ehrlichiosis

Summary

Summary: A tick-borne disease characterized by FEVER; HEADACHE; myalgias; ANOREXIA; and occasionally RASH. It is caused by several bacterial species and can produce disease in DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; HORSES; and humans. The primary species causing human disease are EHRLICHIA CHAFFEENSIS; ANAPLASMA PHAGOCYTOPHILUM; and Ehrlichia ewingii.

Top Publications

  1. Ismail N, Bloch K, McBride J. Human ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis. Clin Lab Med. 2010;30:261-92 pubmed publisher
    Human ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis are acute febrile tick-borne diseases caused by various members of the genera Ehrlichia and Anaplasma (Anaplasmataceae)...
  2. Vichova B, Majlathova V, Novakova M, Straka M, Pet Ko B. First molecular detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in European brown bear (Ursus arctos). Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2010;10:543-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of our study provides the evidence, that the range of animals involved in the circulation and maintenance of A. phagocytophilum in natural foci, is extended of another ursine carnivore, European brown bear (Ursus arctos). ..
  3. Stuen S, Bergstrom K. [Human anaplasmosis--a hidden disease in Norway?]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2008;128:2579-81 pubmed
    ..Human anaplasmosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis when faced with a patient with influenzae-like symptoms 1-3 weeks after a tick bite. ..
  4. Dumler J. The biological basis of severe outcomes in Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2012;64:13-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Whether severity relates to microbial factors or genetically determined diversity in human immune and inflammatory response needs more investigation. ..
  5. Harrus S, Waner T. Diagnosis of canine monocytotropic ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis): an overview. Vet J. 2011;187:292-6 pubmed publisher
    Canine monocytotropic ehrlichiosis (CME), caused by the rickettsia Ehrlichia canis, an important canine disease with a worldwide distribution...
  6. Skuballa J, Petney T, Pfäffle M, Taraschewski H. Molecular detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) and its ticks. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2010;10:1055-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this species may play a role in human contact with zoonotic diseases. Here we report the presence of the pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum in hedgehogs and their ticks in Germany...
  7. Thomas R, Dumler J, Carlyon J. Current management of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, human monocytic ehrlichiosis and Ehrlichia ewingii ehrlichiosis. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2009;7:709-22 pubmed publisher
    ..emerging tick-borne pathogens and are the causative agents of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, human monocytic ehrlichiosis and E. ewingii ehrlichiosis, respectively. Collectively, these are referred to as human ehrlichioses...
  8. Reneer D, Troese M, Huang B, Kearns S, Carlyon J. Anaplasma phagocytophilum PSGL-1-independent infection does not require Syk and leads to less efficient AnkA delivery. Cell Microbiol. 2008;10:1827-38 pubmed publisher
    ..PSGL-1 N-terminus recognition promotes optimal AnkA delivery while binding to sLe(x) or the unknown receptor is comparably less important for this process. ..
  9. Zygner W, Gorski P, Wedrychowicz H. Detection of the DNA of Borrelia afzelii, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia canis in blood samples from dogs in Warsaw. Vet Rec. 2009;164:465-7 pubmed
    ..8 per cent). The DNA of H canis was not found in any of the blood samples. Sequencing of the seven Borrelia amplicons showed that only the genospecies Borrelia afzelii was present, the first time it has been detected in dogs in Poland. ..

More Information

Publications98

  1. Stuen S, Braten M, Bergstrom K, Bårdsen K. Cyclic variation in lambs infected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Vet Rec. 2008;163:338-40 pubmed
  2. Thomas R, Birtles R, Radford A, Woldehiwet Z. Recurrent bacteraemia in sheep infected persistently with Anaplasma phagocytophilum. J Comp Pathol. 2012;147:360-7 pubmed publisher
    ..For three animals, bacterial DNA was detected at 311, 318 and 358 days post infection, indicating the long-term persistence of A. phagocytophilum within peripheral blood. ..
  3. Ismail N, Walker D, Ghose P, Tang Y. Immune mediators of protective and pathogenic immune responses in patients with mild and fatal human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis. BMC Immunol. 2012;13:26 pubmed publisher
    Ehrlichia chaffeensis is a bacterial pathogen that causes fatal human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) that mimic toxic shock-like syndrome...
