intracranial tuberculoma


Summary: A well-circumscribed mass composed of tuberculous granulation tissue that may occur in the cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, brain stem, or perimeningeal spaces. Multiple lesions are quite common. Management of intracranial manifestations vary with lesion site. Intracranial tuberculomas may be associated with SEIZURES, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. Spinal cord tuberculomas may be associated with localized or radicular pain, weakness, sensory loss, and incontinence. Tuberculomas may arise as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS, but also occur in immunocompetent individuals.

Top Publications

  1. Takeshima H, Kawahara T, Kuratsu J. Multiple meningeal tuberculomas recurring after 18-month anti-tuberculous chemotherapy--case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2004;44:133-7 pubmed
    ..Tuberculoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of enhanced intracranial mass lesions. Anti-tuberculous therapy may require extended periods of up to 36 months to stabilize the disease. ..
  2. Mackert B, Conradi J, Loddenkemper C, van Landeghem F, Loddenkemper R, Ignatius R, et al. [Neurotuberculosis: a continuing clinical challenge]. Nervenarzt. 2008;79:153-66 pubmed
    ..Resistant new strains of the pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, complicate therapy. Recent discoveries especially in diagnosis and therapy are explained using case evidence...
  3. Abdul Ghaffar N, El Sonbaty M, Rahman N. Intracranial tuberculoma in Kuwait. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 1998;2:413-8 pubmed
    To study the manifestations of intracranial tuberculoma in Kuwait and to provide guidelines for the diagnosis and management of intracranial tuberculoma in developing countries, where the disease is common and facilities are limited.
  4. Wasay M, Kheleani B, Moolani M, Zaheer J, Pui M, Hasan S, et al. Brain CT and MRI findings in 100 consecutive patients with intracranial tuberculoma. J Neuroimaging. 2003;13:240-7 pubmed
    The characteristics of intracranial tuberculoma on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are not well known. The authors reviewed the features of tuberculoma on CT scans and MRI...
  5. Bas N, Guzey F, Emel E, Alatas I, Sel B. Paradoxical intracranial tuberculoma requiring surgical treatment. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2005;41:201-5 pubmed
    ..She was followed with dexamethasone treatment in addition to antituberculous therapy for 2 months. Then, the lesion was removed because it had increased in size in spite of appropriate chemotherapy...
  6. Gupta R, Prakash M, Mishra A, Husain M, Prasad K, Husain N. Role of diffusion weighted imaging in differentiation of intracranial tuberculoma and tuberculous abscess from cysticercus granulomas-a report of more than 100 lesions. Eur J Radiol. 2005;55:384-92 pubmed
    ..We conclude that addition of DWI to routine imaging protocol may help in differentiation of tuberculous lesions from degenerating cysticercus granuloma...
  7. Guzel A, Tatli M, Aluclu U, Yalcin K. Intracranial multiple tuberculomas: 2 unusual cases. Surg Neurol. 2005;64 Suppl 2:S109-12 pubmed
    ..Only 1% of patients with TB develop an intracranial tuberculoma (Tbm), usually as part of miliary TB...
  8. Tsugawa J, Inoue H, Tsuboi Y, Takano K, Utsunomiya H, Yamada T. [Serial MRI findings of intracranial tuberculomas: a case report and review of the literature]. No To Shinkei. 2006;58:225-30 pubmed
    b>Intracranial tuberculoma is an infectious disorder, occurring with or without tuberculous meningitis...
  9. Bayindir C, Mete O, Bilgic B. Retrospective study of 23 pathologically proven cases of central nervous system tuberculomas. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2006;108:353-7 pubmed
    ..It presents as meningitis or tuberculoma. Tuberculoma is a granulomatous inflammatory process mimicking a neoplasm radiologically, so usually a biopsy is performed...

