anthrax

Summary

Summary: An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.

Top Publications

  1. Fasanella A, Garofolo G, Hossain M, Shamsuddin M, Blackburn J, Hugh Jones M. Bangladesh anthrax outbreaks are probably caused by contaminated livestock feed. Epidemiol Infect. 2013;141:1021-8 pubmed publisher
    In Bangladesh from 1 July to 30 September 2010 there were 104 animal cases of anthrax and 607 associated human cases. This investigation was conducted in Sirajganj district in December 2010, on eight farms where animal cases had occurred...
  2. Ebrahimi C, Kern J, Sheen T, Ebrahimi Fardooee M, van Sorge N, Schneewind O, et al. Penetration of the blood-brain barrier by Bacillus anthracis requires the pXO1-encoded BslA protein. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:7165-73 pubmed publisher
    b>Anthrax is a zoonotic disease caused by the gram-positive spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Human infection occurs after the ingestion, inhalation, or cutaneous inoculation of B. anthracis spores...
  3. Beyer W, Turnbull P. Anthrax in animals. Mol Aspects Med. 2009;30:481-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Anthrax is the archetype zoonosis; no other infectious disease affects such a wide range of species, including humans, although most susceptible are herbivorous mammals...
  4. Fasanella A, Galante D, Garofolo G, Jones M. Anthrax undervalued zoonosis. Vet Microbiol. 2010;140:318-31 pubmed publisher
    b>Anthrax is a non-contagious disease, known since ancient times. However, it became a matter of global public interest after the bioterrorist attacks in the U.S.A. during the autumn of 2001...
  5. Rynkiewicz D, Rathkopf M, Sim I, Waytes A, Hopkins R, Giri L, et al. Marked enhancement of the immune response to BioThrax® (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed) by the TLR9 agonist CPG 7909 in healthy volunteers. Vaccine. 2011;29:6313-20 pubmed publisher
    Immunization with BioThrax(®) (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed) is a safe and effective means of preventing anthrax...
  6. Chauncey K, Lopez M, Sidhu G, Szarowicz S, Baker H, Quinn C, et al. Bacillus anthracis' lethal toxin induces broad transcriptional responses in human peripheral monocytes. BMC Immunol. 2012;13:33 pubmed publisher
    b>Anthrax lethal toxin (LT), produced by the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus anthracis, is a highly effective zinc dependent metalloprotease that cleaves the N-terminus of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MAPKK or MEKs) and is ..
  7. SteelFisher G, Blendon R, Ross L, Collins B, Ben Porath E, Bekheit M, et al. Public response to an anthrax attack: reactions to mass prophylaxis in a scenario involving inhalation anthrax from an unidentified source. Biosecur Bioterror. 2011;9:239-50 pubmed publisher
    An attack with Bacillus anthracis ("anthrax") is a known threat to the United States. When weaponized, it can cause inhalation anthrax, the deadliest form of the disease...
  8. Biswas P, Islam M, Shil S, Chakraborty R, Ahmed S, Christensen J. Risk factors associated with anthrax in cattle on smallholdings. Epidemiol Infect. 2012;140:1888-95 pubmed publisher
    SUMMARY Unprecedented high rates of anthrax outbreaks have been observed recently in cattle and humans in Bangladesh, with 607 human cases in 2010...
  9. Guichard A, Nizet V, Bier E. New insights into the biological effects of anthrax toxins: linking cellular to organismal responses. Microbes Infect. 2012;14:97-118 pubmed publisher
    The anthrax toxins lethal toxin (LT) and edema toxin (ET) are essential virulence factors produced by Bacillus anthracis. These toxins act during two distinct phases of anthrax infection...

More Information

Publications99

  1. Rubin G, Dickmann P. How to reduce the impact of "low-risk patients" following a bioterrorist incident: lessons from SARS, anthrax, and pneumonic plague. Biosecur Bioterror. 2010;8:37-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Evidence from the anthrax attacks in the United States suggested that a surge of low-risk patients is by no means inevitable...
  2. Mohamadzadeh M, Durmaz E, Zadeh M, Pakanati K, Gramarossa M, Cohran V, et al. Targeted expression of anthrax protective antigen by Lactobacillus gasseri as an anthrax vaccine. Future Microbiol. 2010;5:1289-96 pubmed publisher
    ..PA fusion protein in Lactobacillus gasseri, a common human commensal microbe, to vaccinate animals against anthrax Sterne infection. Oral application of L...
  3. Knox D, Murray G, Millar M, Hamilton D, Connor M, Ferdinand R, et al. Subcutaneous anthrax in three intravenous drug users: a new clinical diagnosis. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2011;93:414-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Anthrax is extremely rare in the western world but is endemic to areas of south and central Asia. In early 2010 an outbreak was identified in heroin-injecting intravenous drug users in the United Kingdom and Europe...
