male genital tuberculosis

Summary

Summary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the male reproductive tract (GENITALIA, MALE).

Top Publications

  1. Ishizu K, Hirata H, Yano S, Naito K, Furuya T, Muratani T, et al. [Tuberculous epididymitis caused by intravesical BCG therapy: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo. 2003;49:539-42 pubmed
    ..In addition, PCR with species-specific primers was useful in differentiating Mycobacterium bovis from Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
  2. Briceño García E, Gómez Pardal A, Alvarez Bustos G, Artero Muñoz I, Molinero M, Seara Valero R, et al. Tuberculous orchiepididymitis after BCG therapy for bladder cancer. J Ultrasound Med. 2007;26:977-9 pubmed
  3. Jacob J, Nguyen T, Ray S. Male genital tuberculosis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2008;8:335-42 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Male genital tuberculosis was diagnosed using nucleic acid amplification on urine and confirmed by positive urine and sputum ..
  4. Kulchavenya E, Khomyakov V. Male genital tuberculosis in Siberians. World J Urol. 2006;24:74-8 pubmed
    To study the epidemiology and the clinical picture of male genital tuberculosis in Siberia, Russia...
  5. Guler Z, Kanbay A, Kanbay M, Ciftci B, Erdogan Y. Tuberculous epididymitis presenting with Addison's disease: a rare case. J Natl Med Assoc. 2006;98:1175-6 pubmed
    ..A high index of suspicion is required for diagnosis. ..
  6. Tiwari P, Pal D, Biswas B, Vijay M. Tuberculous epididymo-orchitis in an undescended testis. Indian J Tuberc. 2010;57:165-7 pubmed
    ..The treatment is primarily medical with combination of three or four anti-tubercular drugs but sometimes it requires surgical intervention, as in the present case. ..
  7. Lai C, Chuang F, Chang T. Heterotopic ossification in testicular microlithiasis. Urology. 2004;64:585-6 pubmed
  8. Aust T, Massey J. Tubercular prostatic abscess as a complication of intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin immunotherapy. Int J Urol. 2005;12:920-1 pubmed
    ..We report a case of tubercular prostatic abscess in a patient who had undergone intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin immunotherapy for bladder carcinoma in situ. The abscess required surgical drainage and antituberculous treatment. ..
  9. Sah S, Bhadani P, Regmi R, Tewari A, Raj G. Fine needle aspiration cytology of tubercular epididymitis and epididymo-orchitis. Acta Cytol. 2006;50:243-9 pubmed
    ..To study the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and ancillary studies in the diagnosis of tubercular epididymitis or epididymo-orchitis...

More Information

Publications85

  1. Tzvetkov D, Tzvetkova P. Tuberculosis of male genital system--myth or reality in 21st century. Arch Androl. 2006;52:375-81 pubmed
    ..Management of the disease should involve measures in health promotion programs, medical education health policy makers, and international cooperation. ..
  2. Chen Y, Liu M, Guo Y. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in prostate tuberculosis. Urology. 2010;75:1065-6 pubmed publisher
    ..However, magnetic resonance spectroscopy can provide more information to differentiate prostate tuberculosis from prostate cancer. ..
  3. Chen Y, Shieh P, Shen J. Orificial tuberculosis and Kaposi's sarcoma in an HIV-negative individual. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2000;25:393-7 pubmed
    ..We report on an HIV-negative individual who developed rapid-deteriorating orificial tuberculosis concomitant with Kaposi's sarcoma and had a fatal outcome...
  4. Kumar V, Gupta N, Srinivasan R, Nijhawan R, Rajwanshi A. Spermatic granuloma presenting as an epididymal nodule: fine needle aspiration cytological findings and differential diagnosis. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2004;47:509-10 pubmed
    ..By providing an accurate and rapid diagnosis, FNA prevents aggressive and potentially inappropriate surgical procedures. ..
  5. Kundu S, Sengupta A, Dey A, Thakur S. Testicular tuberculosis mimicking testicular malignancy. J Indian Med Assoc. 2003;101:204-5 pubmed
    ..However, fine needle aspiration cytology of the testicular swelling confirmed the diagnosis of testicular tuberculosis. Even conservative approach in the management gave satisfactory result. ..