More Information

Publications106 found, 100 shown here

  1. Akhaddar A, el Hassani M, Chakir N, Jiddane M. [Optochiasmatic tuberculoma: complication of tuberculous meningitis. Report of a case and review of the literature]. J Neuroradiol. 2001;28:137-42 pubmed
    ..Are recalled the diagnostic aspects, notably the neuroradiological findings, in this particular localisation of tuberculosis with a review of the similar thirty-three cases reported in the literature. ..
  2. Zoguéreh D, Andrieux C, Abakar A, Robineau M. [Intracranial tuberculoma in Africa, with no available neuroimaging. Case report and review of the literature]. Sante. 2003;13:183-90 pubmed
    ..A review of 147 cases of intracranial tuberculoma reported in Africa between 1985 and 2001 points out the difficulties of both the differential diagnosis (..
  3. van Hest R, De Vries G, Morbano G, Pijnenburg M, Hartwig N, Baars H. Cavitating tuberculosis in an infant: case report and literature review. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004;23:667-70 pubmed
    ..We describe an 8-month-old baby with primary cavitating tuberculosis, in whom there was considerable delay in diagnosis, and review the literature. ..
  4. Vidal J, Oliveira A, Dauar R. Cerebral tuberculomas or tuberculous brain abscess: the dilemma continues. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;40:1072; author reply 1072-3 pubmed
  5. Sermet Gaudelus I, Stambouli F, Abadie V, Goutieres F, Lenoir G, Gendrel D, et al. Rapid improvement of intracranial tuberculomas after addition of ofloxacin to first-line antituberculosis treatment. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1999;18:726-8 pubmed
    ..Its good penetration into the central nervous system and its distribution into macrophages suggest that this drug may be of interest for the treatment of intracranial tuberculomas, particularly those due to isoniazid-resistant strains. ..
  6. Garcia Lechuz J, Sanchez Conde M, Munoz L, Benito C. Clinical microbiological case: 'soap bubbles' in the cerebellum of an HIV-infected patient. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2003;9:419-20, 461-2 pubmed
  7. Tewary R, O Sullivan M, Ali T, O Sullivan P. Intracranial tuberculoma -- a diagnostic dilemma. J Laryngol Otol. 2005;119:486-8 pubmed
    The characteristics of intracranial tuberculoma on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are not well known...
  8. Garcia Vidal C, Cabellos C. Paradoxical reaction of multiple cerebral tuberculomas. Mayo Clin Proc. 2008;83:264 pubmed
  9. Yanardag H, Uygun S, Yumuk V, Caner M, Canbaz B. Cerebral tuberculosis mimicking intracranial tumour. Singapore Med J. 2005;46:731-3 pubmed
    ..Although the incidence of tuberculosis is decreasing, a high index of suspicion must be maintained for the diagnosis of intracranial masses in the presence of risk factors for tuberculosis. ..
  10. Nateghian A, Robinson J, Fanning A. A child with headache, cough, weight loss, and seizure. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44:1341-2, 1384-6 pubmed
  11. Fredj M, Mrabet H, Gouider R, Mrabet A. [Cerebral tuberculomas]. Rev Neurol (Paris). 2003;159:795-8 pubmed
  12. Ceylan E, Gencer M. Miliary tuberculosis associated with multiple intracranial tuberculomas. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2005;205:367-70 pubmed
    ..The significance of our case is due to the presence of both the miliary tuberculosis and intracranial tuberculomas. The patient was admitted to the hospital due to central nervous system symtoms rather than pulmonary symptoms. ..
  13. Haris M, Husain N, Singh A, Awasthi R, Singh Rathore R, Husain M, et al. Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) derived transfer coefficient (ktrans) is a surrogate marker of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) expression in brain tuberculomas. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2008;28:588-97 pubmed publisher
    ..001) and VEGF (r=0.868, P<0.001). We conclude that the expression of MMP-9, a marker of BBB disruption and disease activity in BT correlates with DCE-derived ktrans and thus has the potential to be used as its surrogate marker. ..