  4. Muehlbauer S, Lima H, Goldman D, Jacobson L, Rivera J, Goldberg M, et al. Proteasome inhibitors prevent caspase-1-mediated disease in rodents challenged with anthrax lethal toxin. Am J Pathol. 2010;177:735-43 pubmed publisher
    ..yet their over-activation has been linked to a long list of microbial and inflammatory diseases, including anthrax. The Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin (LT) has been shown to activate the NLR Nalp1b and caspase-1 and to induce ..
  5. Xie T, Auth R, Frucht D. The effects of anthrax lethal toxin on host barrier function. Toxins (Basel). 2011;3:591-607 pubmed publisher
    The pathological actions of anthrax toxin require the activities of its edema factor (EF) and lethal factor (LF) enzyme components, which gain intracellular access via its receptor-binding component, protective antigen (PA)...
  6. Plaut R, Kelly V, Lee G, Stibitz S, Merkel T. Dissemination bottleneck in a murine model of inhalational anthrax. Infect Immun. 2012;80:3189-93 pubmed publisher
    Inhalational anthrax is caused by the sporulating bacterium Bacillus anthracis...
  7. Reddy R, Parasadini G, Rao P, Uthappa C, Murhekar M. Outbreak of cutaneous anthrax in Musalimadugu village, Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh, India, July-August 2011. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2012;6:695-9 pubmed publisher
    In August 2011, Chittoor district authorities reported a cluster of suspected human anthrax cases to the Andhra Pradesh state surveillance unit...
  8. Voss J, Scally S, Taylor N, Atkinson S, Griffin M, Hutton C, et al. Substrate-mediated stabilization of a tetrameric drug target reveals Achilles heel in anthrax. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:5188-95 pubmed publisher
    Bacillus anthracis is a gram-positive spore-forming bacterium that causes anthrax. With the increased threat of anthrax in biowarfare, there is an urgent need to characterize new antimicrobial targets from B. anthracis...
  9. Winterroth L, Rivera J, Nakouzi A, Dadachova E, Casadevall A. Neutralizing monoclonal antibody to edema toxin and its effect on murine anthrax. Infect Immun. 2010;78:2890-8 pubmed publisher
    Edema factor (EF) is a component of an anthrax toxin that functions as an adenylate cyclase...
  10. Barnewall R, Comer J, Miller B, Gutting B, Wolfe D, Director Myska A, et al. Achieving consistent multiple daily low-dose Bacillus anthracis spore inhalation exposures in the rabbit model. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2012;2:71 pubmed publisher
    ..This is especially true for persistent agents such as B. anthracis spores, the causative agent of anthrax. Studies were conducted to examine aerosol methods needed for consistent daily low aerosol concentrations to ..
  11. Shetron Rama L, Herring Palmer A, Huffnagle G, Hanna P. Transport of Bacillus anthracis from the lungs to the draining lymph nodes is a rapid process facilitated by CD11c+ cells. Microb Pathog. 2010;49:38-46 pubmed publisher
    Inhalational anthrax is established after inhaled Bacillus anthracis spores are transported to the lung associated lymph nodes...
  12. Li F, Nandy P, Chien S, Noel G, Tornoe C. Pharmacometrics-based dose selection of levofloxacin as a treatment for postexposure inhalational anthrax in children. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:375-9 pubmed publisher
    ..S. Food and Drug Administration as a treatment for children following inhalational exposure to anthrax. Given that no clinical trials to assess the efficacy of a chosen dose was conducted, the basis for the dose ..
  13. Stephens M, Marvin B. Recognition of community-acquired anthrax: has anything changed since 2001?. Mil Med. 2010;175:671-5 pubmed
    To compare responses of practicing military and civilian primary care physicians to a series of standardized inhalational anthrax cases.
  14. Pajewski N, Parker S, Poland G, Ovsyannikova I, Song W, Zhang K, et al. The role of HLA-DR-DQ haplotypes in variable antibody responses to anthrax vaccine adsorbed. Genes Immun. 2011;12:457-65 pubmed publisher
    ..mediates heterogeneity in immune response to certain vaccines; however, no large study of genetic determinants of anthrax vaccine response has been described...
  15. Uchida M, Harada T, Enkhtuya J, Kusumoto A, Kobayashi Y, Chiba S, et al. Protective effect of Bacillus anthracis surface protein EA1 against anthrax in mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;421:323-8 pubmed publisher
    ..anthracis, against anthrax. Mice were intranasally immunized with recombinant EA1, followed by a lethal challenge of B. anthracis spores...
  16. Honsa E, Fabian M, Cardenas A, Olson J, Maresso A. The five near-iron transporter (NEAT) domain anthrax hemophore, IsdX2, scavenges heme from hemoglobin and transfers heme to the surface protein IsdC. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:33652-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Bacillus anthracis is a spore-forming, Gram-positive pathogen and the causative agent of anthrax disease. The rapid, extensive, and efficient replication of B...
  17. Albrecht M, Livingston B, Pesce J, Bell M, Hannaman D, Keane Myers A. Electroporation of a multivalent DNA vaccine cocktail elicits a protective immune response against anthrax and plague. Vaccine. 2012;30:4872-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate the feasibility of electroporation to deliver and maintain the overall efficacy of an anthrax-plague DNA vaccine cocktail whose individual components have qualitative immunological differences when combined.
  18. Leysath C, Chen K, Moayeri M, Crown D, Fattah R, Chen Z, et al. Mouse monoclonal antibodies to anthrax edema factor protect against infection. Infect Immun. 2011;79:4609-16 pubmed publisher
    Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax, and the tripartite anthrax toxin is an essential element of its pathogenesis. Edema factor (EF), a potent adenylyl cyclase, is one of the toxin components...
  19. Weiss S, Kobiler D, Levy H, Pass A, Ophir Y, Rothschild N, et al. Antibiotics cure anthrax in animal models. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011;55:1533-42 pubmed publisher
    Respiratory anthrax, in the absence of early antibiotic treatment, is a fatal disease. This study aimed to test the efficiency of antibiotic therapy in curing infected animals and those sick with anthrax...
  20. Jang K, Nam S, Locke J, Kauffman C, Beatty D, Paul L, et al. Anthracimycin, a potent anthrax antibiotic from a marine-derived actinomycete. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2013;52:7822-4 pubmed publisher
    ..in saline culture, shows significant activity toward Bacillus anthracis, the bacterial pathogen responsible for anthrax infections...
  21. Mayer B, Koopman J, Ionides E, Pujol J, Eisenberg J. A dynamic dose-response model to account for exposure patterns in risk assessment: a case study in inhalation anthrax. J R Soc Interface. 2011;8:506-17 pubmed publisher
    ..estimation of our model in a dose-response survival analysis using empirical time-series data of inhalational anthrax in monkeys in which we find slight dose-timing effects...
  22. Mytle N, Hopkins R, Malkevich N, Basu S, Meister G, Sanford D, et al. Evaluation of intravenous anthrax immune globulin for treatment of inhalation anthrax. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013;57:5684-92 pubmed publisher
    Bacillus anthracis toxins can be neutralized by antibodies against protective antigen (PA), a component of anthrax toxins...
  23. Maddugoda M, Stefani C, González Rodríguez D, Saarikangas J, Torrino S, Janel S, et al. cAMP signaling by anthrax edema toxin induces transendothelial cell tunnels, which are resealed by MIM via Arp2/3-driven actin polymerization. Cell Host Microbe. 2011;10:464-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the balance between ET-induced TEM formation and resealing likely determines the integrity of the host endothelium barrier...
  24. Ebrahimi C, Sheen T, Renken C, Gottlieb R, Doran K. Contribution of lethal toxin and edema toxin to the pathogenesis of anthrax meningitis. Infect Immun. 2011;79:2510-8 pubmed publisher
    Bacillus anthracis is a Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium that causes anthrax disease in humans and animals...
  25. Doganay M, Metan G, Alp E. A review of cutaneous anthrax and its outcome. J Infect Public Health. 2010;3:98-105 pubmed publisher
    b>Anthrax is still an endemic disease in some countries in the world and has become a re-emerging disease in western countries with recent intentional outbreak...
  26. Liu S, Zhang Y, Hoover B, Leppla S. The receptors that mediate the direct lethality of anthrax toxin. Toxins (Basel). 2012;5:1-8 pubmed publisher
    Tumor endothelium marker-8 (TEM8) and capillary morphogenesis protein-2 (CMG2) are the two well-characterized anthrax toxin receptors, each containing a von Willebrand factor A (vWA) domain responsible for anthrax protective antigen (PA) ..
  27. Honsa E, Maresso A. Mechanisms of iron import in anthrax. Biometals. 2011;24:533-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax disease, represents an excellent model organism to study iron acquisition processes owing to a multifaceted ..
  28. Altaweel L, Chen Z, Moayeri M, Cui X, Li Y, Su J, et al. Delayed treatment with W1-mAb, a chimpanzee-derived monoclonal antibody against protective antigen, reduces mortality from challenges with anthrax edema or lethal toxin in rats and with anthrax spores in mice. Crit Care Med. 2011;39:1439-47 pubmed publisher
    ..is a chimpanzee-derived monoclonal antibody to protective antigen that improved survival when administered before anthrax lethal toxin challenge in rats...
  29. Tonry J, Popov S, Narayanan A, Kashanchi F, Hakami R, Carpenter C, et al. In vivo murine and in vitro M-like cell models of gastrointestinal anthrax. Microbes Infect. 2013;15:37-44 pubmed publisher
    Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax and is acquired by three routes of infection: inhalational, gastrointestinal and cutaneous...
  30. Ha S, Park S, Han C, Nguyen M, Kim S. Cellular adaptation to anthrax lethal toxin-induced mitochondrial cholesterol enrichment, hyperpolarization, and reactive oxygen species generation through downregulating MLN64 in macrophages. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:4846-60 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Anthrax lethal toxin (LeTx) induces rapid cell death, termed "pyroptosis," by activating NLRP1b/caspase-1 in ..
  31. Nguyen M, Terzyan S, Ballard J, James J, Farris A. The major neutralizing antibody responses to recombinant anthrax lethal and edema factors are directed to non-cross-reactive epitopes. Infect Immun. 2009;77:4714-23 pubmed publisher
    b>Anthrax lethal and edema toxins (LeTx and EdTx, respectively) form by binding of lethal factor (LF) or edema factor (EF) to the pore-forming moiety protective antigen (PA)...
  32. Huan T, Ganesh T, Han S, Yoon M, Chung H. Sensitive detection of an anthrax biomarker using a glassy carbon electrode with a consecutively immobilized layer of polyaniline/carbon nanotube/peptide. Biosens Bioelectron. 2011;26:4227-30 pubmed publisher
    Sensitivity of Anthrax protective antigen (PA) detection has been improved by directly immobilizing a PA-specific peptide onto a multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)...
  33. Wu W, Mehta H, Chakrabarty K, Booth J, Duggan E, Patel K, et al. Resistance of human alveolar macrophages to Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin. J Immunol. 2009;183:5799-806 pubmed publisher
    The etiologic agent of inhalational anthrax, Bacillus anthracis, produces virulence toxins that are important in the disease pathogenesis...
  34. Cella L, Sanchez P, Zhong W, Myung N, Chen W, Mulchandani A. Nano aptasensor for protective antigen toxin of anthrax. Anal Chem. 2010;82:2042-7 pubmed publisher
    We demonstrate a highly sensitive nano aptasensor for anthrax toxin through the detection of its polypeptide entity, protective antigen (PA toxin) using a PA toxin ssDNA aptamer functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) ..
  35. Bromberg White J, Lee C, DUESBERY N. Consequences and utility of the zinc-dependent metalloprotease activity of anthrax lethal toxin. Toxins (Basel). 2010;2:1038-53 pubmed publisher
    b>Anthrax is caused by the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus anthracis. The pathogenesis of this disease is dependent on the presence of two binary toxins, edema toxin (EdTx) and lethal toxin (LeTx)...
  36. Marston C, Allen C, Beaudry J, Price E, Wolken S, Pearson T, et al. Molecular epidemiology of anthrax cases associated with recreational use of animal hides and yarn in the United States. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28274 pubmed publisher
    ..and canSNP analysis) 80 environmental and 12 clinical isolates and 2 clinical specimens from five cases of anthrax (California in 1976 [n = 1], New York in 2006 [n = 1], Connecticut in 2007 [n = 2], and New Hampshire in 2009[n = ..
  37. Barochia A, Cui X, Sun J, Li Y, Solomon S, Migone T, et al. Protective antigen antibody augments hemodynamic support in anthrax lethal toxin shock in canines. J Infect Dis. 2012;205:818-29 pubmed publisher
    b>Anthrax-associated shock is closely linked to lethal toxin (LT) release and is highly lethal despite conventional hemodynamic support...
  38. Kaur M, Bhatnagar R. Recent progress in the development of anthrax vaccines. Recent Pat Biotechnol. 2011;5:148-59 pubmed
    Bacillus anthracis is the etiological agent of anthrax. Although anthrax is primarily an epizootic disease; humans are at risk for contracting anthrax. The potential use of B...
  39. Hang ombe M, Mwansa J, Muwowo S, Mulenga P, Kapina M, Musenga E, et al. Human-animal anthrax outbreak in the Luangwa valley of Zambia in 2011. Trop Doct. 2012;42:136-9 pubmed publisher
    There has been a reduction of incidences of anthrax in the developed countries but it is still a public health problem in the developing countries where communities live in interface areas with wildlife...
  40. Lovchik J, Drysdale M, Koehler T, Hutt J, Lyons C. Expression of either lethal toxin or edema toxin by Bacillus anthracis is sufficient for virulence in a rabbit model of inhalational anthrax. Infect Immun. 2012;80:2414-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The rabbit model of inhalational anthrax is an important tool in the assessment of potential therapeutics against Bacillus anthracis...
  41. Kracalik I, Malania L, Tsertsvadze N, Manvelyan J, Bakanidze L, Imnadze P, et al. Evidence of local persistence of human anthrax in the country of georgia associated with environmental and anthropogenic factors. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2388 pubmed publisher
    b>Anthrax is a soil-borne disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis and is considered a neglected zoonosis. In the country of Georgia, recent reports have indicated an increase in the incidence of human anthrax...
  42. Comer J, Ray B, Henning L, Stark G, Barnewall R, Mott J, et al. Characterization of a therapeutic model of inhalational anthrax using an increase in body temperature in New Zealand white rabbits as a trigger for treatment. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012;19:1517-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The increase in body temperature corresponded with both bacteremia and antigenemia (PA in the blood), indicating that SIBT is a suitable trigger to initiate treatment in a therapeutic model of inhalational anthrax.
  43. Chang H, Wang T, Chen P, Lin Y, Liao C, Lin T, et al. Erythropoiesis suppression is associated with anthrax lethal toxin-mediated pathogenic progression. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e71718 pubmed publisher
    b>Anthrax is a disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, which results in high mortality in animals and humans...
  44. Brenneman K, Doganay M, Akmal A, Goldman S, Galloway D, Mateczun A, et al. The early humoral immune response to Bacillus anthracis toxins in patients infected with cutaneous anthrax. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2011;62:164-72 pubmed publisher
    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, produces a tripartite toxin composed of two enzymatically active subunits, lethal factor (LF) and edema factor (EF), which, when associated with a cell-binding component, protective ..
  45. Crowe S, Ash L, Engler R, Ballard J, Harley J, Farris A, et al. Select human anthrax protective antigen epitope-specific antibodies provide protection from lethal toxin challenge. J Infect Dis. 2010;202:251-60 pubmed publisher
    ..and the currently licensed vaccine remains an incomplete solution for population protection from inhalation anthrax and has been associated with concerns regarding efficacy and safety...
  46. Ali S, Timmer A, Bilgrami S, Park E, Eckmann L, Nizet V, et al. Anthrax toxin induces macrophage death by p38 MAPK inhibition but leads to inflammasome activation via ATP leakage. Immunity. 2011;35:34-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Prevention of cell death or ATP release through constitutive p38 or AKT activation interfered with inflammasome activation and IL-1? production, thereby compromising antimicrobial immunity...
  47. Dozmorov M, Wu W, Chakrabarty K, Booth J, Hurst R, Coggeshall K, et al. Gene expression profiling of human alveolar macrophages infected by B. anthracis spores demonstrates TNF-alpha and NF-kappab are key components of the innate immune response to the pathogen. BMC Infect Dis. 2009;9:152 pubmed publisher
    Bacillus anthracis, the etiologic agent of anthrax, has recently been used as an agent of bioterrorism. The innate immune system initially appears to contain the pathogen at the site of entry...
  48. Sun C, Fang H, Xie T, Auth R, Patel N, Murray P, et al. Anthrax lethal toxin disrupts intestinal barrier function and causes systemic infections with enteric bacteria. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33583 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Anthrax lethal toxin (LT) has specific proteolytic activity against the upstream regulators of MAPKs, the MAPK kinases (..
  49. Hicks C, Sweeney D, Cui X, Li Y, Eichacker P. An overview of anthrax infection including the recently identified form of disease in injection drug users. Intensive Care Med. 2012;38:1092-104 pubmed publisher
    Bacillus anthracis infection (anthrax) can be highly lethal...
  50. Fasanella A, Garofolo G, Galante D, Quaranta V, Palazzo L, Lista F, et al. Severe anthrax outbreaks in Italy in 2004: considerations on factors involved in the spread of infection. New Microbiol. 2010;33:83-6 pubmed
    b>Anthrax is a disease of humans and animals caused by the encapsulated, spore-forming Bacillus anthracis. In Italy, anthrax is normally a sporadic disease...
  51. Fabian M, Solomaha E, Olson J, Maresso A. Heme transfer to the bacterial cell envelope occurs via a secreted hemophore in the Gram-positive pathogen Bacillus anthracis. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:32138-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of the disease anthrax, secretes two NEAT (near iron transporter) proteins, IsdX1 and IsdX2, which scavenge heme from host hemoglobin ..
  52. Bromberg White J, Boguslawski E, Duesbery N. Perturbation of mouse retinal vascular morphogenesis by anthrax lethal toxin. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6956 pubmed publisher
    Lethal factor, the enzymatic moiety of anthrax lethal toxin (LeTx) is a protease that inactivates mitogen activated protein kinase kinases (MEK or MKK). In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate LeTx targets endothelial cells...
  53. Levy H, Weiss S, Altboum Z, Schlomovitz J, Rothschild N, Blachinsky E, et al. Lethal factor is not required for Bacillus anthracis virulence in guinea pigs and rabbits. Microb Pathog. 2011;51:345-51 pubmed publisher
    The major virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis is the tripartite anthrax toxin, comprising the protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF) and edema factor (EF). The LF of B...
  54. Kracalik I, Blackburn J, Lukhnova L, Pazilov Y, Hugh Jones M, Aikimbayev A. Analysing the spatial patterns of livestock anthrax in Kazakhstan in relation to environmental factors: a comparison of local (Gi*) and morphology cluster statistics. Geospat Health. 2012;7:111-26 pubmed
    We compared a local clustering and a cluster morphology statistic using anthrax outbreaks in large (cattle) and small (sheep and goats) domestic ruminants across Kazakhstan...
  55. Mechaly A, Cohen N, Weiss S, Zahavy E. A novel homogeneous immunoassay for anthrax detection based on the AlphaLISA method: detection of B. anthracis spores and protective antigen (PA) in complex samples. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2013;405:3965-72 pubmed publisher
    ..the development of a highly sensitive AlphaLISA assay for the detection of the main toxin component of anthrax, protective antigen (PA)...
  56. Liu S, Miller Randolph S, Crown D, Moayeri M, Sastalla I, Okugawa S, et al. Anthrax toxin targeting of myeloid cells through the CMG2 receptor is essential for establishment of Bacillus anthracis infections in mice. Cell Host Microbe. 2010;8:455-62 pubmed publisher
    Bacillus anthracis kills through a combination of bacterial infection and toxemia. Anthrax toxin working via the CMG2 receptor mediates lethality late in infection, but its roles early in infection remain unclear...
  57. Wright A, Beres S, Consamus E, Long S, Flores A, Barrios R, et al. Rapidly progressive, fatal, inhalation anthrax-like infection in a human: case report, pathogen genome sequencing, pathology, and coordinated response. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2011;135:1447-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Sporadic reports have described rare, fulminant, and sometimes fatal cases of pneumonia in humans and nonhuman primates caused by strains of Bacillus cereus , a species closely related to Bacillus anthracis...
  58. Powell A, Crozier J, Hodgson H, Galloway D. A case of septicaemic anthrax in an intravenous drug user. BMC Infect Dis. 2011;11:21 pubmed publisher
    In 2000, Ringertz et al described the first case of systemic anthrax caused by injecting heroin contaminated with anthrax. In 2008, there were 574 drug related deaths in Scotland, of which 336 were associated with heroin and or morphine...
  59. Thomas R, Davies C, Nunez A, Hibbs S, Flick Smith H, Eastaugh L, et al. Influence of particle size on the pathology and efficacy of vaccination in a murine model of inhalational anthrax. J Med Microbiol. 2010;59:1415-27 pubmed publisher
    ..anthracis infections arising from the inhalation of 1 and 12 ?m particle aerosols, providing 73-80% survival under a suboptimum immunization schedule...
  60. Brown B, Cox J, Gillis A, VanCott T, Marovich M, Milazzo M, et al. Phase I study of safety and immunogenicity of an Escherichia coli-derived recombinant protective antigen (rPA) vaccine to prevent anthrax in adults. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13849 pubmed publisher
    The fatal disease caused by Bacillus anthracis is preventable with a prophylactic vaccine. The currently available anthrax vaccine requires a lengthy immunization schedule, and simpler and more immunogenic options for protection against ..
  61. Oscherwitz J, Yu F, Jacobs J, Cease K. Recombinant vaccine displaying the loop-neutralizing determinant from protective antigen completely protects rabbits from experimental inhalation anthrax. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2013;20:341-9 pubmed publisher
    ..While the MAP vaccine was protective against anthrax, it contains a single heterologous helper T cell epitope which may be suboptimal for stimulating an outbred human ..
  62. Bouzianas D. Medical countermeasures to protect humans from anthrax bioterrorism. Trends Microbiol. 2009;17:522-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This article summarizes the most important medical countermeasures that have mostly been developed since the 2001 events, and highlights current problems and possible avenues for future research...
  63. Wright J, Quinn C, Shadomy S, Messonnier N. Use of anthrax vaccine in the United States: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2009. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2010;59:1-30 pubmed
    ..from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) update the previous recommendations for anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA) (CDC...
  64. Larabee J, Maldonado Arocho F, Pacheco S, France B, DeGiusti K, Shakir S, et al. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 activation is important for anthrax edema toxin-induced dendritic cell maturation and anthrax toxin receptor 2 expression in macrophages. Infect Immun. 2011;79:3302-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Anthrax edema toxin (ET) is one of two binary toxins produced by Bacillus anthracis that contributes to the virulence of this pathogen...
  65. Beierlein J, Anderson A. New developments in vaccines, inhibitors of anthrax toxins, and antibiotic therapeutics for Bacillus anthracis. Curr Med Chem. 2011;18:5083-94 pubmed
    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent responsible for anthrax infections, poses a significant biodefense threat...
  66. Semenova V, Schiffer J, Steward Clark E, Soroka S, Schmidt D, Brawner M, et al. Validation and long term performance characteristics of a quantitative enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for human anti-PA IgG. J Immunol Methods. 2012;376:97-107 pubmed publisher
    ..antigen (PA) IgG antibody levels is essential for comparative analyses of anti-toxin immune responses in anthrax cases, recipients of PA-based anthrax vaccines and for evaluation of anti-PA based immunotherapies...
  67. Peachman K, Li Q, Matyas G, Shivachandra S, Lovchik J, Lyons R, et al. Anthrax vaccine antigen-adjuvant formulations completely protect New Zealand white rabbits against challenge with Bacillus anthracis Ames strain spores. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012;19:11-6 pubmed publisher
    In an effort to develop an improved anthrax vaccine that shows high potency, five different anthrax protective antigen (PA)-adjuvant vaccine formulations that were previously found to be efficacious in a nonhuman primate model were ..
  68. Kern J, Schneewind O. BslA, the S-layer adhesin of B. anthracis, is a virulence factor for anthrax pathogenesis. Mol Microbiol. 2010;75:324-32 pubmed publisher
    ..A surface adhesin of Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, required to mediate these steps has not been discovered...
  69. Lowe D, Glomski I. Cellular and physiological effects of anthrax exotoxin and its relevance to disease. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2012;2:76 pubmed publisher
    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, secretes a tri-partite exotoxin that exerts pleiotropic effects on the host...
  70. COGGESHALL K, Lupu F, BALLARD J, Metcalf J, James J, Farris D, et al. The sepsis model: an emerging hypothesis for the lethality of inhalation anthrax. J Cell Mol Med. 2013;17:914-20 pubmed publisher
    Inhalation anthrax is often described as a toxin-mediated disease...
  71. Alqurashi A. Anthrax threat: a review of clinical and diagnostic measures. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2013;43:147-66 pubmed
    b>Anthrax is the plague of the ancient world and its existence is confirmed by the Roman poet Virgil. Also it is a threat in the modern world as it can be used in biological wars and bioterrorism...
  72. Ghosh N, Gupta N, Gupta G, Boopathi M, Pal V, Goel A. Detection of protective antigen, an anthrax specific toxin in human serum by using surface plasmon resonance. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2013;77:14-9 pubmed publisher
    ..surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology was used for the sensitive detection of protective antigen (PA), an anthrax specific toxin in spiked human serum samples...
  73. Hope V, Palmateer N, Wiessing L, Marongiu A, White J, Ncube F, et al. A decade of spore-forming bacterial infections among European injecting drug users: pronounced regional variation. Am J Public Health. 2012;102:122-5 pubmed publisher
    The recent anthrax outbreak among injecting drug users (IDUs) in Europe has highlighted an ongoing problem with severe illness resulting from spore-forming bacteria in IDUs...
  74. Chen Z, Schneerson R, Lovchik J, Lyons C, Zhao H, Dai Z, et al. Pre- and postexposure protection against virulent anthrax infection in mice by humanized monoclonal antibodies to Bacillus anthracis capsule. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:739-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, these anti-?DPGA mAbs should be useful, alone or in combination with antitoxin mAbs, for achieving a safe and efficacious postexposure therapy for anthrax.
  75. Beyer W, Turnbull P. Co-infection of an animal with more than one genotype can occur in anthrax. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2013;57:380-4 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate this further, isolates from 10 samples of blood-soaked soil from beneath anthrax carcasses and 18 clinical swabs taken from carcasses in the ENP were examined by a 31-marker MLVA...
  76. Price E, Seymour M, Sarovich D, Latham J, Wolken S, Mason J, et al. Molecular epidemiologic investigation of an anthrax outbreak among heroin users, Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:1307-13 pubmed publisher
    In December 2009, two unusual cases of anthrax were diagnosed in heroin users in Scotland...
  77. Klee S, Brzuszkiewicz E, Nattermann H, Bruggemann H, Dupke S, Wollherr A, et al. The genome of a Bacillus isolate causing anthrax in chimpanzees combines chromosomal properties of B. cereus with B. anthracis virulence plasmids. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10986 pubmed publisher
    b>Anthrax is a fatal disease caused by strains of Bacillus anthracis. Members of this monophyletic species are non motile and are all characterized by the presence of four prophages and a nonsense mutation in the plcR regulator gene...
  78. Rao S, Mohan K, Atreya C. Detection technologies for Bacillus anthracis: prospects and challenges. J Microbiol Methods. 2010;82:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..is a Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium representing the etiological agent of acute infectious disease anthrax, a lethal but rare disease of animals and humans in nature...
  79. Weiner Z, Boyer A, Gallegos Candela M, Cardani A, Barr J, Glomski I. Debridement increases survival in a mouse model of subcutaneous anthrax. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30201 pubmed publisher
    b>Anthrax is caused by infection with Bacillus anthracis, a spore-forming gram-positive bacterium. A major virulence factor for B...
  80. Lee S, Wang Y, Kim S, Han J. AMPD3 is involved in anthrax LeTx-induced macrophage cell death. Protein Cell. 2011;2:564-72 pubmed publisher
    ..anthracis spores in lymph nodes, and macrophage death exacerbates anthrax lethal toxin (LeTx)-induced organ collapse...
  81. Okugawa S, Moayeri M, Eckhaus M, Crown D, Miller Randolph S, Liu S, et al. MyD88-dependent signaling protects against anthrax lethal toxin-induced impairment of intestinal barrier function. Infect Immun. 2011;79:118-24 pubmed publisher
    ..anthracis infection, knockout mice were challenged with nonencapsulated, toxigenic B. anthracis or with anthrax toxins. MyD88-deficient mice had increased susceptibility to B...
  82. Liu S, Zhang Y, Moayeri M, Liu J, Crown D, Fattah R, et al. Key tissue targets responsible for anthrax-toxin-induced lethality. Nature. 2013;501:63-8 pubmed publisher
    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax disease, is lethal owing to the actions of two exotoxins: anthrax lethal toxin (LT) and oedema toxin (ET)...
  83. Nelson M, Stagg A, Stevens D, Brown M, Pearce P, Simpson A, et al. Post-exposure therapy of inhalational anthrax in the common marmoset. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2011;38:60-4 pubmed publisher
    ..was to compare the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of ciprofloxacin as post-exposure therapy against inhalational anthrax in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) with other non-human primate models in order to determine whether the ..
  84. Tamayo A, Slater L, Taylor Parker J, Bharti A, Harrison R, Hung D, et al. GRP78(BiP) facilitates the cytosolic delivery of anthrax lethal factor (LF) in vivo and functions as an unfoldase in vitro. Mol Microbiol. 2011;81:1390-401 pubmed publisher
    b>Anthrax toxin is an A/B bacterial protein toxin which is composed of the enzymatically active Lethal Factor (LF) and/or Oedema Factor (EF) bound to Protective Antigen 63 (PA63) which functions as both the receptor binding and ..
  85. Hu H, Leppla S. Anthrax toxin uptake by primary immune cells as determined with a lethal factor-beta-lactamase fusion protein. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7946 pubmed publisher
    To initiate infection, Bacillus anthracis needs to overcome the host innate immune system. Anthrax toxin, a major virulence factor of B...
  86. Cybulski R, Sanz P, O Brien A. Anthrax vaccination strategies. Mol Aspects Med. 2009;30:490-502 pubmed publisher
    The biological attack conducted through the US postal system in 2001 broadened the threat posed by anthrax from one pertinent mainly to soldiers on the battlefield to one understood to exist throughout our society...
  87. Chung M, Jorgensen S, Tonry J, Kashanchi F, Bailey C, Popov S. Secreted Bacillus anthracis proteases target the host fibrinolytic system. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2011;62:173-81 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that NprB and InhA may contribute to the activation of the fibrinolytic system in anthrax infection.
  88. Mullins J, Lukhnova L, Aikimbayev A, Pazilov Y, Van Ert M, Blackburn J. Ecological niche modelling of the Bacillus anthracis A1.a sub-lineage in Kazakhstan. BMC Ecol. 2011;11:32 pubmed publisher
    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is a globally distributed zoonotic pathogen that continues to be a veterinary and human health problem in Central Asia...
  89. Moayeri M, Sastalla I, Leppla S. Anthrax and the inflammasome. Microbes Infect. 2012;14:392-400 pubmed publisher
    b>Anthrax lethal toxin (LT), a major virulence determinant of anthrax disease, induces vascular collapse in mice and rats...
  90. Terra J, France B, Cote C, Jenkins A, Bozue J, Welkos S, et al. Allelic variation on murine chromosome 11 modifies host inflammatory responses and resistance to Bacillus anthracis. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002469 pubmed publisher
    b>Anthrax is a potentially fatal disease resulting from infection with Bacillus anthracis...