  4. Foley J, Nieto N, Clueit S, Foley P, Nicholson W, Brown R. Survey for zoonotic rickettsial pathogens in northern flying squirrels, Glaucomys sabrinus, in California. J Wildl Dis. 2007;43:684-9 pubmed
    ..Fleas and ticks removed from the squirrels included Ceratophyllus ciliatus mononis, Opisodasys vesperalis, Ixodes hearlei, Ixodes pacificus, and Dermacentor paramapertus...
  5. Lin M, den Dulk Ras A, Hooykaas P, Rikihisa Y. Anaplasma phagocytophilum AnkA secreted by type IV secretion system is tyrosine phosphorylated by Abl-1 to facilitate infection. Cell Microbiol. 2007;9:2644-57 pubmed
  6. Granquist E, Stuen S, Lundgren A, Bråten M, Barbet A. Outer membrane protein sequence variation in lambs experimentally infected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Infect Immun. 2008;76:120-6 pubmed
    ..phagocytophilum and the host immune system in naturally occurring persistent infections and provide an important comparison with enduring infections of cattle caused by A. marginale. ..
  7. Granquist E, Stuen S, Crosby L, Lundgren A, Alleman A, Barbet A. Variant-specific and diminishing immune responses towards the highly variable MSP2(P44) outer membrane protein of Anaplasma phagocytophilum during persistent infection in lambs. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2010;133:117-24 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, there was a diminishing antibody response to MSP2(P44) and to other A. phagocytophilum antigens overall with time of infection, that was not associated with clearance of the infection. ..
  8. Beall M, Chandrashekar R, Eberts M, Cyr K, Diniz P, Mainville C, et al. Serological and molecular prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Ehrlichia species in dogs from Minnesota. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2008;8:455-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on PCR testing, A. phagocytophilum DNA was more prevalent in suspected cases of anaplasmosis or borreliosis than in healthy dogs from the same region...
  9. Kahlon A, Ojogun N, Ragland S, Seidman D, Troese M, Ottens A, et al. Anaplasma phagocytophilum Asp14 is an invasin that interacts with mammalian host cells via its C terminus to facilitate infection. Infect Immun. 2013;81:65-79 pubmed publisher
    ..phagocytophilum and other Anaplasmataceae pathogens...
  10. Nieder M, Silaghi C, Hamel D, Pfister K, Schmäschke R, Pfeffer M. Tick-borne fever caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Germany: first laboratory confirmed case in a dairy cattle herd. Tierarztl Prax Ausg G Grosstiere Nutztiere. 2012;40:101-6 pubmed
    ..Therefore TBF should be taken into account as differential diagnosis in case of high fever and/or a sudden decrease in milk production in pastured animals...
  11. Masters E, Storch G, Sumner J. Ehrlichia ewingii in an immunocompetent adult. Mo Med. 2009;106:301-3 pubmed
    ..This rare zoonosis was first published in 1999. This case report that expands the clinical paradigm is described. A 57-year-old immunocompetent adult, unlike previously published reports, did not cross react with Ehrlichia chaffeensis. ..
  12. Ebani V, Cerri D, Fratini F, Ampola M, Andreani E. Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in a fallow deer (Dama dama) population in a preserve of central Italy. New Microbiol. 2007;30:161-5 pubmed
    ..Three serologically positive animals gave negative results at the nested PCR. Five deer scored negative both to serological tests and PCR. ..
  13. Zhan L, Cao W, de Vlas S, Xie S, Zhang P, Wu X, et al. A newly discovered Anaplasma phagocytophilum variant in rodents from southeastern China. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2008;8:369-80 pubmed publisher
    ..phagocytophilum sequences,as were msp4 and groESL. These findings indicate that the newly discovered agent represents a novel A. phagocytophilum variant. ..
  14. Ebani V, Cerri D, Fratini F, Ampola M, Andreani E. Seroprevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in domestic and wild animals from central Italy. New Microbiol. 2008;31:371-5 pubmed
    ..78% (23/137) in cattle, 12.74% (13/102) in sheep, 8.76% (108/1232) in dogs, 4.16% (3/72) in goats. These data confirm the presence of A. phagocytophilum in wild ruminants and domestic animals, including pets, in central Italy...
  15. Stich R, Schaefer J, Bremer W, Needham G, Jittapalapong S. Host surveys, ixodid tick biology and transmission scenarios as related to the tick-borne pathogen, Ehrlichia canis. Vet Parasitol. 2008;158:256-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Ehrlichia canis, the primary etiologic agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, is relatively well characterized and offers unique advantages and opportunities to study interactions between ..