  14. Misch M, Thomale U, Keitzer R, Vajkoczy P. Prevention of secondary ischemic events by superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery bypass surgery after tuberculosis-induced vasculopathy in a 5-year-old child. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2010;6:69-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Bypass surgery seems to be a reliable tool to augment cerebral blood flow in tuberculosis-related stenoocclusive changes of cerebral vasculature after the failure of endovascular procedures. ..
  15. Pimentel M, Alves S, Novis S, Brandão R, Belo Neto E. [Intracranial tuberculomas developing during treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis: case report]. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2000;58:572-7 pubmed
    ..The literature is revised and the diagnosis, treatment and possible immunological mechanisms are discussed. ..
  16. Rabar D, Issartel B, Petiot P, Boibieux A, Chidiac C, Peyramond D. [Tuberculoma and tuberculous meningeal-radiculitis with paradoxical progression during treatment]. Presse Med. 2005;34:32-4 pubmed
    ..This possibility should be systematically evoked in such cases. The explanation of this phenomenon is still unclear. ..
  17. Thrupp S, Furneaux C, Kennedy M, McGrath N. A rare cause of post-partum headache: cerebral tuberculomas. N Z Med J. 2008;121:60-5 pubmed
  18. Domingues F, de Souza J, Chagas H, Chimelli L, Vaisman M. Pituitary tuberculoma: an unusual lesion of sellar region. Pituitary. 2002;5:149-53 pubmed
    ..Sellar tuberculomas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of sellar tumors in order to offer appropriate treatment. ..
  19. Enani M, Al Nakhli D, Bakhsh E. Isolated brain stem tuberculoma presenting with one and a half syndrome. Saudi Med J. 2006;27:1407-11 pubmed
    ..Recovery was achieved 8 weeks after initiation of anti-tuberculous anti-TB therapy. The isolated nature of the tuberculoma and the association with this rare syndrome is highlighted. ..
  20. Al Soub H, Al Alousi F, Al Khal A. Tuberculoma of the cavernous sinus. Scand J Infect Dis. 2001;33:868-70 pubmed
    ..Treatment is primarily medical, with antituberculous drugs, and the outcome is good. Surgery has a limited role in the management of this condition, mainly for establishing the diagnosis. ..
  21. Arunkumar M, Rajshekhar V. Intrasellar tuberculoma presenting as pituitary apoplexy. Neurol India. 2001;49:407-10 pubmed
    ..Intrasellar tuberculomas must be considered as one of the differential diagnosis when patients present with a pituitary apoplexy. ..
  22. Jain V, Singhi P. A "bunch of grapes" intracranial tuberculoma. Neurology. 2002;59:1111 pubmed
  23. Poonnoose S, Singh S, Rajshekhar V. Giant cerebellar tuberculoma mimicking a malignant tumour. Neuroradiology. 2004;46:136-9 pubmed
    ..We highlight the need to integrate different imaging modalities in arriving at a diagnosis of an intracranial mass and discuss atypical features of intracranial tuberculomas. ..
  24. Tsai M, Huang Y, Lin T. Development of tuberculoma during therapy presenting as hemianopsia. Pediatr Neurol. 2004;31:360-3 pubmed
    ..Development of intracranial tuberculoma during antituberculous therapy, although rare, dose not represent treatment failure, and continuation of ..
  25. Alatorre Fernández C, Venzor Castellanos J, Contreras Cabrera J, Fuentes venegas A, Castro Martínez E. [Arachnoiditis and tuberculuos cortical encephalitis in an HIV+ patient]. Gac Med Mex. 2009;145:239-40 pubmed
    ..Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse arachnoidal enhancement, mainly at the basal cisterns and cortical encephalitis. Such imaging findings play a key role in the diagnosis of central nervous system tuberculosis. ..
  26. Schoeman J, Ravenscroft A, Hartzenberg H. Possible role of adjunctive thalidomide therapy in the resolution of a massive intracranial tuberculous abscess. Childs Nerv Syst. 2001;17:370-2 pubmed
    ..The remaining CT lesion had the appearance of a small granuloma. Both the clinical and the radiological response was maintained after 1 year of antituberculosis treatment. ..
  27. Schoeman J, Fieggen G, Seller N, Mendelson M, Hartzenberg B. Intractable intracranial tuberculous infection responsive to thalidomide: report of four cases. J Child Neurol. 2006;21:301-8 pubmed
    ..Adjunctive thalidomide might have a role in the management of intractable intracranial tuberculosis and needs further investigation in this regard. ..
  28. Kim I, Jung S, Jung T, Kang S, Moon K, Joo S. Intracranial tuberculoma with adjacent inflammatory aneurysms. J Clin Neurosci. 2008;15:1174-6 pubmed publisher
    We describe for the first time a case of intracranial tuberculoma with adjacent intracerebral inflammatory aneurysms, and include a brief discussion of the developmental mechanism of these pathologies...
  29. Sahoo L, Mallick A, Mohanty G, Swain K, Nayak S, Sahu A. Concurrent intramedullary spinal cord and multiple intracranial tuberculomas with tuberculous optic neuritis: A rare case report. Indian J Tuberc. 2017;64:337-340 pubmed publisher
    ..Other manifestations include intracranial tuberculoma, tubercular brain abscess, spinal tuberculoma, and granulomatous arachnoiditis...
  30. Sherwani R, Abrari A, Jayrajpuri Z, Srivastava V. Intracranial hydatidosis. Report of a case diagnosed on cerebrospinal fluid cytology. Acta Cytol. 2003;47:506-8 pubmed
    ..Diagnosis depends on the appropriate presentation and history with corroborative radiology and serology. Microscopic detection of characteristic parasitic scolices and hooklets is confirmatory...
  31. Moorthy R, Rajshekhar V. Isolated ring-enhancing lesion of the brainstem in a patient with cyanotic heart disease: role of stereotactic intervention. Neurol India. 2003;51:404-6 pubmed
    ..Antituberculous therapy led to complete recovery. Stereotactic intervention is an ideal management strategy in patients with cyanotic heart disease and an isolated ring-enhancing mass in the brainstem. ..
  32. Gupta R, Husain M, Vatsal D, Kumar R, Chawla S, Husain N. Comparative evaluation of magnetization transfer MR imaging and in-vivo proton MR spectroscopy in brain tuberculomas. Magn Reson Imaging. 2002;20:375-81 pubmed
    ..We conclude that T1 weighted MT MR imaging appears to be more consistent in the tissue characterization of brain tuberculomas. ..
  33. Cesur S, Arabaci H, Sözen T, Tekeli E. [Case report: evaluation of two cases of tuberculoma incident to tuberculosis meningitis]. Mikrobiyol Bul. 2002;36:91-4 pubmed
    b>Intracranial tuberculoma is one of the most serious complications of tuberculous meningitis. In this report, two patients who develop intracranial tuberculoma as a complication of tuberculous meningitis have been presented...
  34. Noriega L, Villarreal F. [Multiple cerebral tuberculomas]. Rev Neurol. 2003;37:531-5 pubmed
  35. Vidal J, Hernandez A, Oliveira A, de Souza A, Souza d, Madalosso G, et al. Cerebral tuberculomas in AIDS patients: a forgotten diagnosis?. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2004;62:793-6 pubmed
    ..Despite of their infrequent presentation, tuberculomas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cerebral expansive lesions in patients with AIDS. ..
  36. Uysal G, Gursoy T, Altunc U, Guven A. Asymptomatic pons tuberculoma in an infant with miliary tuberculosis. Saudi Med J. 2005;26:1277-9 pubmed
    ..The case is presented to intensify the importance of CNS investigation even if the patient with miliary tuberculosis has no neurologic finding. ..
  37. Idris M, Sokrab T, Arbab M, Ahmed A, El Rasoul H, Ali S, et al. Tuberculoma of the brain: a series of 16 cases treated with anti-tuberculosis drugs. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2007;11:91-5 pubmed
    ..presentation, radiological findings and outcome of treatment with antituberculosis drugs in 16 cases of intracranial tuberculoma. Consecutive cases admitted with tuberculoma to the National Center for Neurological Diseases in Khartoum,..
  38. Bozkus H, Peker K, Sarioglu C, Matfin G, Guven S. Tb or not Tb, that is the question. Endocr Pract. 2002;8:311-2 pubmed
  39. Bajpayee A, Gulati S, Lodha R, Kabra S. Tuberculosis clinical grand round. Indian J Pediatr. 2003;70:57-61 pubmed
  40. Nisikawa W, Takemoto K, Sakamoto S, Yamamoto M, Fukushima T, Utsunomiya H, et al. [Two case mimicking cerebral tuberculoma in MRI diffusion weighted-images with difficult preoperative diagnosis]. No To Shinkei. 2006;58:695-700 pubmed
    ..In such cases mimicking intracerbral tuberculoma based on DWI, anti-tuberculous drugs are first treatment of choice, however, a biopsy should be performed as early as possible if the medication dose not show a significant response. ..
  41. Dennison P, Rajakaruna G. Cerebral tuberculoma. Thorax. 2006;61:922 pubmed
  42. Martins C, Monteiro J, Sarafana S, Caldas G, Oliveira P, Breia P, et al. Cerebral tuberculoma presenting as flexion spasms. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007;26:83-4 pubmed
    ..After antituberculous therapy, the outcome was favorable. Despite all investigations, Mycobacterium tuberculosis's mode of transmission was unclear, and both congenital and postnatal acquired forms were considered. ..
  43. Ranjan M, Saritha A, Mahadevan A, Shankar S, Sampath S. Cerebellar tuberculoma presenting as haematoma--a case report and pathophysiological consideration. Br J Neurosurg. 2009;23:203-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Intracranial tuberculoma represents the most common mass lesion in neurotuberculosis. We report an unusual case of tuberculoma with haemorrhage presenting clinically as a cerebellar haemorrhage...
  44. Pui M. Magnetization transfer analysis of brain tumor, infection, and infarction. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2000;12:395-9 pubmed
    ..00%, 75.86%, and 79.49%, respectively. MT imaging may be valuable in differentiating cystic infection from cystic neoplasm. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2000;12:395-399...
  45. Mofredj A, Habki R, Belhadj H, Beldjoudi B. Article: Paradoxical enlargement of tuberculous brain abscess during drug treatment: a case report (S K Ng, et al). Singapore Med J. 2002;43:47; author reply 48 pubmed
  46. Kilani B, Ammari L, Tiouiri H, Goubontini A, Kanoun F, Zouiten F, et al. [Neuroradiologic manifestations of central nervous system tuberculosis in 122 adults]. Rev Med Interne. 2003;24:86-96 pubmed
    ..Central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis remains a public health problem, particularly in developing countries. The aim of this study is to characterize neuroradiologic findings of various intracranial lesions...
  47. Roberts M, Mendelson M, Meyer P, Carmichael A, Lever A. The use of thalidomide in the treatment of intracranial tuberculomas in adults: two case reports. J Infect. 2003;47:251-5 pubmed
    ..The immunomodulatory effects of thalidomide may have a role in the acute and chronic management of TBM complicated by intracranial tuberculomas...
  48. Lizarazo Niño J. [Multiple brain tuberculomas]. Rev Neurol. 2005;40:127-8 pubmed
  49. Lado Lado F, Cabarcos Ortiz de Barron A, Carballo Arceo E, Perez del Molino M, Antúnez López J. [Brain tuberculomas and paradoxical expansion]. Rev Clin Esp. 2005;205:94-5 pubmed
  50. Panigrahi M. Rate of resolution of histologically verified intracranial tuberculomas. Neurosurgery. 2005;56:E873 pubmed
  51. Adeolu A, Shokunbi M, Malomo A, Akang E, Obajimi M, Komolafe E. Solitary intracranial tuberculoma in patients without immuno-suppression: a report of three cases. Niger Postgrad Med J. 2006;13:69-72 pubmed
    ..In this article, we report 3 patients who had solitary brain tuberculomas and were otherwise healthy to underscore the importance of continuing vigilance for this disease...
  52. Wasay M. Central nervous system tuberculosis and paradoxical response. South Med J. 2006;99:331-2 pubmed
  53. Jayakumar P, Srikanth S, Chandrashekar H, Subbakrishna D. T2 relaxometry of ring lesions of the brain. Clin Radiol. 2007;62:370-5 pubmed
    ..To differentiate two common aetiologies of "ring lesions," tuberculomas and cysticercal cysts, using T2 relaxometry...
  54. Arévalo Gómez A, Bello Rodríguez L, Sánchez Vidal E, Sousa Regueiro D, Varela García P, Miguez Rey E, et al. [A 34-year old woman with gait instability]. Rev Clin Esp. 2007;207:401-2 pubmed
  55. Fernandez Rodriguez R, Prieto Casal P, Gómez Fernández R, Pérez Cid J, Bustillo Casado M. [Meningitis with intracranial multiple lesions]. Rev Clin Esp. 2007;207:577-8 pubmed
  56. Kösters K, Nau R, Bossink A, Greiffendorf I, Jentsch M, Ernst M, et al. Rapid diagnosis of CNS tuberculosis by a T-cell interferon-gamma release assay on cerebrospinal fluid mononuclear cells. Infection. 2008;36:597-600 pubmed publisher
    ..tuberculosis-specific cells by ELISPOT in the cerebrospinal fluid of a patient with tuberculous meningitis and intracerebral tuberculoma four weeks before cerebrospinal fluid culture became positive for M. tuberculosis by culture...
  57. Zorn Olexa C, Laugel V, Martin A, Donato L, Fischbach M. Multiple intracranial tuberculomas associated with partial status epilepticus and refractory infantile spasms. J Child Neurol. 2008;23:459-62 pubmed publisher
    ..It also highlights the difficult diagnosis of cerebral tuberculomas in infants and further supports the need for continued vigilance in industrialized countries...
  58. Chakrabarti P, Nandi S, Todi S. Nocardia brain abscess in a diabetic patient. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2008;51:151-3 pubmed
    ..A high index of suspicion and early intervention like stereotactic brain biopsy remain the cornerstone to increase the chance of positive clinical outcome...
  59. Yo Y, Fujikawa T, Takeda Z. [Case report of miliary TB, with mediastinal TB involving the aorta, trachea and esophagus with death due to hemorrhage from perforation of aorta into the esophagus during treatment]. Nihon Kyobu Shikkan Gakkai Zasshi. 1993;31:738-43 pubmed
    ..In spite of antituberculosis chemotherapy, he developed tuberculous meningitis and intracranial tuberculoma in September 1990. Miliary shadows on chest X-ray disappeared in December 1990...
  60. Jayasundar R, Singh V, Raghunathan P, Jain K, Banerji A. Inflammatory granulomas: evaluation with proton MRS. NMR Biomed. 1999;12:139-44 pubmed
    ..0001). While the presence of lipid can be used for differentiating tuberculomas from both non-specific IG and NCC, the extremely low levels of metabolites together with a poor signal/noise ratio could itself act as a marker for NCC...
  61. Desai K, Bhatjiwale M, Nadkarni T, Goel A. Flare up of tuberculous abscess following stereotactic aspiration--case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2002;42:147-9 pubmed
    ..The daughter abscesses were removed via craniotomy. Stereotactic aspiration requires care to prevent such flare up of the disease...
  62. Vidal J, Cimerman S, da Silva P, Sztajnbok J, Coelho J, Lins D. Tuberculous brain abscess in a patient with AIDS: case report and literature review. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2003;45:111-4 pubmed
    ..Surgical excision or stereotactic aspiration, and antituberculous treatment are the mainstay in the management of these uncommon lesions...
  63. Sadeghi N, Rorive S, Lefranc F. Intracranial tuberculoma: is diffusion-weighted imaging useful in the diagnosis?. Eur Radiol. 2003;13:2049-50 pubmed
  64. Mundia M. Case 16-2003 - brain abscess. N Engl J Med. 2003;349:1004-6; author reply 1004-6 pubmed
  65. Sun W, Wang F. Intrasellar tuberculoma: case report. Chin Med J (Engl). 2004;117:153-4 pubmed
  66. Nicolls D, King M, Holland D, Bala J, del Rio C. Intracranial tuberculomas developing while on therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2005;5:795-801 pubmed
    ..Stereotactic brain biopsy should be done whenever the diagnosis of an intracranial tuberculoma is in doubt...
  67. Korri H, Awada A. [Miliary tuberculosis and intramedullary tuberculoma of the conus medullaris]. Rev Neurol (Paris). 2007;163:1106-8 pubmed
    ..This case is presented to illustrate the diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas of a rare condition: intramedullary tuberculoma of the conus medullaris...
  68. Ogunrin A, Adeyekun A. Multiple intracranial tuberculomas in an HIV-negative 28 year old male--a case report. Niger J Clin Pract. 2007;10:262-5 pubmed
    ..In the differential diagnosis of intracranial mass lesions in sub-Saharan Africa, a high index of clinical suspicion is needed to avoid misdiagnosis of intracranial tuberculoma.
  69. Alarcon F, Tolosa E, Munoz E. Focal limb dystonia in a patient with a cerebellar mass. Arch Neurol. 2001;58:1125-7 pubmed
    ..Focal dystonia of acute onset is indicative of a structural lesion in the nervous system. Cerebellar lesions have rarely been associated with dystonia...
  70. Rebai R, Boudawara M, Bahloul K, Chabchoub I, Chaari S, Boudawara T, et al. Cavernous sinus tuberculoma: diagnostic difficulties in a personal case. Surg Neurol. 2001;55:372-5 pubmed
    ..Tuberculoma of the brain is rare, and its location in the cavernous sinus is exceptional. Many factors make the diagnosis difficult, necessitating a surgical procedure...
  71. Kalkan A, Serhatlioglu S, Ozden M, Denk A, Demirdag K, Yilmaz T, et al. Paradoxically developed optochiasmatic tuberculoma and tuberculous lymphadenitis: a case report with 18-month follow up by MRI. South Med J. 2006;99:388-92 pubmed
    ..the first case ofextracranial tuberculous lymphadenitis which paradoxically developed during treatment of intracranial tuberculoma. Our patient, a 15-year-old girl who initially presented with meningitis and intracranial tuberculomas, ..
  72. Akhaddar A, Mahi M, Harket A, Elmostarchid B, Belhachemi A, Elasri A, et al. Brainstem tuberculoma in a postpartum patient. J Neuroradiol. 2007;34:345-6 pubmed
  73. Sonmez G, Ozturk E, Sildiroglu H, Mutlu H, Cuce F, Senol M, et al. MRI findings of intracranial tuberculomas. Clin Imaging. 2008;32:88-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to characterize the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of intracranial tuberculoma, a form of neurotuberculosis.
  74. Rengarajan S, Nanjegowda N, Bhat D, Mahadevan A, Sampath S, Krishna S. Cerebral sparganosis: a diagnostic challenge. Br J Neurosurg. 2008;22:784-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, in areas endemic for tuberculosis, such as India, it is appropriate to suggest that histological diagnosis be sought in tuberculoma mimicking lesions, especially when the lesion is not responding to treatment...
