bacteroidaceae infections

Summary

Summary: Infections with bacteria of the family BACTEROIDACEAE.

Top Publications

  1. Maeda K, Tribble G, Tucker C, Anaya C, Shizukuishi S, Lewis J, et al. A Porphyromonas gingivalis tyrosine phosphatase is a multifunctional regulator of virulence attributes. Mol Microbiol. 2008;69:1153-64 pubmed publisher
    ..By controlling the activity of several virulence-associated properties, Ltp1 may restrain the pathogenic potential of P. gingivalis and maintain a commensal interaction with the host...
  2. Huang M, Taxman D, Holley Guthrie E, Moore C, Willingham S, Madden V, et al. Critical role of apoptotic speck protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) and NLRP3 in causing necrosis and ASC speck formation induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis in human cells. J Immunol. 2009;182:2395-404 pubmed publisher
    ..ASC specks are observed in P. gingivalis-infected primary human mononuclear cells and are dependent on NLRP3. This work shows that P. gingivalis causes ASC- and NLRP3-dependent necrosis, accompanied by ASC speck formation...
  3. Hayashi C, Madrigal A, Liu X, Ukai T, Goswami S, Gudino C, et al. Pathogen-mediated inflammatory atherosclerosis is mediated in part via Toll-like receptor 2-induced inflammatory responses. J Innate Immun. 2010;2:334-43 pubmed publisher
    ..gingivalis-infected TLR2-deficient (TLR2(-/-)) mice. These studies provide a mechanistic link between an innate immune receptor and pathogen-accelerated atherosclerosis by a clinically and biologically relevant bacterial pathogen...
  4. Kato T, Kawai S, Nakano K, Inaba H, Kuboniwa M, Nakagawa I, et al. Virulence of Porphyromonas gingivalis is altered by substitution of fimbria gene with different genotype. Cell Microbiol. 2007;9:753-65 pubmed publisher
    ..In a mouse abscess model, the type II clones significantly induced serum IL-1beta and IL-6, as well as other infectious symptoms. These results suggest that type II fimbriae are a critical determinant of P. gingivalis virulence...
  5. Watanabe T, Maruyama F, Nozawa T, Aoki A, Okano S, Shibata Y, et al. Complete genome sequence of the bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis TDC60, which causes periodontal disease. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:4259-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report the complete genome sequence of P. gingivalis strain TDC60, which was recently isolated from a severe periodontal lesion in a Japanese patient...
  6. Chou H, Yumoto H, Davey M, Takahashi Y, Miyamoto T, Gibson F, et al. Porphyromonas gingivalis fimbria-dependent activation of inflammatory genes in human aortic endothelial cells. Infect Immun. 2005;73:5367-78 pubmed
    ..gingivalis fimbria-mediated invasion upregulates inflammatory gene expression in HAEC and in aortic tissue and indicates that invasive P. gingivalis infection accelerates inflammatory responses directly in the aorta...
  7. Hayashi C, Gudino C, Gibson F, Genco C. Review: Pathogen-induced inflammation at sites distant from oral infection: bacterial persistence and induction of cell-specific innate immune inflammatory pathways. Mol Oral Microbiol. 2010;25:305-16 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review we discuss the pathogen and host cell specificity of these responses and discuss possible mechanisms by which this oral pathogen can induce and maintain a chronic state of inflammation at sites distant from oral infection...
  8. Nagano K, Murakami Y, Nishikawa K, Sakakibara J, Shimozato K, Yoshimura F. Characterization of RagA and RagB in Porphyromonas gingivalis: study using gene-deletion mutants. J Med Microbiol. 2007;56:1536-48 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that physically associated RagA and RagB may stabilize themselves on the cell surface and function as active transporters of large degradation products of protein and in part as a virulence factor...
