oral tuberculosis

Summary

Summary: Tuberculosis of the mouth, tongue, and salivary glands.

Top Publications

  1. Sethi A, Sareen D, Sabherwal A, Malhotra V. Primary parotid tuberculosis: varied clinical presentations. Oral Dis. 2006;12:213-5 pubmed
    ..The cases were diagnosed on the basis of histopathological evaluation and fine needle aspiration cytology. All the patients responded to four-drug antitubercular chemotherapy...
  2. Carnelio S, Rodrigues G. Primary lingual tuberculosis: a case report with review of literature. J Oral Sci. 2002;44:55-7 pubmed
    ..A case of primary tuberculosis of the tongue, an extremely rare entity is presented. The clinical manifestation, diagnosis and the response to antituberculous treatment are considered. The literature is also reviewed...
  3. Bhatt A, Jayakrishnan A. Tuberculous osteomyelitis of the mandible: a case report. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2001;11:304-8 pubmed
    ..We discuss of the diagnostic techniques, management and preventive measures, and stress the importance of history taking during clinical examination. ..
  4. Baldwin A, Foster M. Tuberculous parotitis. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2002;40:444-5 pubmed
    ..Tuberculosis, though rare, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a diffuse swelling of the parotid with enlarged cervical glands, particularly in young, feverish adults...
  5. Sriram G. Tuberculous ulcer of tongue with oral complications of oral antituberculous therapy. Indian J Dent Res. 2006;17:202 pubmed
  6. Rivera H, Correa M, Castillo Castillo S, Nikitakis N. Primary oral tuberculosis: a report of a case diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction. Oral Dis. 2003;9:46-8 pubmed
    We present a case of primary oral tuberculosis, affecting the maxillary gingiva and causing alveolar bone loss in a 34-year-old Colombian female patient...
  7. Von Arx D, Husain A. Oral tuberculosis. Br Dent J. 2001;190:420-2 pubmed
    ..Although rare, doctors and dentists should be aware of the possible occurrence of oral lesions of tuberculosis and consider them in the differential diagnosis of suspicious oral ulcers...
  8. Ebenezer J, Samuel R, Mathew G, Koshy S, Chacko R, Jesudason M. Primary oral tuberculosis: report of two cases. Indian J Dent Res. 2006;17:41-4 pubmed
    ..Primary oral tuberculosis may present as a diagnostic challenge for the clinician...
  9. Ito F, de Andrade C, Vargas P, Jorge J, Lopes M. Primary tuberculosis of the oral cavity. Oral Dis. 2005;11:50-3 pubmed
    ..Most of the cases are secondary to pulmonary disease and the primary form is uncommon. In this paper, we present a case of primary oral tuberculosis, affecting the floor of mouth in a 13-year-old Brazilian male patient.