  16. Scharf W, Schauer S, Freyburger F, Petrovec M, Schaarschmidt Kiener D, Liebisch G, et al. Distinct host species correlate with Anaplasma phagocytophilum ankA gene clusters. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:790-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Whereas the phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequences was not meaningful, we showed that distinct host species correlate with A. phagocytophilum ankA gene clusters. ..
  17. Zhang L, Shan A, Mathew B, Yin J, Fu X, Zhang J, et al. Rickettsial Seroepidemiology among farm workers, Tianjin, People's Republic of China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:938-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Demographic features of seropositive persons suggest distinct epidemiology, ecology, and risks. ..
  18. Mazepa A, Kidd L, Young K, Trepanier L. Clinical presentation of 26 anaplasma phagocytophilum-seropositive dogs residing in an endemic area. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2010;46:405-12 pubmed
    ..phagocytophilum-endemic areas. If moderate to severe thrombocytopenia is present, testing for concurrent B. burgdorferi infection may be warranted...
  19. Nieto N, Foley J. Evaluation of squirrels (Rodentia: Sciuridae) as ecologically significant hosts for Anaplasma phagocytophilum in California. J Med Entomol. 2008;45:763-9 pubmed
    ..phagocytophilum. Extensive exposure from multiple areas suggests sciurids may be important in the maintenance of GA in California and indicates that studies of reservoir competence of these species are warranted. ..
  20. Foley J, Nieto N, Adjemian J, Dabritz H, Brown R. Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in small mammal hosts of Ixodes ticks, western United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:1147-50 pubmed publisher
    ..High seroprevalence was observed in northern sites. Ten tick species were identified. Heavily infested rodent species included meadow voles, woodrats, deer mice, and redwood chipmunks...
  21. Ghose P, Ali A, Fang R, Forbes D, Ballard B, Ismail N. The interaction between IL-18 and IL-18 receptor limits the magnitude of protective immunity and enhances pathogenic responses following infection with intracellular bacteria. J Immunol. 2011;187:1333-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results suggested that the presence or absence of IL-18R signals governs the pathogenic versus protective immunity in a model of Ehrlichia-induced immunopathology. ..
  22. Nowak M, Cieniuch S, Stanczak J, Siuda K. Detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Amblyomma flavomaculatum ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from lizard Varanus exanthematicus imported to Poland. Exp Appl Acarol. 2010;51:363-71 pubmed publisher
    ..This study contributes to the overall recognition of the scarcely explored fauna of the exotic ticks transferred to Poland on reptiles from remote destinations...
  23. Chattoraj P, Yang Q, Khandai A, Al Hendy O, Ismail N. TLR2 and Nod2 mediate resistance or susceptibility to fatal intracellular Ehrlichia infection in murine models of ehrlichiosis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e58514 pubmed publisher
    Our murine models of human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) have shown that severe and fatal ehrlichiosis is due to generation of pathogenic T cell responses causing immunopathology and multi-organ failure...
  24. Magnarelli L, Williams S, Fikrig E. Seasonal prevalence of serum antibodies to whole cell and recombinant antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in white-tailed deer in Connecticut. J Wildl Dis. 2010;46:781-90 pubmed
    ..November and December is a suitable period to obtain blood samples from deer to conduct serosurveillance for both bacteria...
  25. Rahman W, Ning C, Chandrawathani P. Prevalence of canine ehrlichiosis in Perak State, peninsular Malaysia. Trop Biomed. 2010;27:13-8 pubmed
    ..Results showed that 15% of the dogs were positive for the parasite via IFAT, but none using blood smears. However, infected dogs did not show severe clinical symptoms of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME).
  26. Walk S, Xu G, Stull J, Rich S. Correlation between tick density and pathogen endemicity, New Hampshire. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:585-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Pathogens were more prevalent in areas of high tick density, suggesting a correlation between tick establishment and pathogen endemicity. Infection rates in ticks correlated with disease frequency in humans...
  27. Komnenou A, Mylonakis M, Kouti V, Tendoma L, Leontides L, Skountzou E, et al. Ocular manifestations of natural canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis): a retrospective study of 90 cases. Vet Ophthalmol. 2007;10:137-42 pubmed
    To investigate the spectrum, prevalence and treatment response rate of ocular manifestations associated with natural canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) due to Ehrlichia canis.