  6. Gebo K. Prostatic tuberculosis in an HIV infected male. Sex Transm Infect. 2002;78:147-8 pubmed
  7. Shigehara K, Kobori Y, Amano T, Takemae K. [Bilateral tuberculous epididymitis after intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy]. Hinyokika Kiyo. 2005;51:839-42 pubmed
    ..Right orchiectomy and left epididymectomy was performed in December 2004. Histological diagnosis was bilateral tuberculous epididymitis. Postoperatively, he was administered INH and RFP and had no recurrence for 3 months...
  8. Lambie D, Campbell P, Strutton G. Forgotten but not gone: urinary tract tuberculosis. Pathology. 2005;37:392-3 pubmed
  9. Richens J. Genital manifestations of tropical diseases. Sex Transm Infect. 2004;80:12-7 pubmed
    ..This article deals in turn with genital manifestations of filariasis, schistosomiasis, amoebiasis, leishmaniasis, tuberculosis and leprosy and gives clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. ..
  10. Birley H, Duerden B, Hart C, Curless E, Hay P, Ison C, et al. Sexually transmitted diseases: microbiology and management. J Med Microbiol. 2002;51:793-807 pubmed
  11. Bannur H, Malur P, Dhorigol V. Tubercular orchitis in a patient with AIDS: report of a case with fine needle aspiration diagnosis. Acta Cytol. 2007;51:459-60 pubmed
    ..In developing countries, tuberculosis should be considered in cases of unilateral testicular enlargement. To the best of our knowledge, this is the third reported case of AIDS presenting as testicular tuberculosis. ..
  12. Figueiredo A, Lucon A, Ikejiri D, Falci R, Srougi M. Urogenital tuberculosis in a patient with AIDS: an unusual presentation. Nat Clin Pract Urol. 2008;5:455-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The patient refused right nephrectomy, and completed his pharmacological treatment. No evidence of disease recurrence was observed during 2 years of follow-up. ..
  13. Muttarak M, Lojanapiwat B, Chaiwun B, Wudhikarn S. Preoperative diagnosis of bilateral tuberculous epididymo-orchitis following intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy for superficial bladder carcinoma. Australas Radiol. 2002;46:183-5 pubmed
    ..It is important to be aware of this rare complication and to be familiar with the ultrasonographic features so that appropriate treatment can be given...
  14. Delgado Morales J, Pascual Calleja I, Ergueta Martín P, González Sarmiento E. [Testicular pseudotumor and constitutional syndrome]. Rev Clin Esp. 2006;206:41-2 pubmed
  15. Wu W, Chen S, Hsieh J, Chen J, Chang H. Penile tuberculosis associated with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. J Formos Med Assoc. 2006;105:753-5 pubmed
    ..Although rare, the possibility of TB as a cause of genital ulcer should be kept in mind. ..
  16. Yang D, Yoon M, Jin W, Hwang H, Kim H, Cho S, et al. Comparison of tuberculous and pyogenic epididymal abscesses: clinical, gray-scale sonographic, and color Doppler sonographic features. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2001;177:1131-5 pubmed
    ..The presence of long-term scrotal swelling without tenderness and a lower degree of blood flow in the peripheral portion of a large abscess are suggestive of tuberculous epididymal abscess. ..
  17. López Barón E, Gómez Arbeláez D, Díaz Pérez J. [Primary prostatic tuberculosis. Case report and bibliographic review]. Arch Esp Urol. 2009;62:309-13 pubmed
  18. Salvador R, Vilana R, Bargallo X, Araque X, Nicolau C. Tuberculous epididymo-orchitis after intravesical BCG therapy for superficial bladder carcinoma: sonographic findings. J Ultrasound Med. 2007;26:671-4 pubmed
  19. Pal D. Haemospermia: an Indian experience. Trop Doct. 2006;36:61-2 pubmed
    ..All the cases were screened for genitourinary TB, which was found to be a significant factor (14%) for haemospermia in the Indian context...
  20. Solofomalala G, Rakotoarisoa A, Rakotosamimanana J, Rabarioelina L. [A case of testicular tuberculosis in Antananarivo, Madagascar]. Med Trop (Mars). 2006;66:97-8 pubmed
  21. Rachapalli V, Natale S, Awasthi R. Tuberculosis of the prostate. Br J Hosp Med (Lond). 2006;67:211 pubmed
  22. Zissin R, Gayer G, Chowers M, Shapiro Feinberg M, Kots E, Hertz M. Computerized tomography findings of abdominal tuberculosis: report of 19 cases. Isr Med Assoc J. 2001;3:414-8 pubmed
    ..Abdominal tuberculosis usually presents with general symptoms and obscure abdominal complaints for which computerized tomography is often the first imaging study...