More Information

Publications90

  1. Landa L, Kathju S, Nepomuceno Perez M, Gordon C, Sotereanos G. Tuberculous granuloma and adenoid cystic carcinoma presenting as a single buccal space mass. J Craniofac Surg. 2002;13:533-7 pubmed
    ..This revealed the presence of a concomitant malignancy, specifically adenoid cystic carcinoma. Definitive treatment was then achieved by surgical resection and flap reconstruction with postoperative radiation therapy. ..
  2. Ozcan C, Apa D, Aslan G, Gülhan S, Gorur K. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection within parotid gland Warthin tumor. J Craniofac Surg. 2008;19:1561-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We also discussed the possible mechanisms of development of infection within Warthin tumor...
  3. Ramírez Amador V, Anaya Saavedra G, González Ramírez I, Mosqueda Gómez J, Esquivel Pedraza L, Reyes Gutierrez E, et al. Lingual ulcer as the only sign of recurrent mycobacterial infection in an HIV/AIDS-infected patient. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2005;10:109-14 pubmed
    ..The particularity of the present case is that the lingual ulcer was the only sign of infection by mycobacteria, suggestive of TB, in an HIV/AIDS patient that probably represented a recurrence of a previous episode. ..
  4. Bekiroglu F, Whear N, Grew N. Tuberculosis of parotid gland. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007;45:345-6 pubmed
  5. NemeÅŸ R, IanoÅŸi E, Pop C, Postolache P, Streba C, Olteanu M, et al. Tuberculosis of the oral cavity. Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2015;56:521-5 pubmed
    ..Tuberculosis of the tongue sometimes can mimic lingual neoplasm. Oral tuberculosis is rarely primary as mechanism, and frequently secondary to pulmonary tuberculosis...
  6. Hodgson T, Rachanis C. Oral fungal and bacterial infections in HIV-infected individuals: an overview in Africa. Oral Dis. 2002;8 Suppl 2:80-7 pubmed
    ..The authors indicate specific research areas, initially directed at the most effective management strategies, which would complete data in this important area. ..
  7. Turner N, Dwarakanath A. Pyrexia of unknown origin: a swollen gland and a glass of milk. Hosp Med. 2002;63:502-3 pubmed
  8. Hashemi P, Rashidi A, Razmpa E. Tuberculosis of major salivary glands: report of a 7-year experience in Tehran, Iran. Int J Infect Dis. 2007;11:368-9 pubmed
  9. Yachouh J, Paty E, Rakotoarimanana J, Goudot P. [Atypical fissuration of the tongue]. Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac. 2005;106:253-4 pubmed
  10. Johnson N, Glick M, Mbuguye T. (A2) Oral health and general health. Adv Dent Res. 2006;19:118-21 pubmed
    ..The most significant conclusion of this Workshop is the need for all involved in oral health research and oral health care to be seen as, and to act as, essential partners in comprehensive care for whole patients and communities. ..
  11. Rodrigues G, Carnelio S, Valliathan M. Primary isolated gingival tuberculosis. Braz J Infect Dis. 2007;11:172-3 pubmed
    ..Medical treatment was curative. As this condition is very rare, it is often over looked as it is never thought as a common clinical diagnosis. A biopsy is mandatory to establish diagnosis. The relevant literature is reviewed. ..
  12. Papadogeorgakis N, Mylonas A, Kolomvos N, Angelopoulos A. Tuberculosis in or near the major salivary glands: report of 3 cases. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006;64:696-700 pubmed
  13. Rinaggio J. Tuberculosis. Dent Clin North Am. 2003;47:449-65, v pubmed
  14. Chou Y, Tiu C, Liu C, Hong T, Lin C, Chiou H, et al. Tuberculosis of the parotid gland: sonographic manifestations and sonographically guided aspiration. J Ultrasound Med. 2004;23:1275-81 pubmed
    ..Sonographically guided fine-needle aspiration may provide further diagnostic information by means of stains, cultures, and cytologic study. ..
  15. Hofman V, Selva E, Musso S, Odin J, Dellamonica P, Hofman P. [Tuberculosis: a rare and misleading etiology of tongue's ulcer]. Ann Pathol. 2003;23:261-5 pubmed
    ..Culture was negative. Tuberculosis of the tongue is a very rare condition with different differential diagnosis including carcinoma in smoker population or histoplasmosis in endemic area. ..
  16. Yepes J, Sullivan J, Pinto A. Tuberculosis: medical management update. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2004;98:267-73 pubmed
    ..Tuberculosis could be an occupational risk for health care workers. Dentists must be involved in the health promotion and early detection of TB. ..
  17. Yigit O, Cinar U, Uslu Coskun B, Basak T. Tuberculous ulcer of the tongue: a case report. Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg. 2004;13:98-101 pubmed
    ..In the differential diagnosis of nonhealing oral ulcers, tuberculosis should also be considered, especially in patients living in a high risk country for tuberculosis. ..
  18. El Ayoubi A, Benhammou A, El Ayoubi F, El Fahssi A, Nitassi S, Kohen A, et al. [Primary extranodal ENT tuberculosis]. Ann Otolaryngol Chir Cervicofac. 2009;126:208-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this sinusonasal study was to study several locations of ENT extranodal tuberculosis...
  19. Samaranayake P. Re-emergence of tuberculosis and its variants: implications for dentistry. Int Dent J. 2002;52:330-6 pubmed
  20. Caldart A, Adriano C, Caldart A, Mocellin M. Primary tuberculosis of the parotid gland. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2007;73:720 pubmed
  21. Tsai S, Hsu H. Parotid neoplasms: diagnosis, treatment, and intraparotid facial nerve anatomy. J Laryngol Otol. 2002;116:359-62 pubmed
