pulmonary tuberculosis


Summary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.

Top Publications

  1. Xue Y, Jin L, Li A, Wang H, Li M, Zhang Y, et al. Microsatellite polymorphisms in intron 2 of the toll-like receptor 2 gene and their association with susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis in Han Chinese. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2010;48:785-9 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Our data suggest that the S/M genotype of the microsatellite (GT)n polymorphisms in intron 2 of the TLR2 gene may increase susceptibility to TB in Chinese, and the S/L genotype may act as a negative risk factor. ..
  2. Mupere E, Zalwango S, Chiunda A, Okwera A, Mugerwa R, Whalen C. Body composition among HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative adult patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Uganda. Ann Epidemiol. 2010;20:210-6 pubmed publisher
    ..human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection affects body cell mass and fat mass wasting among adults with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). We screened 967 Ugandan adults for PTB and HIV infection in a cross-sectional study...
  3. Najmi N, Kaur G, Sharma S, Mehra N. Human Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms TLR4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile influence susceptibility and severity of pulmonary tuberculosis in the Asian Indian population. Tissue Antigens. 2010;76:102-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the effect of these single nucleotide polymorphisms on susceptibility and severity of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in the Asian Indian population...
  4. Hall R, Leff R, Gumbo T. Treatment of active pulmonary tuberculosis in adults: current standards and recent advances. Insights from the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists. Pharmacotherapy. 2009;29:1468-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These patient factors, the covariates for pharmacokinetic variability, and PK-PD factors suggest the need to individualize therapy for patients with tuberculosis in order to optimize outcomes and reduce the duration of therapy. ..
  5. Ganachari M, Ruiz Morales J, Gomez de la Torre Pretell J, Dinh J, Granados J, Flores Villanueva P. Joint effect of MCP-1 genotype GG and MMP-1 genotype 2G/2G increases the likelihood of developing pulmonary tuberculosis in BCG-vaccinated individuals. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e8881 pubmed publisher
    ..MMP-1 may destabilize granuloma formation and promote tissue damage and disease progression early in the infection. Our findings may foster the development of new and personalized therapeutic approaches targeting MCP-1 and/or MMP-1. ..
  6. del Rosal T, Baquero Artigao F, García Miguel M, Méndez Echevarría A, López G, Aracil F, et al. Impact of immigration on pulmonary tuberculosis in Spanish children: a three-decade review. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010;29:648-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Retrospective review of patients diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis at La Paz Children's Hospital in a 30-year period...
  7. Sánchez Pérez H, Díaz Vázquez A, Nájera Ortiz J, Balandrano S, Martin Mateo M. Multidrug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis in Los Altos, Selva and Norte regions, Chiapas, Mexico. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2010;14:34-9 pubmed
    ..Cross-sectional study of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) from the above regions...
  8. Range N, Malenganisho W, Temu M, Changalucha J, Magnussen P, Krarup H, et al. Body composition of HIV-positive patients with pulmonary tuberculosis: a cross-sectional study in Mwanza, Tanzania. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2010;104:81-90 pubmed publisher
    ..There is need for a better understanding of the determinants and effects of loss of fat and lean body mass in HIV-positive tuberculosis. ..
  9. Mavhu W, Dauya E, Bandason T, Munyati S, Cowan F, Hart G, et al. Chronic cough and its association with TB-HIV co-infection: factors affecting help-seeking behaviour in Harare, Zimbabwe. Trop Med Int Health. 2010;15:574-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In men, deferred acceptance that a chronic cough should be investigated may be related to concepts of masculinity, especially when symptoms are mild. ..

More Information


  1. Lee H, Shin J, Kim J, Park I, Choi B, Choi J, et al. HRCT and whole-blood interferon-gamma assay for the rapid diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis. Respiration. 2010;79:454-60 pubmed publisher
    Early diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is critical for TB control, and difficult in patients with smear-negative sputum.
  2. Nzou C, Kambarami R, Onyango F, Ndhlovu C, Chikwasha V. Clinical predictors of low CD4 count among HIV infected pulmonary tuberculosis clients: a health facility-based survey. S Afr Med J. 2010;100:602-5 pubmed
    The study aimed to determine the clinical and laboratory predictors of a low CD4+ cell count (<200 cells/microl) in HIV-infected patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB).