  23. Ramdial P, Calonje E, Sydney C, Subrayen S, Meyiwa P, Aboobaker J. Tuberculids as sentinel lesions of tuberculous epididymo-orchitis. J Cutan Pathol. 2007;34:830-6 pubmed
    ..Tuberculous epididymo-orchitis (TBEO) has been associated rarely with papulonecrotic tuberculid (PNT) but not with erythema induratum (EI) or the simultaneous occurrence of different tuberculids...
  24. Lee I, Yang W, Liu J. Scrotal tuberculosis in adult patients: a 10-year clinical experience. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;77:714-8 pubmed
    ..Our report underscores the urgent need for improving clinicians' awareness of scrotal TB...
  25. Chen Z, Fei X, Song Y. [Diagnosis and treatment of isolated tuberculous epididymitis]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2008;14:917-9 pubmed
    ..To improve the diagnosis and the treatment of tuberculous epididymitis...
  26. Paluch Oles J, Magrys A, Kot E, Kozioł Montewka M. Rapid identification of tuberculosis epididymo-orchitis by INNO-LiPA Rif TB and QuantiFERON-TB Gold In Tube tests: case report. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2010;66:314-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate a case of epididymo-orchitis as the sole presentation of TB in a 32-year-old man...
  27. Lee Y, Huang W, Wang J, Yu C, Jiaan B, Huang J. Efficacy of chemotherapy for prostatic tuberculosis-a clinical and histologic follow-up study. Urology. 2001;57:872-7 pubmed
    ..To characterize the clinical features of prostatic tuberculosis and to evaluate the short and long-term results of antituberculous chemotherapy...
  28. Li S, Li X, Dong Y, Shan G, He Z, Jin J, et al. [Diagnosis and differential diagnosis value of ultrasound in epididymal mass]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2006;12:164-6, 170 pubmed
    ..To elevate the diagnosis and differential diagnosis levels of epididymal mass by sonography...
  29. Tanaka M, Tsumatani K, Mibu H, Saka T. [Genital tuberculosis occurring in the spermatic cord: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo. 2002;48:753-5 pubmed
    ..The removed specimen was 15 x 20 x 15 mm in size and weighed 6 g. Histopathological diagnosis was tuberculosis. At present, 27 months after surgery, recurrence has not been found...
  30. Baveja C, Vidyanidhi G, Jain M, Kumari T, Sharma V. Drug-resistant genital tuberculosis of the penis in a human immunodeficiency virus non-reactive individual. J Med Microbiol. 2007;56:694-5 pubmed
  31. Briceño Mayz O, Egozcue Vilarasau S, Puigvert Martínez A. [TESE-ICSI in the treatment of male infertility secondary to tuberculosis. Report of a case]. Arch Esp Urol. 2000;53:39-42 pubmed
    ..To report a case of infertility treated by TESE-ICSI in a patient with tuberculosis of the seminal duct...
  32. Bulbul M, Hijaz A, Beaini M, Araj G, Tawil A. Tuberculous epididymo-orchitis following intravesical BCG for superficial bladder cancer. J Med Liban. 2002;50:67-9 pubmed
    ..The patient received a six-month course of antituberculous therapy. This case highlights a rare but serious complication of intravesical BCG...
  33. Yang D, Kim S, Kim H, Kang J, Seo T, Hwang H, et al. Differential diagnosis of focal epididymal lesions with gray scale sonographic, color Doppler sonographic, and clinical features. J Ultrasound Med. 2003;22:135-42; quiz 143-4 pubmed
    ..To determine whether focal epididymal lesions can be differentiated on gray scale sonographic, color Doppler sonographic, and clinical features...
  34. Lin Y, Fan Y, Cheng C, Sue Y, Hsu Y, Hou C, et al. The case | Sterile pyuria and an abnormal abdominal film. "Autonephrectomy" of right kidney. Kidney Int. 2008;73:131-3 pubmed
  35. Turkvatan A, Kelahmet E, Yazgan C, Olcer T. Sonographic findings in tuberculous epididymo-orchitis. J Clin Ultrasound. 2004;32:302-5 pubmed
    ..The testes are rarely involved. We describe the unusual sonographic findings in a case of tuberculous epididymo-orchitis that presented with multiple small, hypoechoic nodules within the testis...
  36. Sah S, AshokRaj G, Joshi A. Primary tuberculosis of the glans penis. Australas J Dermatol. 1999;40:106-7 pubmed
    ..Examination was otherwise normal except for a solitary enlarged reactive lymph node on the right side. There was no evidence of coexistent tuberculous infection elsewhere...
  37. Oben F, Wright R, Ahaghotu C. Tuberculous epididymitis with extensive retroperitoneal and mediastinal involvement. Urology. 2004;64:156-8 pubmed
    ..The possible routes of dissemination, as well as the efficacy of antimycobacterial therapy in the management of tuberculous epididymitis, are discussed and the relevant literature is reviewed...
  38. Kunichika N, Murakami K, Makihata K, Takao K, Chikamori K, Aoe K, et al. [Orchiectomy for tuberculous epididymitis: a report of two cases with intractable to antituberculosis treatment]. Kekkaku. 2001;76:673-6 pubmed
    ..Physical examination revealed a hard, rounded, more than egg-sized mass in the right scrotum. Right orchiectomy was performed in these two cases, and they were cured...
  39. Kella N, Rathi P, Qureshi M. Tuberculosis of transverse testicular ectopic testis associated with persistent mullerian duct syndrome. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2008;18:250-1 pubmed publisher
    ..Presence of multiple granulomas composed of Langhans cells and epithelioid cells in ectopic testicle suggested tuberculosis. Patient was kept on antituberculous therapy and was on regular follow-up without any complication...
  40. Bhargava A, Davenport C, Gibbons N, McConkey S. TB or not TB?: a case of isolated testicular TB with scrotal involvement. Ir J Med Sci. 2009;178:231-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report a case of isolated testicular TB with scrotal involvement, on a background of hepatic dysfunction...
  41. Benchekroun A, Nouini Y, Zannoud M, Moustapha Cissé A, Marzouk M, Faik M. [Epididymal tuberculosis: report of a case with particular color Doppler ultrasonography finding]. Ann Urol (Paris). 2002;36:384-7 pubmed
    ..We report a case of isolated tuberculous epididymitis, diagnosed in an early stage, with color Doppler ultrasound findings...
  42. Khalid M. Primary tuberculosis of scrotum. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2005;15:439-40 pubmed
    ..Ulcer edge biopsy and histopathological examination reports proved primary tuberculosis of left hemiscrotum. Antituberculosis therapy for nine months showed uneventful recovery during the follow-up visits...
  43. Mateos Colino A, Sousa Escandón M, Golpe Gómez R, García Figueras R, Pérez Valcárcel J, Fernández M. [Tuberculous epididymitis caused by Mycobacterium bovis]. Arch Esp Urol. 2003;56:175-8 pubmed
    ..To focus on the need of including tuberculosis among differential diagnoses of any epidymo-testicular mass, especially if its evolution is torpid...
  44. Falcó G, Roig P, Cuadrado J, Perez L. [Tuberculous orchiepididymitis in patients with HIV infection. Presentation of three cases]. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2003;21:216-7 pubmed
  45. Fraietta R, Mori M, De Oliveira J, Cedenho A, Srougi M. Tuberculosis of seminal vesicles as a cause of aspermia. J Urol. 2003;169:1472 pubmed
  46. Jain B, Dargan P. Possible scrotal violation by FNAC of testicular mass lesion. J Indian Med Assoc. 2004;102:270 pubmed
  47. Sáenz Abad D, Letona Carbajo S, Benito Arévalo J, Sanioaquín Conde I, Ruiz Ruiz F. Prostatic tuberculosis: case report. Sao Paulo Med J. 2008;126:227-8 pubmed
    ..Tuberculosis of the prostate has mainly been described in immunocompromised patients. However, it can exceptionally be found as an isolated lesion in immunocompetent patients...
  48. Koizumi T, Nakanishi R, Taue R, Yamaguchi K, Nakatuji H, Kishimoto T, et al. [Case of tuberculous epididymitis caused by intravesical BCG therapy]. Hinyokika Kiyo. 2008;54:625-7 pubmed
    ..We performed left orchiectomy with scrotum skin resection. Histological diagnosis was tuberculous epididymitis. Postoperatively, he was administered chemotherapy consisting of isoniazid, refampin and ethambutol...
  49. Lanjewar D, Maheshwari M. Prostatic tuberculosis and AIDS. Natl Med J India. 1994;7:166-7 pubmed
    ..We suggest that in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome tuberculous infection of the prostate should be sought by microscopic examination of the urine, semen and prostatic fluid obtained after massage...
  50. Rakototiana A, Hunald F, Razafimanjato N, Ralahy M, Rakoto Ratsimba H, Rantomalala H. [Isolated testicular tuberculosis in children. Report of 2 Malagasy cases]. Arch Pediatr. 2009;16:112-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Only histological examination provided the definitive diagnosis. The details of diagnosis and treatment are discussed and compared to the information available in the literature...
  51. Gafur M, Talukder M, Siddiqua S. Tuberculous prostatitis--a case report. Mymensingh Med J. 2002;11:39-41 pubmed
    ..He was treated with anti-tubercular chemotherapy and responded well. No such case is found reported in Bangladesh yet in through medline search database. So, the case is reported here...
  52. Wiler J, Shalev R, Filippone L. Case report and review: Potts disease and epididymal tuberculosis presenting as back pain and scrotal mass. Am J Emerg Med. 2010;28:261.e3-6 pubmed publisher
    ..He was subsequently diagnosed with tuberculosis spondylitis (Potts disease) and epididymal tuberculosis. The epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of tuberculosis spondylitis are discussed...
  53. Liu C, Jing Q, Ma B, Zhang A, Ma Y, Peng G, et al. [Sonographical features of the epididymis tuberculosis with caseous necrosis]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2005;11:912-4, 917 pubmed
    ..To analyse sonographical features of epididymis tuberculosis with caseous necrosis and improve the accuracy of ultrasonic diagnosis...
  54. Alper M, Balbay O, Akman Y, Arbak P, Cam K. Tuberculous orchitis in chronic renal failure. Med J Malaysia. 2004;59:118-9 pubmed
    ..A high index of suspicion is required to recognize the unusual presentation of tuberculosis in this group of patients, and routine screening for tuberculosis may be recommended in patients undergoing hemodialysis...
  55. Segawa N, Abe H, Nishida T, Katsuoka Y. [Spermatic cord tuberculosis: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo. 2005;51:347-9 pubmed
    ..From these findings we diagnosed the patient with tuberculosis in spermatic cord. Antituberculous chemotherapy was subsequently initiated. Two months after surgery, recurrence has not been found...
  56. Faucher V, Delomez J, Puech P, Duchene F, Khorgami B, Lemaitre L. [Urogenital bilharziasis: imaging diagnosis]. J Radiol. 2004;85:769-72 pubmed
    ..Using this case, we will discuss the value of different imaging techniques (especially that of CT combined with transrectal US) for diagnosing bilharziasis and review specific criteria to more easily distinguish both pathologies...
  57. Liu J, Li H, Cao Z, Duan Y, Li Y, Ye Z. Influence of several uropathogenic microorganisms on human sperm motility parameters in vitro. Asian J Androl. 2002;4:179-82 pubmed
    ..The effects of certain uropathogenic microorganisms (Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis) on human sperm motility characteristics were studied in vitro...
  58. Gemmel C, Jacek G, Lücking H, Rebel M, Spiethoff A, Schilling D, et al. [Scrotal abscess with inguinal lymph node swelling in an 86-year-old man]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2004;129:2032-4 pubmed
  59. Hoag N, Pommerville P, Kibsey P, Cavers D, Eddy R. Tuberculous epididymitis following intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin immunotherapy. Can J Urol. 2009;16:4589-91 pubmed
    ..Tuberculous epididymitis is an uncommon complication resulting from intravesical BCG therapy, which is likely explained by retrograde migration from the prostatic urethra in this case...
  60. Wise G, Shteynshlyuger A. An update on lower urinary tract tuberculosis. Curr Urol Rep. 2008;9:305-13 pubmed
    ..Medical treatment may not result in resolution of symptoms. Surgical intervention and reconstruction of the urinary tract are frequently indicated...
  61. Rabesalama S, Rakoto Ratsimba H, Rakototiana A, Razafimahatratra R, Raherison R, Rantomalala H, et al. [Isolated prostate tuberculosis. Report of a case in Madagascar]. Prog Urol. 2010;20:314-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Transrectal biopsy was performed and histological examination showed tuberculosis lesions. We suggest that prostate tuberculosis should be evoked in old patient presenting similar signs and living in tuberculosis endemic zone...
  62. Tsili A, Tsampoulas C, Giannakis D, Papastefanaki M, Tsiriopoulos I, Sofikitis N, et al. Case report. Tuberculous epididymo-orchitis: MRI findings. Br J Radiol. 2008;81:e166-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Urine cultures obtained from a percutaneous left nephrostomy were positive for tuberculous bacilli, and the patient was placed on anti-tuberculous treatment...