  9. Hajishengallis G, Shakhatreh M, Wang M, Liang S. Complement receptor 3 blockade promotes IL-12-mediated clearance of Porphyromonas gingivalis and negates its virulence in vivo. J Immunol. 2007;179:2359-67 pubmed
    ..Therefore, CR3 blockade may represent a promising immunomodulatory approach for controlling human periodontitis and possibly associated systemic diseases...

More Information

Publications69

  1. Pollreisz A, Huang Y, Roth G, Cheng B, Kebschull M, Papapanou P, et al. Enhanced monocyte migration and pro-inflammatory cytokine production by Porphyromonas gingivalis infection. J Periodontal Res. 2010;45:239-45 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to further understand this pathogen's link with systemic inflammation and vascular disease, we investigated its influence on murine monocytes and macrophages from three different sources...
  2. Hokamura K, Umemura K. Roles of oral bacteria in cardiovascular diseases--from molecular mechanisms to clinical cases: Porphyromonas gingivalis is the important role of intimal hyperplasia in the aorta. J Pharmacol Sci. 2010;113:110-4 pubmed
    ..Our results strongly suggest that oral-hematogenous spreading of P. gingivalis is a causative event in the development of aortic hyperplasia in periodontitis patients...
  3. Perez Chaparro P, Rouillon A, Minet J, Lafaurie G, Bonnaure Mallet M. fimA genotypes and PFGE profile patterns in Porphyromonas gingivalis isolates from subjects with periodontitis. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2009;24:423-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare these techniques, we genotyped P. gingivalis clinical isolates as to (i) their fimA type and (ii) their whole genome restriction profile (PFGE analysis)...
  4. Miura M, Hamachi T, Fujise O, Maeda K. The prevalence and pathogenic differences of Porphyromonas gingivalis fimA genotypes in patients with aggressive periodontitis. J Periodontal Res. 2005;40:147-52 pubmed
    ..P. gingivalis that possesses the type II fimA gene is prevalent in adult periodontitis...
  5. Chung W, An J, Yin L, Hacker B, Rohani M, Dommisch H, et al. Interplay of protease-activated receptors and NOD pattern recognition receptors in epithelial innate immune responses to bacteria. Immunol Lett. 2010;131:113-9 pubmed publisher
  6. Mao S, Park Y, Hasegawa Y, Tribble G, James C, Handfield M, et al. Intrinsic apoptotic pathways of gingival epithelial cells modulated by Porphyromonas gingivalis. Cell Microbiol. 2007;9:1997-2007 pubmed
    ..Induction of a pro-survival phenotype may prevent programmed host cell death and aid survival of P. gingivalis within gingival epithelial cells...
  7. Shi X, Hanley S, Faray Kele M, Fawell S, Aduse Opoku J, Whiley R, et al. The rag locus of Porphyromonas gingivalis contributes to virulence in a murine model of soft tissue destruction. Infect Immun. 2007;75:2071-4 pubmed
    ..Inactivation of either ragA or ragB prevented expression of both RagA and RagB. Both the ragA and ragB mutants were significantly less virulent than wild-type strains in a murine model of infection...
  8. Miyauchi S, Maekawa T, Aoki Y, Miyazawa H, Tabeta K, Nakajima T, et al. Oral infection with Porphyromonas gingivalis and systemic cytokine profile in C57BL/6.KOR-ApoE shl mice. J Periodontal Res. 2012;47:402-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study aimed to analyse the effect of oral infection with P. gingivalis on the expression levels of multiple cytokines in the serum in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice by using a cytokine antibody array...
  9. Miyamoto T, Yumoto H, Takahashi Y, Davey M, Gibson F, Genco C. Pathogen-accelerated atherosclerosis occurs early after exposure and can be prevented via immunization. Infect Immun. 2006;74:1376-80 pubmed
    ..gingivalis. We conclude that localized up-regulation of innate immune markers early after infection, rather than systemic inflammation, contributes to pathogen-accelerated atherosclerosis...