  3. Shu C, Wu H, Yu M, Wang J, Lee C, Wang H, et al. Use of high-dose inhaled corticosteroids is associated with pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Medicine (Baltimore). 2010;89:53-61 pubmed publisher
    ..However, to our knowledge, the impact of high-dose ICS on pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) has never been investigated...
  4. Ruslami R, Nijland H, Adhiarta I, Kariadi S, Alisjahbana B, Aarnoutse R, et al. Pharmacokinetics of antituberculosis drugs in pulmonary tuberculosis patients with type 2 diabetes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:1068-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Further research is needed to determine the cause of increased tuberculosis treatment failure among diabetic patients...
  5. Liu Q, Chen X, Hu C, Zhang R, Yue J, Wu G, et al. Serum protein profiling of smear-positive and smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis using SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Lung. 2010;188:15-23 pubmed publisher
    The focus of this study was to detect novel sera biomarkers for smear-positive and smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis and to establish respective diagnostic models using the surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization time-of-flight ..
  6. Kuaban C, Bame R, Mouangue L, Djella S, Yomgni C. Non conversion of sputum smears in new smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Yaoundé, Cameroon. East Afr Med J. 2009;86:219-25 pubmed
    ..microbiological factors associated with the non conversion of sputum smears in new smear positive cases of pulmonary tuberculosis after two months of treatment and to evaluate the influence of non-smear conversion on treatment outcomes.
  7. Wu Y, Zhang S, Peng W, Li K, Li K, Jiang J, et al. Changes in lymphocyte subsets in the peripheral blood of patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis. J Int Med Res. 2009;37:1742-9 pubmed
    ..There were no statistically significant differences in the percentages of NK cells or CD4(+)CD28(+) cells between patients and controls. These results indicate that patients with active tuberculosis have altered lymphocyte homeostasis...
  8. Dilektasli A, Erdem E, Durukan E, Eyuboglu F. Feasibility of the T-SPOT.TB assay for the immunodiagnosis of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis using induced sputum. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2010;14:1205-8 pubmed
    ..Induced sputum T-SPOT.TB results were indeterminate in 72.6% of TB and 100% of healthy subjects. The T-SPOT.TB test in induced sputum samples does not seem a feasible method for diagnosing PTB and needs improvement...
  9. Das V, Pandey K, Verma N, Bimal S, Lal C, Singh D, et al. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), HIV and pulmonary tuberculosis. Natl Med J India. 2010;23:88-9 pubmed
    ..She was on treatment for leprosy and pulmonary tuberculosis for the past 2 months, but did not show any improvement...
  10. Wang L, Liu W, Wang L, Wang Y, Wu Z. HIV prevalence among pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Guangxi, China. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010;53 Suppl 1:S61-5 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the HIV prevalence rate among tuberculosis (TB) patients in Guangxi, China...
  11. Randremanana R, Richard V, Rakotomanana F, Sabatier P, Bicout D. Bayesian mapping of pulmonary tuberculosis in Antananarivo, Madagascar. BMC Infect Dis. 2010;10:21 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to explore this pattern further by a Bayesian approach, and to measure the associations between the spatial variation of TB risk and national control program indicators for all neighbourhoods...
  12. Kliiman K, Altraja A. Predictors and mortality associated with treatment default in pulmonary tuberculosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2010;14:454-63 pubmed
    To identify risk factors for default from pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) treatment and to assess mortality associated with default in Estonia.
  13. Zar H, Connell T, Nicol M. Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children: new advances. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2010;8:277-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Greater efforts to obtain a microbiologic diagnosis should be made in children, even in primary care settings. Further research to develop a more accurate, cost-effective and simple diagnostic test for childhood TB is urgently needed...
  14. Marchiori E, Grando R, Simões Dos Santos C, Maffazzioli Santos Balzan L, Zanetti G, Mano C, et al. Pulmonary tuberculosis associated with the reversed halo sign on high-resolution CT. Br J Radiol. 2010;83:e58-60 pubmed publisher
    We describe the case of a 32-year-old woman with pulmonary tuberculosis in whom a high-resolution CT scan demonstrated the reversed halo sign...
  15. Ramana Rao P, Rajasekaran S, Raja A. Natural killer cell-mediated cytokine response among HIV-positive south Indians with pulmonary tuberculosis. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2010;30:33-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The study included 30 subjects each of normal healthy subjects (NHS), pulmonary tuberculosis patients (TB), HIV-infected individuals (HIV), and HIV-TB co-infected patients (HIV-TB)...