  75. Wong K, Oliver G. Simultaneous scrofuloderma and intracranial tuberculomas: a rare presentation of systemic tuberculosis. Australas J Dermatol. 2010;51:39-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This case illustrates the importance of dermatological manifestations of systemic disease as an accessible source for diagnosis and guidance in appropriate therapy...
  76. Lee W, Pang K, Wong C. Brain tuberculoma in Hong Kong. Hong Kong Med J. 2002;8:52-6 pubmed
    ..Surgical excision is necessary in patients with raised intracranial pressure secondary to the lesion, who are not responding to medical therapy...
  77. Başoğlu O, Savas R, Kitis O. Conventional and diffusion-weighted MR imaging of intracranial tuberculomas. A case report. Acta Radiol. 2002;43:560-2 pubmed
    b>Intracranial tuberculoma is a rare form of central nervous system tuberculosis...
  78. Bhatia R, Prabhakar S, Shedde D, Gopalan S, Sahota P, Shukla R. Coexistent cranial tuberculomas and tuberculosis of the cervix in a postmenopausal woman. Sex Transm Infect. 2003;79:496-7 pubmed
  79. Semlali S, El Quassar A, Atmane M, Benkirane N, Chakir N, El Hassani M, et al. [Pseudotumoral form of sclerochoroidal tuberculosis: a case report]. J Radiol. 2004;85:131-4 pubmed
    ..Ocular tuberculosis is rare, especially the pseudotumoral form. It can simulate a choroidal tumor. Radiologists should be familiar with this appearance because the lesion is reversible with antituberculous treatment...
  80. Sundaram C, Prasad V, Reddy J. Cerebral sparganosis. J Assoc Physicians India. 2003;51:1107-9 pubmed
    ..A diagnosis of sparganosis cerebral abscess was made. The case is reported in view of the rarity of cerebral sparganosis in India and the need for awareness of the entity in India...
  81. Marcos Sanchez F, Albo Castaño M, Joya Seijo D, Viana Alonso A, Juarez Ucelay F. [A new case of miliary tuberculosis]. An Med Interna. 2004;21:365-6 pubmed
  82. Doglietto F, Marchese E, Puca A, Vellone V, Tirpakova B, Sanguinetti M. Solitary choroid plexus tuberculoma in an adult patient. Case illustration. J Neurosurg. 2006;105:933 pubmed
  83. Abutaleb N, Obaideen A, Hamza A, Zakaria M, Afifi H, Fallata S, et al. Fatal hemorrhagic intracranial TB in a renal transplant recipient despite INH prophylaxis. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2007;18:594-8 pubmed
    ..Intracranial hemorrhage was drained and tissue staining revealed heavy loads of tuberculus (TB) bacilli. The patient died two weeks later from septic shock with multi-organ failure...
  84. Maheshwari V, Srivastava V, Prasad S, Alam K. Tuberculoma--A significant diagnostic entity in brain biopsies of intracranial space occupying lesions in children. J Trop Pediatr. 2002;48:242-4 pubmed publisher
  85. Sen S, Kashyap S, Singh U, NagaSuresh V, Chand M, Garg S. Intraocular tuberculosis mimicking retinoblastoma: a case report. Diagn Cytopathol. 2003;28:107-9 pubmed
  86. Shenoy S, Raja A. Concurrent intramedullary and intracerebral tuberculomas. Neurol India. 2004;52:514-6 pubmed
  87. Morgado C, Ruivo N. Imaging meningo-encephalic tuberculosis. Eur J Radiol. 2005;55:188-92 pubmed
    ..A high index of suspicion in the appropriate clinical and laboratorial setting may promote rapid diagnosis and institution of therapeutic measures that avoid death or serious neurological consequences...
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    ..The aim of this study was to provide a systematic review of Epstein-Barr virus-associated smooth muscle tumors (EBV-SMT) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults, focusing on clinical and histopathologic features and outcome...
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    ..Paradoxical appearance of new or expansion of existing optochiasmatic tuberculoma, leading to severe vision loss, is a devastating complication in patient with tuberculous meningitis...