  10. Fukada S, Silva T, Saconato I, Garlet G, Avila Campos M, Silva J, et al. iNOS-derived nitric oxide modulates infection-stimulated bone loss. J Dent Res. 2008;87:1155-9 pubmed
    ..These results show that NO deficiency was associated with an imbalance of bone-resorption-modulating factors, leading to severe infection-stimulated bone loss...
  11. Wojtowicz H, Guevara T, Tallant C, Olczak M, Sroka A, Potempa J, et al. Unique structure and stability of HmuY, a novel heme-binding protein of Porphyromonas gingivalis. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000419 pubmed publisher
    ..It is also stable against thermal and chemical denaturation. In conclusion, these studies reveal novel molecular properties of HmuY that are consistent with its role as a putative virulence factor during bacterial infection...
  12. Lundberg K, Wegner N, Yucel Lindberg T, Venables P. Periodontitis in RA-the citrullinated enolase connection. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2010;6:727-30 pubmed publisher
    ..gingivalis enolase. On the basis of this cross-reactivity, in this Perspectives article we explore the hypothesis of molecular mimicry in the etiology of RA, with citrullinated enolase as the specific antigen involved...
  13. Giacaman R, Nobbs A, Ross K, Herzberg M. Porphyromonas gingivalis selectively up-regulates the HIV-1 coreceptor CCR5 in oral keratinocytes. J Immunol. 2007;179:2542-50 pubmed
    ..By inducing CCR5 expression, P. gingivalis coinfection could promote selective R5-type HIV-1 infection of oral keratinocytes...
  14. Burns E, Eliyahu T, Uematsu S, Akira S, Nussbaum G. TLR2-dependent inflammatory response to Porphyromonas gingivalis is MyD88 independent, whereas MyD88 is required to clear infection. J Immunol. 2010;184:1455-62 pubmed publisher
    ..gingivalis infection depend critically on MyD88, independent of TLR2. Thus, robust cytokine production and bacterial clearance are independent events mediated by distinct signaling pathways following infection with P. gingivalis...
  15. Park S, Park J, Kook J. Development of Porphyromonas gingivalis-specific quantitative real-time PCR primers based on the nucleotide sequence of rpoB. J Microbiol. 2011;49:315-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The qPCR primers could detect as little as 4 fg of P. gingivalis chromosomal DNA. These findings suggest that these qPCR primers are suitable for applications in epidemiological studies...
  16. Guyodo H, Meuric V, Le Pottier L, Martin B, Faili A, Pers J, et al. Colocalization of Porphyromonas gingivalis with CD4+ T cells in periodontal disease. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2012;64:175-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Observation of the immune cells associated with these bacteria was also performed by immunofluorescence...
  17. BĂ©langer M, Rodrigues P, Dunn W, Progulske Fox A. Autophagy: a highway for Porphyromonas gingivalis in endothelial cells. Autophagy. 2006;2:165-70 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the survival of P. gingivalis depends upon the activation of autophagy and survival of the endothelial host cell, but the mechanism by which P. gingivalis accomplishes this remains unclear...
  18. Gibson F, Genco C. Porphyromonas gingivalis mediated periodontal disease and atherosclerosis: disparate diseases with commonalities in pathogenesis through TLRs. Curr Pharm Des. 2007;13:3665-75 pubmed
    ..Improved understanding of the mechanisms driving infection, and chronic inflammation during atherosclerosis may ultimately provide new targets for therapy...
  19. Ogrendik M. Rheumatoid arthritis is linked to oral bacteria: etiological association. Mod Rheumatol. 2009;19:453-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These antibiotics have been shown to be effective against RA. The evidence in this review indicates that oral bacteria directly associate with etiopathogenesis of RA...
  20. Hajishengallis G, Krauss J, Liang S, McIntosh M, Lambris J. Pathogenic microbes and community service through manipulation of innate immunity. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2012;946:69-85 pubmed publisher
    ..This review summarizes important immune subversive tactics of P. gingivalis which might enable it to exert a supportive impact on the oral microbial community...