  28. Bown K, Lambin X, Ogden N, Begon M, Telford G, Woldehiwet Z, et al. Delineating Anaplasma phagocytophilum ecotypes in coexisting, discrete enzootic cycles. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1948-54 pubmed publisher
    ..phagocytophilum are restricted to coexisting but separate enzootic cycles and suggest that this restriction may result from specific vector compatibility. ..
  29. Rahman M, Cheng Z, Matsuo J, Rikihisa Y. Penicillin-binding protein of Ehrlichia chaffeensis: cytokine induction through MyD88-dependent pathway. J Infect Dis. 2012;206:110-6 pubmed publisher
    Human monocytic ehrlichiosis is one of the most prevalent tick-borne zoonoses caused by infection with Ehrlichia chaffeensis. Although E...
  30. Giudice E, Giannetto C, Furco V, Alongi A, Torina A. Anaplasma phagocytophilum seroprevalence in equids: a survey in Sicily (Italy). Parasitol Res. 2012;111:951-5 pubmed publisher
    ..However, further studies are necessary to elucidate the possible mechanisms that involve the Equidae as host of this pathogen...
  31. Vargas Hernández G, André M, Faria J, Munhoz T, Hernandez Rodriguez M, Machado R, et al. Molecular and serological detection of Ehrlichia canis and Babesia vogeli in dogs in Colombia. Vet Parasitol. 2012;186:254-60 pubmed publisher
    b>Ehrlichiosis and babesiosis are tick-borne diseases, caused mainly by Ehrlichia canis and Babesia canis, respectively, with a worldwide occurrence in dogs, whose main vector is the brown-dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus...
  32. Torina A, Galindo R, Vicente J, Di Marco V, Russo M, Aronica V, et al. Characterization of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and A. ovis infection in a naturally infected sheep flock with poor health condition. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2010;42:1327-31 pubmed publisher
    ..phagocytophilum strains on a global scale, genetic polymorphisms occur in this locus in strains obtained from an infected sheep flock with poor health condition...
  33. Hegarty B, de Paiva Diniz P, Bradley J, Lorentzen L, Breitschwerdt E. Clinical relevance of annual screening using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (SNAP 3Dx) for canine ehrlichiosis. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2009;45:118-24 pubmed
    ..In this study, thrombocytopenia was frequently detected in healthy Ehrlichia SNAP 3Dx-positive dogs, whereas active infection was infrequently confirmed by PCR. Therefore, treatment based upon screening results alone is not recommended...
  34. Jilintai -, Seino N, Hayakawa D, Suzuki M, Hata H, Kondo S, et al. Molecular survey for Anaplasma bovis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in cattle in a pastureland where sika deer appear in Hokkaido, Japan. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2009;62:73-5 pubmed
    ..phagocytophilum detected in this study may possess significantly lower virulence or infectivity in cattle hosts. No clinical symptoms were recorded in the positive cattle, and morulae were not detected in the blood smears...
  35. Hamburg B, Storch G, Micek S, Kollef M. The importance of early treatment with doxycycline in human ehrlichiosis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2008;87:53-60 pubmed publisher
    Human ehrlichiosis is a serious disease that can be fatal if not treated appropriately...
  36. Bown K, Lambin X, Telford G, Ogden N, Telfer S, Woldehiwet Z, et al. Relative importance of Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes trianguliceps as vectors for Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti in field vole (Microtus agrestis) populations. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:7118-25 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides compelling evidence for the importance of I. trianguliceps in maintaining these enzootic tick-borne infections, while highlighting the potential for such infections to escape into alternative hosts via I. ricinus...
  37. Zhan L, Cao W, Jiang J, Zhang X, Liu Y, Wu X, et al. Anaplasma phagocytophilum from Rodents and Sheep, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:764-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The multiple sequences of the 3 isolates were identical to each other but different from all known strains from other countries. The public health and veterinary relevance of the isolates deserves further investigation...
  38. Santos H, Pires M, Vilela J, Santos T, Faccini J, Baldani C, et al. Detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Brazilian dogs by real-time polymerase chain reaction. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2011;23:770-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The current study reports the detection of A. phagocytophilum, a zoonotic agent responsible for Human granulocytic anaplasmosis, in Brazilian dogs...
  39. Little S. Ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in dogs and cats. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2010;40:1121-40 pubmed publisher
    In the time since canine ehrlichiosis due to Ehrlichia canis was first described in 1935 and first recognized in the United States in 1962, many key advances have been made in our understanding of the diversity of the rickettsial ..
  40. Thomas S, Popov V, Walker D. Exit mechanisms of the intracellular bacterium Ehrlichia. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15775 pubmed publisher
    ..Ehrlichia chaffeensis that resides in mononuclear phagocytes is the causative agent of human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis. Ehrlichia muris and Ixodes ovatus Ehrlichia (IOE) are agents of mouse models of ehrlichiosis...
  41. Nieto N, Leonhard S, Foley J, Lane R. Coinfection of western gray squirrel (Sciurus griseus) and other sciurid rodents with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in California. J Wildl Dis. 2010;46:291-6 pubmed
  42. Rojas A, Rojas D, Montenegro V, Gutierrez R, Yasur Landau D, Baneth G. Vector-borne pathogens in dogs from Costa Rica: first molecular description of Babesia vogeli and Hepatozoon canis infections with a high prevalence of monocytic ehrlichiosis and the manifestations of co-infection. Vet Parasitol. 2014;199:121-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, prevention of tick infestation is recommended to decrease the threat of these diseases to the canine population...
  43. Kawahara M, Tajima T, Torii H, Yabutani M, Ishii J, Harasawa M, et al. Ehrlichia chaffeensis infection of sika deer, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1991-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Of 117 deer, 36 (31%) were infected with E. chaffeensis. The E. chaffeensis 16S rRNA base and GroEL amino acid sequences from Japan were most closely related to those of E. chaffeensis Arkansas...
  44. Garcia Garcia J, Barat N, Trembley S, Dumler J. Epigenetic silencing of host cell defense genes enhances intracellular survival of the rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000488 pubmed publisher
    ..phagocytophilum infection. Bacterial epigenetic regulation of host cell gene transcription could be a general mechanism that enhances intracellular pathogen survival while altering cell function and promoting disease...
  45. Veronesi F, Galuppi R, Tampieri M, Bonoli C, Mammoli R, Piergili Fioretti D. Prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in fallow deer (Dama dama) and feeding ticks from an Italy preserve. Res Vet Sci. 2011;90:40-3 pubmed publisher
    ..phagocytophilum and, therefore, that may represent a biological reservoir playing an important role in the epidemiological scenarios of the infection, in the geographical areas where is widespread...
  46. Woldehiwet Z, Yavari C. Evaluation of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of antibodies against Anaplasma phagocytophilum in sheep. J Comp Pathol. 2012;146:116-21 pubmed publisher
    ..8% and a specificity of 95.7%. Lowering the cut-off point to 15PP increased the sensitivity to 94.6%, but reduced the specificity to 92.8%...
  47. Grøva L, Olesen I, Steinshamn H, Stuen S. Prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection and effect on lamb growth. Acta Vet Scand. 2011;53:30 pubmed publisher
    ..A major challenge in sheep farming during the grazing season along the coast of south-western Norway is tick-borne fever (TBF) caused by the bacteria Anaplasma phagocytophilum that is transmitted by the tick Ixodes ricinus...
  48. Siarkou V, Mylonakis M, Bourtzi Hatzopoulou E, Koutinas A. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of Ehrlichia canis strains in dogs with clinical monocytic ehrlichiosis. Vet Microbiol. 2007;125:304-12 pubmed
    ..at the molecular level, the Ehrlichia canis strains involved in naturally occurring canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) in Greece, and to investigate if any sequence diversity exists between the 16S rRNA genes of those ..
  49. Granquist E, Bårdsen K, Bergstrom K, Stuen S. Variant -and individual dependent nature of persistent Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection. Acta Vet Scand. 2010;52:25 pubmed publisher
    ..Little is known about how different strains of A. phagocytophilum propagate in their natural hosts during persistent infection...
  50. Kiilerich A, Christensen H, Thamsborg S. Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Danish sheep: confirmation by DNA sequencing. Acta Vet Scand. 2009;51:55 pubmed publisher
    ..Direct PCR detection was performed on DNA extracted from blood and serum with subsequent confirmation by DNA sequencing...
  51. Chandrashekar R, Mainville C, Beall M, O CONNOR T, Eberts M, Alleman A, et al. Performance of a commercially available in-clinic ELISA for the detection of antibodies against Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis, and Borrelia burgdorferi and Dirofilaria immitis antigen in dogs. Am J Vet Res. 2010;71:1443-50 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a commercially available in-clinic ELISA for detection of heartworm infection and tick-borne diseases in dogs...
  52. Scorpio D, Leutenegger C, Berger J, Barat N, Madigan J, Dumler J. Sequential analysis of Anaplasma phagocytophilum msp2 transcription in murine and equine models of human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2008;15:418-24 pubmed
    ..Alteration in transcription of msp2 has no bearing on clinical disease in horses, suggesting the existence of a separate proinflammatory component differentially expressed with changing in vitro passage...
  53. Moro P, Shah J, Li O, Gilman R, Harris N, Moro M. Short report: serologic evidence of human ehrlichiosis in Peru. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009;80:242-4 pubmed
    A serosurvey for human ehrlichiosis caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum was performed in different regions of Peru by using indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFAs)...
  54. Nandi B, Hogle K, Vitko N, Winslow G. CD4 T-cell epitopes associated with protective immunity induced following vaccination of mice with an ehrlichial variable outer membrane protein. Infect Immun. 2007;75:5453-9 pubmed
    ..In this study, we used a model of fatal monocytotropic ehrlichiosis caused by Ehrlichia bacteria from Ixodes ovatus (IOE) to determine whether OMP immunization could generate ..
  55. Walker D, Paddock C, Dumler J. Emerging and re-emerging tick-transmitted rickettsial and ehrlichial infections. Med Clin North Am. 2008;92:1345-61, x pubmed publisher
    ..Globally, many of these bacteria have been named but the genetic differences among them are often small, and many of their clinical manifestations may not be distinguishable diagnostically...
  56. Massung R, Levin M, Munderloh U, Silverman D, Lynch M, Gaywee J, et al. Isolation and propagation of the Ap-Variant 1 strain of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in a tick cell line. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45:2138-43 pubmed
    ..phagocytophilum with pleomorphic bacteria in membrane-bound vacuoles and both electron-dense and electron-lucent forms...
  57. Eddlestone S, Diniz P, Neer T, Gaunt S, Corstvet R, Cho D, et al. Doxycycline clearance of experimentally induced chronic Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2007;21:1237-42 pubmed
    ..after doxycycline administration has been reported despite the fact that the recommended treatment for canine ehrlichiosis is doxycycline...
  58. Mastronunzio J, Kurscheid S, Fikrig E. Postgenomic analyses reveal development of infectious Anaplasma phagocytophilum during transmission from ticks to mice. J Bacteriol. 2012;194:2238-47 pubmed publisher
    ..phagocytophilum during transmission from ticks to mammals and demonstrates that the abundantly expressed, DC-associated APH_1235 protein is important during in vivo infection by A. phagocytophilum. ..
  59. Machado R, André M, Werther K, de Sousa E, Gavioli F, Alves Júnior J. Migratory and carnivorous birds in Brazil: reservoirs for Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species?. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2012;12:705-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, an Ehrlichia species closely related to an Ehrlichia species found in wild felines in Brazil was also detected in a goose blood sample. Wild birds may play a role as carriers of Anaplasmataceae agents in Brazil...
  60. Henn J, Gabriel M, Kasten R, Brown R, Theis J, Foley J, et al. Gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) as a potential reservoir of a Bartonella clarridgeiae-like bacterium and domestic dogs as part of a sentinel system for surveillance of zoonotic arthropod-borne pathogens in northern California. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45:2411-8 pubmed
    ..Older dogs were more likely to be seroreactive to Bartonella spp. There was no association between the exposure of dogs to Bartonella and the exposure of dogs to A. phagocytophilum in this study...
  61. Stuen S, Pettersen K, Granquist E, Bergstrom K, Bown K, Birtles R. Anaplasma phagocytophilum variants in sympatric red deer (Cervus elaphus) and sheep in southern Norway. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2013;4:197-201 pubmed publisher
  62. Silaghi C, Skuballa J, Thiel C, Pfister K, Petney T, Pfäffle M, et al. The European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus)--a suitable reservoir for variants of Anaplasma phagocytophilum?. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2012;3:49-54 pubmed publisher
    ..phagocytophilum and the simultaneous infestation with 2 tick species of all developmental stages suggest that the hedgehog may be a suitable reservoir for at least some variants of A. phagocytophilum...
  63. Karbowiak G, Vichova B, Majlathova V, Hapunik J, Petko B. Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Ann Agric Environ Med. 2009;16:299-300 pubmed
    ..Determination was based on PCR amplification of 16S rRNA gene and the portion of msp4 gene coding MSP4 major surface protein. The presence of A. phagocytophilum was found in 2.7 % of foxes...
  64. Johnston E, Tsao J, Muñoz J, Owen J. Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in American robins and gray catbirds: an assessment of reservoir competence and disease in captive wildlife. J Med Entomol. 2013;50:163-70 pubmed
    ..phagocytophilum exposure...
  65. Chmielewska Badora J, Zwolinski J, Cisak E, Wojcik Fatla A, Buczek A, Dutkiewicz J. Prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Ixodes ricinus ticks determined by polymerase chain reaction with two pairs of primers detecting 16S rRNA and ankA genes. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2007;14:281-5 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, detection of A. phagocytophilum infection in ticks by PCR with the use of EHR521/EHR747 primers detecting 16S rRNA gene is significantly more sensitive compared to LA6/LA1 primers detecting ankA gene...
  66. Rikihisa Y. Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia chaffeensis: subversive manipulators of host cells. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2010;8:328-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, I review the specialized properties and other adaptations of these intracellular bacteria...
  67. Thomas V, Samanta S, Fikrig E. Anaplasma phagocytophilum increases cathepsin L activity, thereby globally influencing neutrophil function. Infect Immun. 2008;76:4905-12 pubmed publisher
    ..As therapeutic options for A. phagocytophilum and related organisms are limited, these results also identify a cellular pathway that may be targeted for the treatment of A. phagocytophilum infection...
  68. Ganguly S, Mukhopadhayay S. Tick-borne ehrlichiosis infection in human beings. J Vector Borne Dis. 2008;45:273-80 pubmed
    Human monocytic ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne infectious disease transmitted by several tick species, especially Amblyomma spp caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis. E...
  69. Rikihisa Y. Mechanisms of obligatory intracellular infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2011;24:469-89 pubmed publisher
    ..An understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying A. phagocytophilum infection will foster the development of creative ideas to prevent or treat this emerging tick-borne disease...
  70. Kelly P, Lucas H. Failure to demonstrate Babesia, Anaplasma or Ehrlichia in thrombocytopenic dogs from St Kitts. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2009;3:561-3 pubmed
    ..Thrombocytopenia is common in dogs on St Kitts but there is no data on the possible etiological role played by infections with Anaplasma, Babesia and Ehrlichia, other than E. canis, which are known to occur in the Caribbean...
  71. Lovrich S, Jobe D, Kowalski T, Policepatil S, Callister S. Expansion of the Midwestern focus for human granulocytic anaplasmosis into the region surrounding La Crosse, Wisconsin. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:3855-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The results also validated the utility of the real-time msp2 PCR test for confirming acute HGA in the clinical setting...
  72. Schorn S, Pfister K, Reulen H, Mahling M, Manitz J, Thiel C, et al. Prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Ixodes ricinus in Bavarian public parks, Germany. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2011;2:196-203 pubmed publisher
    ..ricinus is highly variable in different habitat types due to geographical, climatic, and biological factors as well as different genetic variants of A. phagocytophilum circulated in ticks with a noticeable habitat and host tropism...
  73. Nieto N, Foley J, Bettaso J, Lane R. Reptile infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis. J Parasitol. 2009;95:1165-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that lizards and snakes are exposed to A. phagocytophilum by infected ticks, but that they do not serve as primary reservoir hosts of this rickettsia...
  74. M ghirbi Y, Yaïch H, Ghorbel A, Bouattour A. Anaplasma phagocytophilum in horses and ticks in Tunisia. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:180 pubmed
    ..We used direct and indirect methods to compare and evaluate exposure to A. phagocytophilum in horses in northern Tunisia...
  75. M ghirbi Y, Ghorbel A, Amouri M, Nebaoui A, Haddad S, Bouattour A. Clinical, serological, and molecular evidence of ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in dogs in Tunisia. Parasitol Res. 2009;104:767-74 pubmed publisher
    ..to Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum antigens, surrogate markers of the agents of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) and canine granulocytic ehrlichiosis, respectively. Among 286 collected sera, 54.2% and 25...
