anaplasmosis

Summary

Summary: A disease usually in cattle caused by parasitization of the red blood cells by bacteria of the genus ANAPLASMA.

Top Publications

  1. Zhuang Y, Futse J, Brown W, Brayton K, Palmer G. Maintenance of antibody to pathogen epitopes generated by segmental gene conversion is highly dynamic during long-term persistent infection. Infect Immun. 2007;75:5185-90 pubmed
    ..The results unify the genetic potential of segmental gene conversion with escape from antibody recognition and identify immunological effects of variant mosaic structure...
  2. Carelli G, Decaro N, Lorusso E, Paradies P, Elia G, Martella V, et al. First report of bovine anaplasmosis caused by Anaplasma centrale in Europe. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1149:107-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein we report a clinical case of bovine anaplasmosis associated with A...
  3. Scorpio D, Dumler J, Barat N, Cook J, Barat C, Stillman B, et al. Comparative strain analysis of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection and clinical outcomes in a canine model of granulocytic anaplasmosis. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011;11:223-9 pubmed publisher
    ..clinical disease in experimentally inoculated dogs similar to dogs with naturally acquired granulocytic anaplasmosis. Six hounds were inoculated intravenously with one human and two canine strains of A...
  4. De La Fuente J, Garcia Garcia J, Blouin E, Kocan K. Characterization of the functional domain of major surface protein 1a involved in adhesion of the rickettsia Anaplasma marginale to host cells. Vet Microbiol. 2003;91:265-83 pubmed
    ..These studies demonstrated that the tandemly repeated region of the protein mediates the adhesive function of MSP1a...
  5. de la Fuente J, Garcia Garcia J, Blouin E, Kocan K. Differential adhesion of major surface proteins 1a and 1b of the ehrlichial cattle pathogen Anaplasma marginale to bovine erythrocytes and tick cells. Int J Parasitol. 2001;31:145-53 pubmed
    ..marginale adhesin for both bovine erythrocytes and tick cells while MSP1b is an adhesin only for bovine erythrocytes. The role of the MSP1 complex, therefore, appears to vary among vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. ..
  6. Wormser G, Aguero Rosenfeld M, Cox M, Nowakowski J, Nadelman R, Holmgren D, et al. Differences and similarities between culture-confirmed human granulocytic anaplasmosis and early lyme disease. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51:954-8 pubmed publisher
    ..of certain Ixodes ticks, which can also transmit Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the cause of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA). Although culture can be used to identify patients infected with A...
  7. Bock R, de Vos A. Immunity following use of Australian tick fever vaccine: a review of the evidence. Aust Vet J. 2001;79:832-9 pubmed
    ..Protection against antigenically diverse, highly virulent stocks of A. marginale in other countries is, at times, clearly inadequate and better vaccines are required in situations where the challenge is severe. ..
  8. JOHNSON R, Kodner C, Jarnefeld J, Eck D, Xu Y. Agents of human anaplasmosis and Lyme disease at Camp Ripley, Minnesota. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011;11:1529-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Antibodies to Bb were detected in >80% of the deer, but Bb DNA was only detected in 1.5% of blood specimens...
  9. Scoles G, Broce A, Lysyk T, Palmer G. Relative efficiency of biological transmission of Anaplasma marginale (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) by Dermacentor andersoni (Acari: Ixodidae) compared with mechanical transmission by Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae). J Med Entomol. 2005;42:668-75 pubmed

More Information

Publications96

  1. De La Fuente J, Van Den Bussche R, Garcia Garcia J, Rodríguez S, Garcia M, Guglielmone A, et al. Phylogeography of New World isolates of Anaplasma marginale based on major surface protein sequences. Vet Microbiol. 2002;88:275-85 pubmed
    ..marginale isolates. In contrast MSP1a sequences appeared to be rapidly evolving and these sequences may provide phylogeographic information only when numerous isolate MSP1a sequences are analyzed from a geographic area...
  2. Walder G, Lkhamsuren E, Shagdar A, Bataa J, Batmunkh T, Orth D, et al. Serological evidence for tick-borne encephalitis, borreliosis, and human granulocytic anaplasmosis in Mongolia. Int J Med Microbiol. 2006;296 Suppl 40:69-75 pubmed
    ..Seroprevalence against A. phagocytophilum was 2.3% in Selenge province, 5.6% in Bulgan province, 2.8% in Dornogov province, and 3.0% in Tov province and Ulaanbaatar. We conclude that all three pathogens are endemic in Mongolia. ..