  16. Srikanth P, Kamesh S, Daley P. Bleach optimization of sputum smear microscopy for pulmonary tuberculosis. Indian J Tuberc. 2009;56:174-84 pubmed
    ..An analysis of reports published earlier on the bleach method is also presented including a discussion on when and why the bleach method works...
  17. Kernodle D. Decrease in the effectiveness of Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine against pulmonary tuberculosis: a consequence of increased immune suppression by microbial antioxidants, not overattenuation. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;51:177-84 pubmed publisher
    ..of in vitro cultivation have long been suspected of reducing the efficacy of the BCG vaccine against pulmonary tuberculosis. Although concern was raised 6 decades ago that BCG had become overattenuated, preferential use of ..
  18. de Jong B, Adetifa I, Walther B, Hill P, Antonio M, Ota M, et al. Differences between tuberculosis cases infected with Mycobacterium africanum, West African type 2, relative to Euro-American Mycobacterium tuberculosis: an update. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2010;58:102-5 pubmed publisher
    Mycobacterium africanum (MAF) is a common cause of human pulmonary tuberculosis in West Africa. We previously described phenotypic differences between MAF and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) among 290 patients...
  19. Yang B, Zhuang B, Li F, Zhang C, Song A. [The relationship between monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 gene polymorphisms and the susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis]. Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi. 2009;32:454-6 pubmed
    To explore the possible relationship between the -2518 A/G single nucleotide polymorphisms in monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) gene of Chinese Han population and the susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis.
  20. Rafai M, Boulaajaj F, Gynerane M, El Moutawakkil B, Slassi I. Devic-like syndrome in the course of pulmonary tuberculosis. Acta Neurol Belg. 2010;110:196-200 pubmed
    Optic neuromyelitis or Devic's syndrome is a very rare disease affecting the optic tracts and the spinal cord. Its association with evolving pulmonary tuberculosis has been reported in a handful of case reports.
  21. Manfredi R, Nanetti A, Dal Monte P, Calza L. Increasing pathomorphism of pulmonary tuberculosis: an observational study of slow clinical, microbiological and imaging response of lung tuberculosis to specific treatment. Which role for linezolid?. Braz J Infect Dis. 2009;13:297-303 pubmed
    ..Since January 2006, at our reference centre we followed 81 consecutive cases of pulmonary tuberculosis, with 65 of them which remained evaluable for the absence of extrapulmonary complications, and a ..
  22. Hernandez J, Velazquez C, Valenzuela O, Robles Zepeda R, Ruiz Bustos E, Navarro M, et al. Low number of peripheral blood B lymphocytes in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Immunol Invest. 2010;39:197-205 pubmed publisher
    ..and T (CD3+) peripheral blood lymphocyte profiles and T-cell subsets (CD4+ and CD8+) in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Percentages (p = 0.02) and absolute numbers (p = 0...
  23. Panteix G, Gutierrez M, Boschiroli M, Rouviere M, Plaidy A, Pressac D, et al. Pulmonary tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium microti: a study of six recent cases in France. J Med Microbiol. 2010;59:984-9 pubmed publisher
    ..From a review of the literature and this study, a classical antituberculous therapy seems effective in treating patients with M. microti disease...
  24. Yamshchikov A, Kurbatova E, Kumari M, Blumberg H, Ziegler T, Ray S, et al. Vitamin D status and antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin (LL-37) concentrations in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;92:603-11 pubmed publisher
    ..D [25(OH)D] and LL-37 concentrations in 95 serum specimens from patients with culture-confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis and correlated these concentrations to clinical and demographic variables...
  25. Aamir S, Aisha -. Co-morbid anxiety and depression among pulmonary tuberculosis patients. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2010;20:703-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Fourteen (22%) TB patients with co-morbid anxiety and depression showed multi drug-resistance (MDR-TB)...
  26. Maguire G, Anstey N, Ardian M, Waramori G, Tjitra E, Kenangalem E, et al. Pulmonary tuberculosis, impaired lung function, disability and quality of life in a high-burden setting. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2009;13:1500-6 pubmed
    ..Tuberculosis treatment clinic in Papua, Indonesia...
  27. Chen Y, Hsiao C, Chen C, Chin C, Liu S, Wu C, et al. Toll-like receptor 2 gene polymorphisms, pulmonary tuberculosis, and natural killer cell counts. BMC Med Genet. 2010;11:17 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate whether the toll-like receptor 2 polymorphisms could influence susceptibility to pulmonary TB, its phenotypes, and blood lymphocyte subsets...