  21. Mikuls T, Thiele G, Deane K, Payne J, O Dell J, Yu F, et al. Porphyromonas gingivalis and disease-related autoantibodies in individuals at increased risk of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2012;64:3522-30 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine the relationship of Porphyromonas gingivalis to the presence of autoantibodies in individuals at risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA)...
  22. Rodrigues P, Progulske Fox A. Gene expression profile analysis of Porphyromonas gingivalis during invasion of human coronary artery endothelial cells. Infect Immun. 2005;73:6169-73 pubmed
    ..Analyses of microarray images indicated that 62 genes were differentially regulated. Of these, 11 genes were up-regulated and 51 were down-regulated. The differential expression of 16 selected genes was confirmed by real-time PCR...
  23. Inaba H, Nakano K, Kato T, Nomura R, Kawai S, Kuboniwa M, et al. Heterogenic virulence and related factors among clinical isolates of Porphyromonas gingivalis with type II fimbriae. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2008;23:29-35 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we compared infectious inflammatory changes in clinical isolates of P. gingivalis with type II fimbriae using a mouse abscess model to examine their pathogenic heterogeneity and heterogeneity-related factors...
  24. Fitzpatrick R, Aprico A, Wijeyewickrema L, Pagel C, Wong D, Potempa J, et al. High molecular weight gingipains from Porphyromonas gingivalis induce cytokine responses from human macrophage-like cells via a nonproteolytic mechanism. J Innate Immun. 2009;1:109-17 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that the adhesin subunits of the gingipains mediate strong upregulation of the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in macrophages...
  25. Lin L, Li C, Liu J, Zhang D, Zhao J, Kou Y, et al. Virulence genes of Porphyromonas gingivalis W83 in chronic periodontitis. Acta Odontol Scand. 2009;67:258-64 pubmed publisher
    ..gingivalis) among Chinese patients with chronic periodontitis and to evaluate the association of these virulence genes with clinical parameters and with periodontal tissue destruction...
  26. Yamatake K, Maeda M, Kadowaki T, Takii R, Tsukuba T, Ueno T, et al. Role for gingipains in Porphyromonas gingivalis traffic to phagolysosomes and survival in human aortic endothelial cells. Infect Immun. 2007;75:2090-100 pubmed
  27. Lewis J, Plata K, Yu F, Rosato A, Anaya C. Transcriptional organization, regulation and role of the Porphyromonas gingivalis W83 hmu haemin-uptake locus. Microbiology. 2006;152:3367-82 pubmed
  28. Yilmaz O, Verbeke P, Lamont R, Ojcius D. Intercellular spreading of Porphyromonas gingivalis infection in primary gingival epithelial cells. Infect Immun. 2006;74:703-10 pubmed
    ..gingivalis disseminates from cell to cell without passing through the extracellular space. This mechanism of spreading may allow P. gingivalis to colonize oral tissues without exposure to the humoral immune response...
  29. Madan M, Bishayi B, Hoge M, Messas E, Amar S. Doxycycline affects diet- and bacteria-associated atherosclerosis in an ApoE heterozygote murine model: cytokine profiling implications. Atherosclerosis. 2007;190:62-72 pubmed
    ..We hypothesized that Doxycycline would be beneficial in diet- and/or Pg-induced atherosclerosis given its role in various cell functions and matrix remodeling...
  30. Zhang P, Liu J, Xu Q, Harber G, Feng X, Michalek S, et al. TLR2-dependent modulation of osteoclastogenesis by Porphyromonas gingivalis through differential induction of NFATc1 and NF-kappaB. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:24159-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal novel aspects of the interactions between TLR and RANK signaling and provide a new model for understanding the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of bacteria-mediated bone loss...