  63. Kumar J, Kumar R. Epididymal tuberculosis with elevated oncofetal marker. Indian J Med Sci. 2004;58:254-5 pubmed
  64. Barisić Z, Vrsalović Carević N, Milostic K, Alfirevic D, Babić Erceg A, Borzić E, et al. Tuberculous orchiepididymitis diagnosed by nucleic acid amplification test: a case report. Int Urol Nephrol. 2003;35:203-5 pubmed
    ..By this report it was clearly shown that sometimes only molecular methods could confirm etiology of inflammatory process...
  65. Geisinger K. Tubercular scrotal disease. Acta Cytol. 2006;50:241-2 pubmed
  66. Falkensammer C, Gozzi C, Hager M, Maier H, Bartsch G, Holtl L, et al. Late occurrence of bilateral tuberculous-like epididymo-orchitis after intravesical bacille Calmette-Guérin therapy for superficial bladder carcinoma. Urology. 2005;65:175 pubmed
    ..This case demonstrates the late adverse effects that can occur after intravesical BCG therapy, which in our patient ended in surgical removal of both gonads...
  67. Gómez García I, Gomez Mampaso E, Burgos Revilla J, Molina M, Sampietro Crespo A, Buitrago L, et al. Tuberculous orchiepididymitis during 1978-2003 period: review of 34 cases and role of 16S rRNA amplification. Urology. 2010;76:776-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Genomic amplification techniques aided the diagnosis in 8 patients. Treatment was rifampin, isoniazide, and pyrazinamide or ethambutol. Eight patients required combined medical and surgical treatment...
  68. Sookpotarom P, Nimanussornkul K, Luecha O, Poolsavatkitikool R, Vejchapipat P. Isolated tuberculosis of tunica vaginalis in a child. Pediatr Surg Int. 2010;26:763-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We reported a case of tuberculosis of tunica vaginalis which can present as an acute scrotum...
  69. Oka N, Yamamoto Y, Kurokawa Y, Kanayama H, Kagawa S. [A case of tuberculosis of the prostate presenting as endoscopically cavitary change]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi. 2001;92:526-9 pubmed
    ..TUR-P was performed and histological findings of the specimen revealed tuberculosis of the prostate. The patient was treated with an antituberculous regimen of INH, RFP and EB...
  70. D Agata E, Wise S, Stewart A, Lefkowitz L. Nosocomial transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from an extrapulmonary site. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2001;22:10-2 pubmed
    ..To assess the extent of nosocomial transmission and risk factors associated with tuberculin skin test (TST) conversions among healthcare workers (HCWs) exposed to a patient with genitourinary Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
  71. Muttarak M, Peh W. Case 91: Tuberculous Epididymo-orchitis. Radiology. 2006;238:748-51 pubmed
  72. Miletic B, Morovic M, Tomic Z, Ticac B. [Tuberculous orchiepididymitis and CNS complication]. Aktuelle Urol. 2006;37:67-8 pubmed
    ..Hydrocephalus as a complication of tuberculous orchiepididymitis is extremely rare. In this reported case, hydrocephalus was the consequence of a disseminated tuberculous process...
  73. Yu Hung Lai A, Lu S, Yu H, Kuo Y, Huang C. Tuberculous epididymitis presenting as huge scrotal tumor. Urology. 2009;73:1163.e5-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Antituberculous drugs have been given as the medical treatment of tuberculosis postoperatively. Urinalysis became normalized and the scrotal ultrasonography showed normal left epididymis and testicle at 6-month follow up...
  74. Biswas M, Rahi R, Tiwary S, Khanna R, Khanna A. Isolated tuberculosis of testis. Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ). 2006;4:98-9 pubmed
    ..The diagnosis was suspected on clinical examination of scrotum and confirmed by FNAC of scrotal and testis. Patient improved after taking antitubercular treatment. Key words: infection, scrotum, treatment...
  75. Chen F, Brook G, Williams G, Murphy S. Tuberculous epididymo-orchitis presenting within the setting of a sexually transmitted disease clinic. Sex Transm Dis. 2004;31:163-5 pubmed
    ..Tuberculous epididymo-orchitis (TBEO) is uncommon in Western cities in the modern era. A case series of 3 patients with TBEO presenting to a sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic has never previously been reported...
  76. Ludwig M, Velcovsky H, Weidner W. Tuberculous epididymo-orchitis and prostatitis: a case report. Andrologia. 2008;40:81-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The treatment of choice is primarily medical, consisting of a combination of three or four anti-TB drugs, sometimes combined with surgery...