  3. Silaghi C, Liebisch G, Pfister K. Genetic variants of Anaplasma phagocytophilum from 14 equine granulocytic anaplasmosis cases. Parasit Vectors. 2011;4:161 pubmed publisher
    Equine Granulocytic Anaplasmosis (EGA) is caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, a tick-transmitted, obligate intracellular bacterium. In Europe, it is transmitted by Ixodes ricinus. A large number of genetic variants of A...
  4. Domingos M, Trotta M, Briend Marchal A, Medaille C. Anaplasmosis in two dogs in France and molecular and phylogenetic characterization of Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Vet Clin Pathol. 2011;40:215-21 pubmed publisher
    ..phagocytophilum infecting people and animals. Three isolates of A. phagocytophilum, 1 from Spain (cow) and 2 from Norway (sheep and deer), were external to the European and American clades...
  5. Hornok S, Micsutka A, Fernandez de Mera I, Meli M, Gönczi E, Tanczos B, et al. Fatal bovine anaplasmosis in a herd with new genotypes of Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma ovis and concurrent haemoplasmosis. Res Vet Sci. 2012;92:30-5 pubmed publisher
    Haematological and molecular analysis of blood samples was carried out during an outbreak of bovine anaplasmosis in Hungary. Acute disease was observed in five animals, two of which died...
  6. Magnarelli L, Bushmich S, IJdo J, Fikrig E. Seroprevalence of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in cats. Am J Vet Res. 2005;66:1895-9 pubmed
    ..Most cats appeared healthy. An ELISA incorporating specific recombinant antigens may be used adjunctively with Western blot and other assays to confirm B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum infection in cats. ..
  7. Carreño A, Alleman A, Barbet A, Palmer G, Noh S, Johnson C. In vivo endothelial cell infection by Anaplasma marginale. Vet Pathol. 2007;44:116-8 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that A marginale infection includes endothelial cells and has implications for both pathogenesis and immune mechanisms...
  8. Mtshali M, De Waal D, Mbati P. A sero-epidemiological survey of blood parasites in cattle in the north-eastern Free State, South Africa. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 2004;71:67-75 pubmed
    ..The presence of R. evertsi evertsi throughout the year without any or with small fluctuations in winter months was observed, with a peak from February to May...
  9. Scorpio D, Akkoyunlu M, Fikrig E, Dumler J. CXCR2 blockade influences Anaplasma phagocytophilum propagation but not histopathology in the mouse model of human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2004;11:963-8 pubmed
    ..phagocytophilum is an obligate intracellular bacterium that infects neutrophils and causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Infection induces neutrophil secretion of interleukin-8 or murine homologs and perpetuates infection by ..
  10. Aguirre E, Tesouro M, Ruiz L, Amusategui I, Sainz A. Genetic characterization of Anaplasma (Ehrlichia) platys in dogs in Spain. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health. 2006;53:197-200 pubmed
    ..These data confirm the presence of A. platys in a dog showing clinical signs compatible with ehrlichiosis in Spain...
  11. Dib L, Bitam I, Tahri M, Bensouilah M, de Meeus T. Competitive exclusion between piroplasmosis and anaplasmosis agents within cattle. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e7 pubmed publisher
  12. Ziam H, Benaouf H. Prevalence of blood parasites in cattle from wilayates of Annaba and El Tarf east Algeria. Arch Inst Pasteur Tunis. 2004;81:27-30 pubmed
    ..6%) were very low compared to T. annulata infection. The rates of mixed infection were as follows: T. annulata/A. marginale 9.3%, T. annulata/T. orientalis 5.6%, A. marginale/T. orientalis 3.7% and B. bovis/A. marginale 1.9%. ..
  13. Otranto D, Testini G, Dantas Torres F, Latrofa M, Diniz P, de Caprariis D, et al. Diagnosis of canine vector-borne diseases in young dogs: a longitudinal study. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:3316-24 pubmed publisher
  14. Kelly P, Xu C, Lucas H, Loftis A, Abete J, Zeoli F, et al. Ehrlichiosis, babesiosis, anaplasmosis and hepatozoonosis in dogs from St. Kitts, West Indies. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e53450 pubmed publisher
    ..Although tick-borne diseases are important causes of morbidity and mortality in dogs in tropical areas, there is little information on the agents causing these infections in the Caribbean...
  15. Bakken J, Dumler S. Human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2008;22:433-48, viii pubmed publisher
    ..This article focuses on the diagnosis and management of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum.
  16. Grzeszczuk A. Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Ixodes ricinus ticks and human granulocytic anaplasmosis seroprevalence among forestry rangers in Bia?ystok region. Adv Med Sci. 2006;51:283-6 pubmed
    Human granulocytic anaplasmosis, former ehrlichiosis, is a tick-borne zoonosis of increasing recognition...
  17. Heo E, Park J, Koo J, Park M, Park M, Dumler J, et al. Serologic and molecular detection of Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Anaplasma phagocytophila (human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent) in Korean patients. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:3082-5 pubmed
    ..phagocytophila in IFAs. This is the first report of detection of antibodies to A. phagocytophila and E. chaffeensis in Korea and suggests the presence of A. phagocytophila and E. chaffeensis or antigenically similar species. ..
  18. Parola P, Davoust B, Raoult D. Tick- and flea-borne rickettsial emerging zoonoses. Vet Res. 2005;36:469-92 pubmed
    ..Ehrlichia chaffeensis, the agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the agent of human anaplasmosis (formerly known as "human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent", E. equi and E...
  19. Kocan K, De La Fuente J, Guglielmone A, Meléndez R. Antigens and alternatives for control of Anaplasma marginale infection in cattle. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2003;16:698-712 pubmed
    b>Anaplasmosis, a tick-borne cattle disease caused by the rickettsia Anaplasma marginale, is endemic in tropical and subtropical areas of the world...
  20. Little S. Ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in dogs and cats. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2010;40:1121-40 pubmed publisher
    ..been made in our understanding of the diversity of the rickettsial organisms responsible for ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in dogs and, occasionally, cats, the vectors capable of transmitting these agents, and the role these organisms ..
  21. Sparagano O, de Vos A, Paoletti B, Cammà C, de Santis P, Otranto D, et al. Molecular detection of Anaplasma platys in dogs using polymerase chain reaction and reverse line blot hybridization. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2003;15:527-34 pubmed
    ..platys. Sequences obtained from some samples and compared with those within the GenBank also confirmed the presence of A. platys...
  22. Jin H, Wei F, Liu Q, Qian J. Epidemiology and control of human granulocytic anaplasmosis: a systematic review. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2012;12:269-74 pubmed publisher
    Granulocytic anaplasmosis caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging tick-borne zoonosis worldwide...
  23. Noh S, Zhuang Y, Futse J, Brown W, Brayton K, Palmer G. The immunization-induced antibody response to the Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 2 and its association with protective immunity. Vaccine. 2010;28:3741-7 pubmed publisher
  24. Wormser G, Filozov A, Telford S, Utpat S, Kamer R, Liveris D, et al. Dissociation between inhibition and killing by levofloxacin in human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2006;6:388-94 pubmed
    Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is a potentially fatal tick-borne infection caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Treatment options are limited for this entity, with doxycycline being the drug of choice...
  25. Rotondano T, de Almeida A, Lustosa E, Cordeiro A, Camboim E, de Azevedo S, et al. An assessment of whole blood and fractions by nested PCR as a DNA source for diagnosing canine ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis. ScientificWorldJournal. 2012;2012:605743 pubmed publisher
    Ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis are tick-borne diseases. Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys infect mainly white cells and platelets, respectively...
  26. Tate C, Mead D, Luttrell M, Howerth E, Dugan V, Munderloh U, et al. Experimental infection of white-tailed deer with Anaplasma phagocytophilum, etiologic agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:3595-601 pubmed
    ..However, the susceptibility and immunologic response of WTD to A. phagocytophilum render them suitable candidates as natural sentinels for this zoonotic tick-borne organism...
  27. Leverich C, Palmer G, Knowles D, Brayton K. Tick-borne transmission of two genetically distinct Anaplasma marginale strains following superinfection of the mammalian reservoir host. Infect Immun. 2008;76:4066-70 pubmed publisher
    ..marginale strain capable of superinfecting the mammalian host can subsequently be cotransmitted and become established within the host population despite the presence of an existing established strain...
  28. De La Fuente J, Torina A, Caracappa S, Tumino G, Furlá R, Almazan C, et al. Serologic and molecular characterization of Anaplasma species infection in farm animals and ticks from Sicily. Vet Parasitol. 2005;133:357-62 pubmed
    ..Definition of the diversity of Anaplasma spp. in Sicily reported, herein is fundamental to development of control strategies for A. marginale, A. ovis and A. phagocytophilum in Sicily...
  29. de la Fuente J, Garcia Garcia J, Blouin E, Rodriguez S, Garcia M, Kocan K. Evolution and function of tandem repeats in the major surface protein 1a of the ehrlichial pathogen Anaplasma marginale. Anim Health Res Rev. 2001;2:163-73 pubmed
    ..These repeated sequences include markers for tick transmissibility that may be important in the identification of ehrlichial pathogens because they may influence control strategies and the design of subunit vaccines...
  30. Bell Sakyi L, Koney E, Dogbey O, Walker A. Incidence and prevalence of tick-borne haemoparasites in domestic ruminants in Ghana. Vet Parasitol. 2004;124:25-42 pubmed
  31. Kelly P, Lucas H. Failure to demonstrate Babesia, Anaplasma or Ehrlichia in thrombocytopenic dogs from St Kitts. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2009;3:561-3 pubmed
    ..Thrombocytopenia is common in dogs on St Kitts but there is no data on the possible etiological role played by infections with Anaplasma, Babesia and Ehrlichia, other than E. canis, which are known to occur in the Caribbean...
  32. Oura C, Bishop R, Wampande E, Lubega G, Tait A. Application of a reverse line blot assay to the study of haemoparasites in cattle in Uganda. Int J Parasitol. 2004;34:603-13 pubmed
    ..mutans and possibly T. taurotragi and T. velifera, may also cause clinical disease. Overall, the results presented here highlight the complexity of tick-borne pathogen infections in cattle in Uganda...
  33. Kohn B, Galke D, Beelitz P, Pfister K. Clinical features of canine granulocytic anaplasmosis in 18 naturally infected dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2008;22:1289-95 pubmed publisher
    Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of canine granulocytic anaplasmosis (CGA), is a Gram-negative intracellular organism transmitted by ixodid ticks...
  34. Jonsson N, Bock R, Jorgensen W. Productivity and health effects of anaplasmosis and babesiosis on Bos indicus cattle and their crosses, and the effects of differing intensity of tick control in Australia. Vet Parasitol. 2008;155:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..taurus cattle to have high levels of population immunity to babesiosis or anaplasmosis. The effects of acaricide application on the probability of clinical disease due to anaplasmosis and babesiosis ..
  35. Futse J, Brayton K, Nydam S, Palmer G. Generation of antigenic variants via gene conversion: Evidence for recombination fitness selection at the locus level in Anaplasma marginale. Infect Immun. 2009;77:3181-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Identification of highly fit variants provides targets for vaccines that will prevent the high-level bacteremia associated with acute disease...
  36. Rikihisa Y. Mechanisms of obligatory intracellular infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2011;24:469-89 pubmed publisher
    ..by the bite of an infected tick leads to a potentially fatal emerging disease called human granulocytic anaplasmosis. A...
  37. Futse J, Brayton K, Knowles D, Palmer G. Structural basis for segmental gene conversion in generation of Anaplasma marginale outer membrane protein variants. Mol Microbiol. 2005;57:212-21 pubmed
    ..Importantly, the anchoring model, which can account for more variants than a strict segmental sequence identity mechanism, is consistent with the number of msp2 variants predicted and empirically identified during persistent infection...
  38. M ghirbi Y, Ghorbel A, Amouri M, Nebaoui A, Haddad S, Bouattour A. Clinical, serological, and molecular evidence of ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in dogs in Tunisia. Parasitol Res. 2009;104:767-74 pubmed publisher
    ..phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia sp. RLB findings were confirmed by sequencing; BLAST search against GenBank revealed high similarity of the sequence of Ehrlichia sp. PCR/RLB amplicons with Anaplasma platys 16S rRNA partial sequence...
  39. Stuen S, Bergstrom K, Palmer E. Reduced weight gain due to subclinical Anaplasma phagocytophilum (formerly Ehrlichia phagocytophila) infection. Exp Appl Acarol. 2002;28:209-15 pubmed
    ..8 kg compared with the uninfected lambs. The present study indicates that A. phagocytophilum infection may be widespread and contribute to considerable productivity losses even on pastures with no apparent tick infestation...
  40. Ladbury G, Stuen S, Thomas R, Bown K, Woldehiwet Z, Granquist E, et al. Dynamic transmission of numerous Anaplasma phagocytophilum genotypes among lambs in an infected sheep flock in an area of anaplasmosis endemicity. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:1686-91 pubmed publisher
    ..phagocytophilum strains simultaneously circulating within an infected population in an area of endemicity and are consistent with a remarkably dynamic transmission of strains among infected animals...
  41. Lopez J, Palmer G, Brayton K, Dark M, Leach S, Brown W. Immunogenicity of Anaplasma marginale type IV secretion system proteins in a protective outer membrane vaccine. Infect Immun. 2007;75:2333-42 pubmed
    ..marginale and related pathogens...
  42. Cochez C, Ducoffre G, Vandenvelde C, Luyasu V, Heyman P. Human anaplasmosis in Belgium: a 10-year seroepidemiological study. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2011;2:156-9 pubmed publisher
    Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is a tick-borne rickettsial infection of neutrophils caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum...
  43. Fosgate G, Urdaz Rodríguez J, Dunbar M, Rae D, Donovan G, Melendez P, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of methods for detecting Anaplasma marginale infection in lactating dairy cattle of Puerto Rico. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2010;22:192-9 pubmed
    Bovine anaplasmosis (BA) is a hemoparasitic disease of great importance in cattle within the tropical and subtropical regions of the world...
  44. Ismail N, Bloch K, McBride J. Human ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis. Clin Lab Med. 2010;30:261-92 pubmed publisher
    Human ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis are acute febrile tick-borne diseases caused by various members of the genera Ehrlichia and Anaplasma (Anaplasmataceae)...
  45. Chowdri H, Gugliotta J, Berardi V, Goethert H, MOLLOY P, Sterling S, et al. Borrelia miyamotoi infection presenting as human granulocytic anaplasmosis: a case report. Ann Intern Med. 2013;159:21-7 pubmed publisher
    ..diseases, patients presenting with acute febrile illness with myalgia, headache, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated hepatic aminotransferase levels are presumptively diagnosed as having human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA).
  46. Pinyoowong D, Jittapalapong S, Suksawat F, Stich R, Thamchaipenet A. Molecular characterization of Thai Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys strains detected in dogs. Infect Genet Evol. 2008;8:433-8 pubmed
    ..platys from Thailand. To our knowledge this report represents the first molecular characterization of the nearly complete 16S rRNA gene from E. canis in dogs from Thailand...
  47. Kawasaki P, Kano F, Tamekuni K, Garcia J, Marana E, Vidotto O, et al. Immune response of BALB/c mouse immunized with recombinant MSPs proteins of Anaplasma marginale binding to immunostimulant complex (ISCOM). Res Vet Sci. 2007;83:347-54 pubmed
    b>Anaplasmosis, caused by Anaplasma marginale, results in significant economic losses of cattle in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide...
  48. Wormser G, Dattwyler R, Shapiro E, Halperin J, Steere A, Klempner M, et al. The clinical assessment, treatment, and prevention of lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, and babesiosis: clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43:1089-134 pubmed
    Evidence-based guidelines for the management of patients with Lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis (formerly known as human granulocytic ehrlichiosis), and babesiosis were prepared by an expert panel of the Infectious Diseases ..
  49. Dreher U, Hofmann Lehmann R, Meli M, Regula G, Cagienard A, Stark K, et al. Seroprevalence of anaplasmosis among cattle in Switzerland in 1998 and 2003: no evidence of an emerging disease. Vet Microbiol. 2005;107:71-9 pubmed
    ..There are no reports of its occurrence in the countries north of Switzerland. A severe outbreak of anaplasmosis in August 2002 in a cattle farm in the canton Grisons, Switzerland, north of the Alps, with more than 300 ..
  50. Zhang L, Cui F, Wang L, Zhang L, Zhang J, Wang S, et al. Investigation of anaplasmosis in Yiyuan County, Shandong Province, China. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2011;4:568-72 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the situation of anaplasmosis in Yiyuan county, Shandong Province...
  51. Garcia Garcia J, De La Fuente J, Blouin E, Johnson T, Halbur T, Onet V, et al. Differential expression of the msp1alpha gene of Anaplasma marginale occurs in bovine erythrocytes and tick cells. Vet Microbiol. 2004;98:261-72 pubmed
    ..marginale for host cells. Variation in the expression of MSP1a may also contribute to phenotypic and antigenic changes in the pathogen...
  52. Okuthe O, Buyu G. Prevalence and incidence of tick-borne diseases in smallholder farming systems in the western-Kenya highlands. Vet Parasitol. 2006;141:307-12 pubmed
    ..The incidences of babesiosis, anaplasmosis and theileriosis were 0.42%, 4.64% and 4.92% and 1.45%, 32.11% and 39...