  31. Lundberg K, Kinloch A, Fisher B, Wegner N, Wait R, Charles P, et al. Antibodies to citrullinated alpha-enolase peptide 1 are specific for rheumatoid arthritis and cross-react with bacterial enolase. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;58:3009-19 pubmed publisher
    ..To map the antibody response to human citrullinated alpha-enolase, a candidate autoantigen in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to examine cross-reactivity with bacterial enolase...
  32. Hajishengallis G, Wang M, Bagby G, Nelson S. Importance of TLR2 in early innate immune response to acute pulmonary infection with Porphyromonas gingivalis in mice. J Immunol. 2008;181:4141-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, although TLR2 may mediate destructive effects, as seen in models of experimental periodontitis and atherosclerosis, we have now shown that the same receptor confers protection against P. gingivalis in acute lung infection...
  33. Seymour G, Ford P, Cullinan M, Leishman S, Yamazaki K. Relationship between periodontal infections and systemic disease. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2007;13 Suppl 4:3-10 pubmed
    ..From these data, it is clear that oral infection may represent a significant risk-factor for systemic diseases, and hence the control of oral disease is essential in the prevention and management of these systemic conditions...
  34. Guo H, Wang X, Jiang G, Yang P. Construction of a sIgA-enhancing anti-Porphyromonas gingivalis FimA vaccine and nasal immunization in mice. Immunol Lett. 2006;107:71-5 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, a co-expression plasmid pIRES-fimA:IL-15 has been constructed, and when immunized via nasal route, antigen-specific sIgA antibody response could be modulated positively in immunized mice...
  35. Takahashi Y, Davey M, Yumoto H, Gibson F, Genco C. Fimbria-dependent activation of pro-inflammatory molecules in Porphyromonas gingivalis infected human aortic endothelial cells. Cell Microbiol. 2006;8:738-57 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these data support that invasive P. gingivalis and fimbria stimulate endothelial cell activation, a necessary initial event in the development of atherogenesis...
  36. Wang M, Shakhatreh M, James D, Liang S, Nishiyama S, Yoshimura F, et al. Fimbrial proteins of porphyromonas gingivalis mediate in vivo virulence and exploit TLR2 and complement receptor 3 to persist in macrophages. J Immunol. 2007;179:2349-58 pubmed
    ..gingivalis that is surprisingly dependent upon minor constituents of its fimbriae, and support the concept that pathogens evolved to manipulate innate immunity for promoting adaptive fitness and thus their capacity to cause disease...
  37. Brodala N, Merricks E, Bellinger D, Damrongsri D, Offenbacher S, Beck J, et al. Porphyromonas gingivalis bacteremia induces coronary and aortic atherosclerosis in normocholesterolemic and hypercholesterolemic pigs. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005;25:1446-51 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to determine whether recurrent intravenous injections with Porphyromonas gingivalis (P gingivalis), mimicking periodontitis-associated bacteremia, promotes coronary artery and aortic atherosclerosis in pigs...
  38. Yonezawa H, Ishihara K, Okuda K. Arg-gingipain a DNA vaccine induces protective immunity against infection by Porphyromonas gingivalis in a murine model. Infect Immun. 2001;69:2858-64 pubmed
    ..gingivalis W50 challenge. These results suggest that the rgpA DNA vaccine induced specific antibodies against the enzyme and that this vaccine could confer protective immunity against P. gingivalis infection. ..
  39. Xie H, Cook G, Costerton J, Bruce G, Rose T, Lamont R. Intergeneric communication in dental plaque biofilms. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:7067-9 pubmed
    ..gingivalis was unable to form biofilm microcolonies with S. cristatus. Thus, S. cristatus is capable of modulating virulence gene expression in P. gingivalis, consequently influencing the development of pathogenic plaque. ..
  40. Dorn B, Harris L, Wujick C, Vertucci F, Progulske Fox A. Invasion of vascular cells in vitro by Porphyromonas endodontalis. Int Endod J. 2002;35:366-71 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study was to determine whether laboratory strains and clinical isolates of microorganisms associated with root canal infections can invade primary cultures of cardiovascular cells...
  41. Dorn B, Dunn W, Progulske Fox A. Porphyromonas gingivalis traffics to autophagosomes in human coronary artery endothelial cells. Infect Immun. 2001;69:5698-708 pubmed
    ..gingivalis 381 lacks BiP but contains cathepsin L in the presence of wortmannin. These results suggest that P. gingivalis 381 evades the endocytic pathway to lysosomes and instead traffics to the autophagosome. ..
  42. Griffen A, Lyons S, Becker M, Moeschberger M, Leys E. Porphyromonas gingivalis strain variability and periodontitis. J Clin Microbiol. 1999;37:4028-33 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that virulence in human periodontitis varies among strains of P. gingivalis, and they identify an apparently highly virulent subgroup. ..
  43. Amano A. Molecular interaction of Porphyromonas gingivalis with host cells: implication for the microbial pathogenesis of periodontal disease. J Periodontol. 2003;74:90-6 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these findings suggest that fimbriae of P. gingivalis, especially type II, are involved in the initiation and progression of human periodontitis...
  44. Gibson F, Hong C, Chou H, Yumoto H, Chen J, Lien E, et al. Innate immune recognition of invasive bacteria accelerates atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Circulation. 2004;109:2801-6 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we demonstrate that immunization to control P gingivalis-elicited periodontal disease concomitantly prevents P gingivalis-accelerated atherosclerosis. We conclude that invasive P gingivalis accelerates atherosclerosis. ..
  45. Nakayama K, Kadowaki T, Okamoto K, Yamamoto K. Construction and characterization of arginine-specific cysteine proteinase (Arg-gingipain)-deficient mutants of Porphyromonas gingivalis. Evidence for significant contribution of Arg-gingipain to virulence. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:23619-26 pubmed
    ..gingivalis, indicating that a major part of the hemagglutinin activity of the organism is associated with the two genes. These findings demonstrate that Arg-gingipain makes a significant contribution to the virulence of P. gingivalis...
  46. O Brien Simpson N, Paolini R, Hoffmann B, Slakeski N, Dashper S, Reynolds E. Role of RgpA, RgpB, and Kgp proteinases in virulence of Porphyromonas gingivalis W50 in a murine lesion model. Infect Immun. 2001;69:7527-34 pubmed
    ..These results show that the three proteinases, RgpA, RgpB, and Kgp, all contributed to virulence of P. gingivalis W50 in the murine lesion model and that the order in which they contributed was Kgp > RgpB > or = RgpA...
  47. Li L, Messas E, Batista E, Levine R, Amar S. Porphyromonas gingivalis infection accelerates the progression of atherosclerosis in a heterozygous apolipoprotein E-deficient murine model. Circulation. 2002;105:861-7 pubmed
  48. Lalla E, Lamster I, Hofmann M, Bucciarelli L, Jerud A, Tucker S, et al. Oral infection with a periodontal pathogen accelerates early atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-null mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2003;23:1405-11 pubmed
  49. Yilmaz O, Jungas T, Verbeke P, Ojcius D. Activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway contributes to survival of primary epithelial cells infected with the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. Infect Immun. 2004;72:3743-51 pubmed
    ..Thus, P. gingivalis stimulates early surface exposure of phosphatidylserine, which could downmodulate the inflammatory response, while also promoting host cell survival through the PI3K/Akt pathway...
  50. Walter M, Morck D. In vitro expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin 1beta, and interleukin 8 mRNA by bovine macrophages following exposure to Porphyromonas levii. Can J Vet Res. 2002;66:93-8 pubmed
    ..Expression of these cytokines by macrophages is likely directly involved in orchestration of the immune response, and particularly in neutrophil recruitment to affected tissues in acute interdigital phlegmon...