  28. Sant Anna C, March M, Barreto M, Pereira S, Schmidt C. Pulmonary tuberculosis in adolescents: radiographic features. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2009;13:1566-8 pubmed
    We studied radiographic features of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) described in the report forms for 907 adolescents from two Brazilian cities...
  29. Miki K, Maekura R, Hiraga T, Hashimoto H, Kitada S, Miki M, et al. Exertional dyspnea-related acidotic and sympathetic responses in patients with sequelae of pulmonary tuberculosis. J Physiol Sci. 2010;60:187-93 pubmed publisher
    ..443, p = 0.0012; r = 0.643, p < 0.0001, respectively, before and after the break point). In TBsq patients during exercise, increases in circulating NE levels and exertional acidosis were correlated with exertional dyspnea...
  30. Park S, Jeon K, Um S, Kwon O, Kang E, Koh W. Clinical utility of the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test for the diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis. Scand J Infect Dis. 2009;41:818-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, the QFT-IT test has limited usefulness in differentiating active pulmonary TB from non-tuberculous mycobacterial lung disease in areas with a high prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection...
  31. Wang H, Huang R, Zhao Y, Liu X. [The study on pulmonary tuberculosis knowledges and its influencing factors among middle school students of Three-Gorges Reservoir in Chongqing]. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2009;38:706-8 pubmed
    To investigate the pulmonary tuberculosis knowledge and its influencing factors among middle school students of Three-Gorges Reservoir poverty county in Chongqing, in order to provide basis for health education of tuberculosis knowledges.
  32. Yadav R, Rao V, Bhat J, Gopi P, Selvakumar N, Wares D. Prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis amongst the Baigas--a primitive tribe of Madhya Pradesh, Central India. Indian J Tuberc. 2010;57:114-6 pubmed
    ..A community-based cross-sectional tuberculosis (TB) disease prevalence survey was undertaken amongst the Baiga primitive tribal community of Baiga Chak in central India...
  33. Ralph A, Ardian M, Wiguna A, Maguire G, Becker N, Drogumuller G, et al. A simple, valid, numerical score for grading chest x-ray severity in adult smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis. Thorax. 2010;65:863-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to generate and validate a numerical score for grading chest x-ray (CXR) severity and predicting response to treatment in adults with smear-positive pulmonary TB...
  34. Chen T, Lu P, Lin W, Lin C, Lin S, Lin C, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis in hospitalized patients are affected by physician specialty and experience. Am J Med Sci. 2010;340:367-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Healthcare system delays in the diagnosis of tuberculosis can increase the risk of its nosocomial transmission. We aimed to determine whether different physicians' specialties and experience influenced this diagnostic delay...
  35. Dlugovitzky D, Notario R, Martinel Lamas D, Fiorenza G, Farroni M, Bogue C, et al. Immunotherapy with oral, heat-killed, Mycobacterium vaccae in patients with moderate to advanced pulmonary tuberculosis. Immunotherapy. 2010;2:159-69 pubmed publisher
    ..SRL172 (NCTC 11659) as an immunotherapeutic has been carried out in ten patients with moderate to advanced pulmonary tuberculosis at Carrasco Hospital, Argentina. Comparison was made between oral and injected M...
  36. Rao V, Gopi P, Bhat J, Selvakumar N, Yadav R, Tiwari B, et al. Pulmonary tuberculosis: a public health problem amongst the Saharia, a primitive tribe of Madhya Pradesh, Central India. Int J Infect Dis. 2010;14:e713-6 pubmed publisher
    To estimate the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) disease amongst the Saharia, a 'primitive' tribe of Madhya Pradesh, Central India.
  37. Wang J, Wang J, Tsai T, Hsu C, Yu C, Hsueh P, et al. Adding moxifloxacin is associated with a shorter time to culture conversion in pulmonary tuberculosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2010;14:65-71 pubmed
    To investigate whether adding moxifloxacin (MXF) to the standard anti-tuberculosis regimen can shorten the time to sputum culture conversion in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB).
  38. Naslednikova I, Urazova O, Voronkova O, Strelis A, Novitsky V, Nikulina E, et al. Allelic polymorphism of cytokine genes during pulmonary tuberculosis. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2009;148:175-80 pubmed
    ..in the IL12B gene are immunogenetic factors that have protective activity against susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis. Susceptibility to tuberculous infection is associated with A1A2 genotype of the polymorphic region +3953 ..
  39. Cattamanchi A, Davis J, Pai M, Huang L, Hopewell P, Steingart K. Does bleach processing increase the accuracy of sputum smear microscopy for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis?. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:2433-9 pubmed publisher
    ..of sputum prior to smear preparation has been reported to increase the yield of microscopy for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis, even in high-HIV-prevalence settings...
  40. Rao V, Bhat J, Yadav R, Gopi P, Selvakumar N, Wares D. Prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis among the Bharia, a primitive tribe of Madhya Pradesh, central India. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2010;14:368-70 pubmed
    A cross-sectional survey was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) among the primitive Bharia tribe of Madhya Pradesh, India...
  41. Lonnroth K, Castro K, Chakaya J, Chauhan L, Floyd K, Glaziou P, et al. Tuberculosis control and elimination 2010-50: cure, care, and social development. Lancet. 2010;375:1814-29 pubmed publisher
  42. Corbett E, Zezai A, Cheung Y, Bandason T, Dauya E, Munyati S, et al. Provider-initiated symptom screening for tuberculosis in Zimbabwe: diagnostic value and the effect of HIV status. Bull World Health Organ. 2010;88:13-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Even smear-positive TB may be missed by provider-initiated symptom screening, especially in HIV+ individuals. Symptom screening is useful for ruling out TB, but better TB diagnostics are urgently needed for resource-poor settings. ..
  43. Lawn S, Edwards D, Kranzer K, Vogt M, Bekker L, Wood R. Urine lipoarabinomannan assay for tuberculosis screening before antiretroviral therapy diagnostic yield and association with immune reconstitution disease. AIDS. 2009;23:1875-80 pubmed
    ..To assess the utility of urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) detection as a diagnostic screening test for tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-infected patients with advanced immuno deficiency and high prevalence of sputum smear-negative pulmonary disease...
  44. Cattamanchi A, Ssewenyana I, Davis J, Huang L, Worodria W, den Boon S, et al. Role of interferon-gamma release assays in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with advanced HIV infection. BMC Infect Dis. 2010;10:75 pubmed publisher
    ..Our objective was to examine the accuracy of a commercial IGRA for diagnosis of active tuberculosis in HIV-infected persons...
  45. Yimer S, Holm Hansen C, Yimaldu T, Bjune G. Health care seeking among pulmonary tuberculosis suspects and patients in rural Ethiopia: a community-based study. BMC Public Health. 2009;9:454 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to describe and analyze health care seeking among TB suspects and pulmonary TB (PTB) cases in a rural district of the Amhara Region in Ethiopia...
  46. Van Den Ende J, Mugabekazi J, Moreira J, Seryange E, Basinga P, Bisoffi Z, et al. Effect of applying a treatment threshold in a population. An example of pulmonary tuberculosis in Rwanda. J Eval Clin Pract. 2010;16:499-508 pubmed publisher
    ..effect in terms of harm because of false negatives and true and false positives of the application of a treatment threshold for pulmonary tuberculosis from a patient's perspective at different prevalence levels in a developing country.
  47. Sadki K, Lamsyah H, Rueda B, Akil E, Sadak A, Martin J, et al. Analysis of MIF, FCGR2A and FCGR3A gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis in Moroccan population. J Genet Genomics. 2010;37:257-64 pubmed publisher
    ..inhibitory factor (MIF), Fcg receptors CD16A (FCGR3A) and CD32A (FCGR2A) genes on susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in the Moroccan population, we analyzed 123 patients with PTB and 154 healthy controls...
  48. Senkoro M, Mfinanga S, Mørkve O. Smear microscopy and culture conversion rates among smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients by HIV status in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. BMC Infect Dis. 2010;10:210 pubmed publisher
    ..patients co infected with HIV, are available to predict the duration of time required for a smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patient to achieve sputum conversion after starting effective treatment...
  49. Majumdar A, Kamble P, Harinath B. Detection of circulating free and immune-complexed antigen in pulmonary tuberculosis using cocktail of antibodies to mycobacterium tuberculosis excretory secretory antigens by peroxidase enzyme immunoassay. Indian J Tuberc. 2010;57:67-74 pubmed
    ..Decreased sensitivity has been a limiting factor of antigen assay for detection of tuberculosis. Assay of more than one antigen may improve sensitivity of an assay...
  50. Mekonen M, Abate E, Aseffa A, Anagaw B, Elias D, Hailu E, et al. Identification of drug susceptibility pattern and mycobacterial species in sputum smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients with and without HIV co-infection in north west Ethiopia. Ethiop Med J. 2010;48:203-10 pubmed
  51. Lawson L, Thacher T, Yassin M, Onuoha N, Usman A, Emenyonu N, et al. Randomized controlled trial of zinc and vitamin A as co-adjuvants for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. Trop Med Int Health. 2010;15:1481-90 pubmed publisher
    To assess the efficacy of weekly zinc or zinc plus retinol as adjuncts for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis.
  52. Barniol J, Niemann S, Louis V, Brodhun B, Dreweck C, Richter E, et al. Transmission dynamics of pulmonary tuberculosis between autochthonous and immigrant sub-populations. BMC Infect Dis. 2009;9:197 pubmed publisher
    ..Besides, we assessed transmission in relation to social mixing using an innovative tool that measures the integration of immigrants into the local social environment...
  53. Walker C, Unwin N. Estimates of the impact of diabetes on the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis in different ethnic groups in England. Thorax. 2010;65:578-81 pubmed publisher
    There is good evidence that diabetes is a risk factor for pulmonary tuberculosis. In England, the rates of both diabetes and tuberculosis vary markedly by ethnic group.
  54. Wang J, Tang S, Shen H. Association of genetic polymorphisms in the IL12-IFNG pathway with susceptibility to and prognosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in a Chinese population. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2010;29:1291-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Results from this study demonstrate that genetic polymorphisms of the IL12-IFNG pathway may individually or jointly contribute to the susceptibility to and prognosis of pulmonary TB...
  55. Hernandez Pando R, Aguilar L, Smith I, Manganelli R. Immunogenicity and protection induced by a Mycobacterium tuberculosis sigE mutant in a BALB/c mouse model of progressive pulmonary tuberculosis. Infect Immun. 2010;78:3168-76 pubmed publisher
    ..tuberculosis (Beijing code 9501000). Taken together, our findings suggest that the sigE mutant is a very promising strain for the development of a new vaccine against tuberculosis...
  56. Wang C, Lin H, Lin S, Huang C, Liu C, Huang K, et al. MMP-1(-1607G) polymorphism as a risk factor for fibrosis after pulmonary tuberculosis in Taiwan. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2010;14:627-34 pubmed
    Several matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) polymorphisms favouring the development of lung fibrosis after pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) have been described.
  57. Maciel E, Brotto L, Sales C, Zandonade E, Sant Anna C. Gastric lavage in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children: a systematic review. Rev Saude Publica. 2010;44:735-42 pubmed
    To analyze standardization of gastric lavage protocols in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children.
  58. Jiang J, Liu B, Nasca P, Zeng X, Chen J, Zou X, et al. Smoking and risk of death due to pulmonary tuberculosis: a case-control comparison in 103 population centers in China. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2009;13:1530-5 pubmed
    ..To examine the relationship between smoking and the risk of tuberculosis (TB) mortality in a large population-based case-control study in China using an alternative control group selection design...
  59. Coelho A, Zamarioli L, Perandones C, Cuntiere I, Waldman E. Characteristics of pulmonary tuberculosis in a hyperendemic area: the city of Santos, Brasil. J Bras Pneumol. 2009;35:998-1007 pubmed
    To characterize the profile of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in the city of Santos, Brazil, according to biological, environmental and institutional factors.
  60. Banu S, Hossain A, Uddin M, Uddin M, Ahmed T, Khatun R, et al. Pulmonary tuberculosis and drug resistance in Dhaka central jail, the largest prison in Bangladesh. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10759 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), its drug resistance and risk factors in Dhaka Central Jail, the largest prison in Bangladesh.
  61. Kim H, Lee C, Shin S, Lee J, Kim Y, Chung H, et al. The impact of nutritional deficit on mortality of in-patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2010;14:79-85 pubmed
    ..A metropolitan governmental medical centre, Seoul, Republic of Korea...
  62. Lin C, Lin W, Chen T, Lu P, Huang P, Tsai Z, et al. Why is in-hospital diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis delayed in southern Taiwan?. J Formos Med Assoc. 2010;109:269-77 pubmed publisher
    In-hospital diagnosis delay (IHDD) of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) has a significant impact on nosocomial TB transmission. We investigated the risk factors associated with prolonged IHDD in Taiwan, a high-resource, mid-incidence area.