  53. Noh S, Brayton K, Knowles D, Agnes J, Dark M, Brown W, et al. Differential expression and sequence conservation of the Anaplasma marginale msp2 gene superfamily outer membrane proteins. Infect Immun. 2006;74:3471-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Maries strain and Florida strain genomes...
  54. De La Fuente J, Blouin E, Kocan K. Infection exclusion of the rickettsial pathogen anaplasma marginale in the tick vector Dermacentor variabilis. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2003;10:182-4 pubmed
    ..These studies demonstrate that infection exclusion of A. marginale genotypes also occurs in naturally infected ticks, as well as in cattle and cultured tick cells, and results in establishment of only one genotype per tick...
  55. Foley J, Nieto N, Madigan J, Sykes J. Possible differential host tropism in Anaplasma phagocytophilum strains in the Western United States. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1149:94-7 pubmed publisher
    ..phagocytophilum strains and further research to understand the host-pathogen interactions that result in differential outcomes in infection...
  56. Simuunza M, Weir W, Courcier E, Tait A, Shiels B. Epidemiological analysis of tick-borne diseases in Zambia. Vet Parasitol. 2011;175:331-42 pubmed publisher
    ..bovis), anaplasmosis (caused by Anaplasma marginale) and heartwater (caused by Ehrlichia ruminantium)...
  57. de Andrade G, Machado R, Vidotto M, Vidotto O. Immunization of bovines using a DNA vaccine (pcDNA3.1/MSP1b) prepared from the Jaboticabal strain of Anaplasma marginale. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004;1026:257-66 pubmed
    Anaplasma is a tick-borne ehrlichial pathogen of cattle that causes the disease, anaplasmosis. In the present study, a total of 11 Anaplasma marginale seronegative calves were assigned into two groups: one immunized (G1, n = 6) and one ..
  58. Carelli G, Decaro N, LoRusso A, Elia G, Lorusso E, Mari V, et al. Detection and quantification of Anaplasma marginale DNA in blood samples of cattle by real-time PCR. Vet Microbiol. 2007;124:107-14 pubmed
    ..marginale DNA in bovine blood, that is essential to support the clinical diagnosis, to assess the carrier status of the animals and to evaluate the efficacy of vaccines and antirickettsial drugs...
  59. Ravnik U, Tozon N, Smrdel K, Zupanc T. Anaplasmosis in dogs: the relation of haematological, biochemical and clinical alterations to antibody titre and PCR confirmed infection. Vet Microbiol. 2011;149:172-6 pubmed publisher
    ..phagocytophilum in a particular patient...
  60. Demma L, Holman R, McQuiston J, Krebs J, Swerdlow D. Epidemiology of human ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in the United States, 2001-2002. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005;73:400-9 pubmed
    ..through 2002, 1,176 cases of the tick-borne diseases human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) and human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) by 32 states through the National ..
  61. Abbott J, Palmer G, Kegerreis K, Hetrick P, Howard C, Hope J, et al. Rapid and long-term disappearance of CD4+ T lymphocyte responses specific for Anaplasma marginale major surface protein-2 (MSP2) in MSP2 vaccinates following challenge with live A. marginale. J Immunol. 2005;174:6702-15 pubmed
    ..marginale organisms. These results suggest that loss of memory T cell responses following A. marginale infection is due to a mechanism other than induction of T regulatory cells, such as peripheral deletion of MSP2-specific T cells...
  62. De La Fuente J, Lew A, Lutz H, Meli M, Hofmann Lehmann R, Shkap V, et al. Genetic diversity of anaplasma species major surface proteins and implications for anaplasmosis serodiagnosis and vaccine development. Anim Health Res Rev. 2005;6:75-89 pubmed
    ..Information concerning the genetic diversity of Anaplasma spp. MSPs will likely influence the development of serodiagnostic assays and vaccine strategies for the control of anaplasmosis.
  63. De La Fuente J, Naranjo V, Ruiz Fons F, Höfle U, Fernandez de Mera I, Villanúa D, et al. Potential vertebrate reservoir hosts and invertebrate vectors of Anaplasma marginale and A. phagocytophilum in central Spain. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2005;5:390-401 pubmed
    ..The type species, A. marginale, causes bovine anaplasmosis and only infects ticks and ruminants. A...
  64. de la Fuente J, Van Den Bussche R, Kocan K. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of North American isolates of Anaplasma marginale (Rickettsiaceae: Ehrlichieae). Vet Parasitol. 2001;97:65-76 pubmed
    Anaplasma marginale (A. marginale) is a tick-borne ehrlichial pathogen of cattle that causes the disease anaplasmosis. Six major surface proteins (MSPs) have been identified on A...
  65. De La Fuente J, Vicente J, Höfle U, Ruiz Fons F, Fernandez de Mera I, Van Den Bussche R, et al. Anaplasma infection in free-ranging Iberian red deer in the region of Castilla-La Mancha, Spain. Vet Microbiol. 2004;100:163-73 pubmed
    ..The type species, Anaplasma marginale, causes bovine anaplasmosis and infects erythrocytes of the vertebrate host and undergoes a complex developmental cycle in ticks which ..
  66. Kocan K, De La Fuente J, Blouin E, Garcia Garcia J. Adaptations of the tick-borne pathogen, Anaplasma marginale, for survival in cattle and ticks. Exp Appl Acarol. 2002;28:9-25 pubmed
    ..Infection and development of A. marginale in cattle and tick cells appears to differ and to be mediated by several surface proteins encoded from the small genome...
  67. Kocan K, Blouin E, Barbet A. Anaplasmosis control. Past, present, and future. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2000;916:501-9 pubmed
    Control methods for anaplasmosis have not changed markedly during the past 50 years and include arthropod control, chemoprophylaxsis, vaccination, and maintenance of an Anaplasma-free herd...
  68. Coetzee J, Apley M, Kocan K, Rurangirwa F, Van Donkersgoed J. Comparison of three oxytetracycline regimes for the treatment of persistent Anaplasma marginale infections in beef cattle. Vet Parasitol. 2005;127:61-73 pubmed
    b>Anaplasmosis, caused by the tick-borne rickettsia, Anaplasma marginale, is an economically important disease of cattle in the United States and worldwide...
  69. Kano F, Tamekuni K, Coelho A, Garcia J, Vidotto O, Itano E, et al. Induced immune response of DNA vaccine encoding an association MSP1a, MSP1b, and MSP5 antigens of Anaplasma marginale. Vaccine. 2008;26:3522-7 pubmed publisher
    ..proteins of Anaplasma marginale have been the focus of research to obtain an improved vaccine against bovine anaplasmosis. We evaluated the capacity of the recombinant plasmids pcDNA-msp1alpha, pcDNA-msp1beta, and pcDNA-mp5 to ..
  70. De La Fuente J, Ayoubi P, Blouin E, Almazan C, Naranjo V, Kocan K. Anaplasmosis: focusing on host-vector-pathogen interactions for vaccine development. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1078:416-23 pubmed
    Anaplasma marginale and A. phagocytophylum are intracellular rickettsiae that cause bovine anaplasmosis and human granulocytic anaplasmosis, respectively...
  71. Bakken J, Dumler J. Clinical diagnosis and treatment of human granulocytotropic anaplasmosis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1078:236-47 pubmed
    ..of humans previously known as human granulocytotropic ehrlichiosis (HGE) and now called human granulocytotropic anaplasmosis (HGA)...
  72. Brown G, Canfield P, Dunstan R, Roberts T, Martin A, Brown C, et al. Detection of Anaplasma platys and Babesia canis vogeli and their impact on platelet numbers in free-roaming dogs associated with remote Aboriginal communities in Australia. Aust Vet J. 2006;84:321-5 pubmed
  73. Awad H, Antunes S, Galindo R, Do Rosario V, De La Fuente J, Domingos A, et al. Prevalence and genetic diversity of Babesia and Anaplasma species in cattle in Sudan. Vet Parasitol. 2011;181:146-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study aims to provide information about the prevalence of babesiosis and anaplasmosis in the northern regions of Sudan...
  74. Hornok S, Elek V, De La Fuente J, Naranjo V, Farkas R, Majoros G, et al. First serological and molecular evidence on the endemicity of Anaplasma ovis and A. marginale in Hungary. Vet Microbiol. 2007;122:316-22 pubmed
    ..Haemoglobinuria, an unusual clinical sign for anaplasmosis might have been a consequence of transient intravascular haemolysis facilitated by selenium deficiency in ..
  75. Palmer G, Futse J, Knowles D, Brayton K. Insights into mechanisms of bacterial antigenic variation derived from the complete genome sequence of Anaplasma marginale. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1078:15-25 pubmed
    ..The resulting combinatorial diversity generates the number of variants both predicted and shown to emerge during persistence...