  51. Gibson F, Genco C. Prevention of Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced oral bone loss following immunization with gingipain R1. Infect Immun. 2001;69:7959-63 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that immunization with RgpA stimulates the production of hemagglutinin domain-specific antibodies, which contribute to the prevention of P. gingivalis-mediated periodontal disease...
  52. Curtis M, Aduse Opoku J, Rangarajan M, Gallagher A, Sterne J, Reid C, et al. Attenuation of the virulence of Porphyromonas gingivalis by using a specific synthetic Kgp protease inhibitor. Infect Immun. 2002;70:6968-75 pubmed
    ..gingivalis infections. Protease inhibitors may be a potentially novel class of antimicrobial agents with relevance to the control of other bacterial pathogens...
  53. Boutaga K, van Winkelhoff A, Vandenbroucke Grauls C, Savelkoul P. Comparison of real-time PCR and culture for detection of Porphyromonas gingivalis in subgingival plaque samples. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:4950-4 pubmed
    ..We conclude that real-time PCR confirms the results of quantitative culture of P. gingivalis and offers significant advantages with respect to the rapidity and sensitivity of detection of P. gingivalis in subgingival plaque samples...
  54. Nakano K, Kuboniwa M, Nakagawa I, Yamamura T, Nomura R, Okahashi N, et al. Comparison of inflammatory changes caused by Porphyromonas gingivalis with distinct fimA genotypes in a mouse abscess model. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2004;19:205-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, fimA mutants of type II strains clearly lost their infectious ability. These findings suggest that fimA genotypic variation affects expression of P. gingivalis virulence...
  55. Missailidis C, Umeda J, Ota Tsuzuki C, Anzai D, Mayer M. Distribution of fimA genotypes of Porphyromonas gingivalis in subjects with various periodontal conditions. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2004;19:224-9 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrated that P. gingivalis type II strains followed by type Ib are more prevalent in periodontitis patients from a multiracial population in Brazil, suggesting an increased pathogenic potential of these types...
  56. McGraw W, Potempa J, Farley D, Travis J. Purification, characterization, and sequence analysis of a potential virulence factor from Porphyromonas gingivalis, peptidylarginine deiminase. Infect Immun. 1999;67:3248-56 pubmed
    ..gingivalis, promotes the growth of the pathogen in the periodontal pocket, initially by enhancing its survivability and then by assisting the organism in its circumvention of host humoral defenses...
  57. Andrian E, Grenier D, Rouabhia M. Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide induces shedding of syndecan-1 expressed by gingival epithelial cells. J Cell Physiol. 2005;204:178-83 pubmed
    ..gingivalis LPS stimulated syndecan-1 shedding, a phenomenon that may be mediated in part by IL-1beta, leading to an activation of intracellular signaling pathways different from those involved in PMA stimulation...
  58. Scragg M, Alsam A, Rangarajan M, Slaney J, Shepherd P, Williams D, et al. Nuclear targeting of Porphyromonas gingivalis W50 protease in epithelial cells. Infect Immun. 2002;70:5740-50 pubmed
    ..These effects were seen with both active and TLCK-inactivated protease, confirming that they were not dependent on proteolytic activity, and thus provide new insights into the functioning of this P. gingivalis protease...
  59. Gyurko R, Boustany G, Huang P, Kantarci A, Van Dyke T, Genco C, et al. Mice lacking inducible nitric oxide synthase demonstrate impaired killing of Porphyromonas gingivalis. Infect Immun. 2003;71:4917-24 pubmed
    ..gingivalis. These results indicate that modulation of superoxide levels is a mechanism by which NO influences PMN function and that NO is an important element of the host defense against P. gingivalis...
  60. Lamont R, Jenkinson H. Life below the gum line: pathogenic mechanisms of Porphyromonas gingivalis. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 1998;62:1244-63 pubmed
    ..gingivalis may predispose to more serious systemic conditions such as cardiovascular disease and to delivery of preterm infants...