    ..In addition, the facial nerve anatomy within the parotid gland had three main branching patterns in the upper and lower division. ..
  22. Soler A, Deig E, Vila M, Pedrol E. [Tuberculous ulcer in the hard palate of a patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection]. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2004;22:441-2 pubmed
  23. Mahajan S, Srikant N, George T. Atypical presentation of oral tuberculosis ulcer. N Y State Dent J. 2007;73:48-50 pubmed
    ..Antitubercular therapy improved the patient's condition. Although rare, tuberculosis must be considered as a differential diagnosis in chronic ulcers in the oral region; and its association with HIV must not be overlooked. ..
  24. Nagabhushana D, Balaji Rao B, Rajeshwari A, Mamatha G. Oral tuberculosis : a case report. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2003;21:16-8 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this article is to emphasize the importance of early diagnosis of primary tuberculosis of the mouth, which may be misdiagnosed when the oral lesions are the sole manifestation of the disease. ..
  25. Güzel M, Kilic A, Arslan H. Palatal fistula: a complication of primary tuberculous dacryoadenitis. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2008;61:1105-7 pubmed publisher
  26. Magotra A, Sharma A, Singh S, Ojha P, Kumar S, Bokolia N, et al. Physicochemical, pharmacokinetic, efficacy and toxicity profiling of a potential nitrofuranyl methyl piperazine derivative IIIM-MCD-211 for oral tuberculosis therapy via in-silico-in-vitro-in-vivo approach. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2018;48:151-160 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, amenable preclinical data make IIIM-MCD-211 ideal candidate for further development of oral anti-TB agent. ..
  27. de Aguiar M, Arrais M, Mato M, de Araujo V. Tuberculosis of the oral cavity: a case report. Quintessence Int. 1997;28:745-7 pubmed
    ..Through the differential diagnosis of oral ulcerations, the dentist can play a role in the early detection of tuberculosis...
  28. Vaid S, Lee Y, Rawat S, Luthra A, Shah D, Ahuja A. Tuberculosis in the head and neck--a forgotten differential diagnosis. Clin Radiol. 2010;65:73-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Early diagnosis and treatment can prevent irreversible and debilitating complications and mortality from disseminated tuberculosis...
  29. Kumar S, Sen R, Rawal A, Dahiya R, Dalal N, Kaushik S. Primary lingual tuberculosis in immunocompetent patient: a case report. Head Neck Pathol. 2010;4:178-80 pubmed publisher
    ..4%. The tongue is the most common site of oral tuberculosis having varied presentations...
  30. Ernst D, Bange F, Rana A, Baerlecken N, Puls F, Schmidt R, et al. [Reactivation of tuberculosis with Mycobacterium bovis infection of the oral mucosa during immunosuppression]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2010;135:1179-81 pubmed publisher
  31. Kolokotronis A, Avramidou E, Zaraboukas T, Mandraveli K, Alexiou S, Antoniades D. Oral tuberculosis associated with a treatment with anti-rheumatic drugs. J Oral Pathol Med. 2006;35:123-5 pubmed
    ..TNF-alpha plays a role in the host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and notably in granuloma formation. Infections occur at a high rate among those who use one or the combination of the two medications...
  32. Jervis P, Lee J, Bull P. Management of non-tuberculous mycobacterial peri-sialadenitis in children: the Sheffield otolaryngology experience. Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci. 2001;26:243-8 pubmed
  33. Sharma C, Pradeep A, Karthikeyan B. Primary tuberculosis clinically presenting as gingival enlargement: a case report. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2006;7:108-14 pubmed
    ..This is essential to avoid any serious complications for both the clinician and patient due to a delay in the diagnosis of such a rare but plausible oral condition...
  34. Bar T, Zagury A, London D, Shacham R, Nahlieli O. Calcifications simulating sialolithiasis of the major salivary glands. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2007;36:59-62 pubmed
    ..These cases together with several suggested diagnostic modalities are discussed in this paper...
  35. Tilakaratne W, Pitakotuwage T. Intra-oral Dirofilaria repens infection: report of seven cases. J Oral Pathol Med. 2003;32:502-5 pubmed
    ..The worm is usually dead and degenerated with a massive inflammatory cell infiltration. Seven new cases presented as intra-oral nodules with their clinicopathological correlation are discussed...
  36. Wang W, Chen J, Chen Y, Lin L. Tuberculosis of the head and neck: a review of 20 cases. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2009;107:381-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the present study was to retrospectively review the clinical features of patients diagnosed with TB of the head and neck during the past 16 years...
  37. Smolka W, Burger H, Iizuka T, Smolka K. Primary tuberculosis of the oral cavity in an elderly nonimmunosuppressed patient: case report and review of the literature. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2008;134:1107-9 pubmed publisher
  38. Cinar U, Seven H, Vural C, Basak T, Alkan S, Turgut S. Tuberculosis tonsillitis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2002;126:448-9 pubmed
  39. Mizutari K, Tsunoda K, Matsunaga T, Masuda K, Fujii R, Fujii M. Oropharyngeal tuberculosis. Intern Med J. 2008;38:449-50 pubmed publisher
  40. Alagarswamy R, Halfpenny W, Thiruchelvam J, