argentina. Epidemiol Infect. 2013;141:714-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Most patients reported cough and cold symptoms. No death was reported. We report B. holmesii isolation in infants with respiratory symptoms in Argentina...