  76. Foley J, Brown R, Gabriel M, Henn J, Drazenovich N, Kasten R, et al. Spatial analysis of the exposure of dogs in rural north-coastal California to vectorborne pathogens. Vet Rec. 2007;161:653-7 pubmed
  77. Cockwill K, Taylor S, Snead E, Dickinson R, Cosford K, Malek S, et al. Granulocytic anaplasmosis in three dogs from Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Can Vet J. 2009;50:835-40 pubmed
    ..Lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, and splenomegaly were identified in all dogs. Inclusions were identified within the cytoplasm of blood neutrophils, and infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction...
  78. Schutze G, Buckingham S, Marshall G, Woods C, Jackson M, Patterson L, et al. Human monocytic ehrlichiosis in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007;26:475-9 pubmed
    Human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) is a tick-borne illness caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis. Data about disease in children have been largely derived from case reports or small case series.
  79. Ndip L, Ndip R, Ndive V, Awuh J, Walker D, McBride J. Ehrlichia species in Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks in Cameroon. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2007;7:221-7 pubmed
    ..sanguineus ticks attached to dogs. E. canis, the causative agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, was detected in 19 (21%) ticks from 15 dogs, E. ewingii was detected in six (6%) ticks from 6 dogs, and E...
  80. McBride J, Walker D. Progress and obstacles in vaccine development for the ehrlichioses. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2010;9:1071-82 pubmed publisher
  81. Thomas S, Thirumalapura N, Crocquet Valdes P, Luxon B, Walker D. Structure-based vaccines provide protection in a mouse model of ehrlichiosis. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e27981 pubmed publisher
    ..The obligately intracellular gram negative bacteria Ehrlichia cause ehrlichioses in humans and animals. As yet there are no vaccines to protect against Ehrlichia infection...
  82. Tarello W. Remission of cunical signs of adult-onset generalized demodicosis after treatment for concurrent babesiosis and/or granulocytic ehrlichiosis in dogs. Parasite. 2007;14:339-41 pubmed
  83. Pritt B, Sloan L, Johnson D, Munderloh U, Paskewitz S, McElroy K, et al. Emergence of a new pathogenic Ehrlichia species, Wisconsin and Minnesota, 2009. N Engl J Med. 2011;365:422-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Ehrlichiosis is a clinically important, emerging zoonosis. Only Ehrlichia chaffeensis and E. ewingii have been thought to cause ehrlichiosis in humans in the United States...
  84. Dhand A, Nadelman R, Aguero Rosenfeld M, Haddad F, Stokes D, Horowitz H. Human granulocytic anaplasmosis during pregnancy: case series and literature review. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45:589-93 pubmed
    ..and laboratory manifestations and pregnancy outcomes of 6 women who received a diagnosis of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis during pregnancy...
  85. Nakaghi A, Machado R, Ferro J, Labruna M, Chryssafidis A, André M, et al. Sensitivity evaluation of a single-step PCR assay using Ehrlichia canis p28 gene as a target and its application in diagnosis of canine ehrlichiosis. Rev Bras Parasitol Vet. 2010;19:75-9 pubmed
    ..Blood samples were collected from dogs suspected of having a positive diagnosis for canine ehrlichiosis. Amplification of the p28 gene by PCR produced an 843-bp fragment and this assay could detect DNA from one gene ..
  86. Hamel D, Bondarenko A, Silaghi C, Nolte I, Pfister K. Seroprevalence and bacteremia [corrected] of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in cats from Bavaria and Lower Saxony (Germany). Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2012;125:163-7 pubmed
    ..phagocytophilum antibodies in cats in Germany while the low detection rate of this bacterial agent by direct methods is similar to those of other studies on A. phagocytophilum infections in cats...
  87. Passamonti F, Veronesi F, Cappelli K, Capomaccio S, Coppola G, Marenzoni M, et al. Anaplasma phagocytophilum in horses and ticks: a preliminary survey of Central Italy. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2010;33:73-83 pubmed publisher
    Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of granulocytic ehrlichiosis, affects several species of wild and domesticated mammals, including horses. In this work we compared direct and indirect methods to evaluate A...
  88. Li H, Zhou Y, Wang W, Guo D, Huang S, Jie S. The clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with human granulocytic anaplasmosis in China. Int J Infect Dis. 2011;15:e859-66 pubmed publisher
    ..However, information on HGA is lacking in China. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical features and outcomes of HGA patients in China...
  89. Stricker R, Maloney E. Acute infection with human monocytic ehrlichiosis: the tip of the iceberg?. South Med J. 2008;101:214-5 pubmed publisher