  76. Cardoso L, Tuna J, Vieira L, Yisaschar Mekuzas Y, Baneth G. Molecular detection of Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis in dogs from the North of Portugal. Vet J. 2010;183:232-3 pubmed publisher
    ..One of these latter animals was co-infected with Babesia canis subspecies vogeli. This is the first report of the genetic characterisation of both A. platys and E. canis in naturally infected dogs from the North of Portugal...
  77. De La Fuente J, Ruybal P, Mtshali M, Naranjo V, Shuqing L, Mangold A, et al. Analysis of world strains of Anaplasma marginale using major surface protein 1a repeat sequences. Vet Microbiol. 2007;119:382-90 pubmed
    Anaplasma marginale is a tick-borne pathogen of cattle that causes the disease bovine anaplasmosis worldwide...
  78. Hofmann Lehmann R, Meli M, Dreher U, Gönczi E, Deplazes P, Braun U, et al. Concurrent infections with vector-borne pathogens associated with fatal hemolytic anemia in a cattle herd in Switzerland. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:3775-80 pubmed
    Bovine anaplasmosis is a vector-borne disease that results in substantial economic losses in other parts of the world but so far not in northern Europe...
  79. Remy V, Hansmann Y, de Martino S, Christmann D, Brouqui P. Human anaplasmosis presenting as atypical pneumonitis in France. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;37:846-8 pubmed
    Human anaplasmosis is a febrile illness caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an intracellular bacterium transmitted by Ixodes ticks in the United States and Europe...
  80. Carrade D, Foley J, Borjesson D, Sykes J. Canine granulocytic anaplasmosis: a review. J Vet Intern Med. 2009;23:1129-41 pubmed publisher
    ..phagocytophilum occurs after natural infection requires additional study, with most reports suggesting that anaplasmosis is a self-limiting disease in dogs that responds well to a 2-week course of doxycycline therapy.
  81. Noh S, Brayton K, Brown W, Norimine J, Munske G, Davitt C, et al. Composition of the surface proteome of Anaplasma marginale and its role in protective immunity induced by outer membrane immunization. Infect Immun. 2008;76:2219-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the data support that remodeling of the surface proteome accompanies the transition between mammalian and arthropod hosts and identify novel targets for blocking transmission...
  82. Suarez C, NOH S. Emerging perspectives in the research of bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. Vet Parasitol. 2011;180:109-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, acute babesiosis and anaplasmosis can be prevented quite effectively by combining tick control and vaccination with living attenuated organisms...
  83. Woldehiwet Z. Immune evasion and immunosuppression by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of tick-borne fever of ruminants and human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Vet J. 2008;175:37-44 pubmed
    ..phagocytophilum, the causative agent of tick-borne fever (TBF) in sheep and cattle and human granulocytic anaplasmosis, has the unique ability to infect and multiply within neutrophils, eosinophils and monocytes, cells at the ..
  84. Rand P, Lacombe E, Elias S, Cahill B, Lubelczyk C, Smith R. Multitarget test for emerging Lyme disease and anaplasmosis in a serosurvey of dogs, Maine, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:899-902 pubmed publisher
    ..An extension of exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi to the northern border and local transmission of Anaplasma phagocytophilum throughout southern areas was found...
  85. Rodríguez S, García Ortiz M, Jiménez Ocampo R, Vega y Murguía C. Molecular epidemiology of bovine anaplasmosis with a particular focus in Mexico. Infect Genet Evol. 2009;9:1092-101 pubmed publisher
    Bovine anaplasmosis, caused by the rickettsia Anaplasma marginale, has a worldwide distribution and is the cause of great economic losses in developing countries where it is highly endemic...
  86. Cringoli G, Otranto D, Testini G, Buono V, Di Giulio G, Traversa D, et al. Epidemiology of bovine tick-borne diseases in southern Italy. Vet Res. 2002;33:421-8 pubmed
    ..6) and Haemaphysalis punctata (8.4). The results showed that B. bigemina, A. marginale and their potential vectors are common in the area examined and indicated that there is a risk for animals imported from tick-borne disease-free areas...
  87. De La Fuente J, Atkinson M, Naranjo V, Fernandez de Mera I, Mangold A, Keating K, et al. Sequence analysis of the msp4 gene of Anaplasma ovis strains. Vet Microbiol. 2007;119:375-81 pubmed
    ..The results reported herein further confirm that A. ovis infection occurs in natural wild ruminant populations in Western United States and that bighorn sheep and mule deer may serve as wildlife reservoirs of A. ovis...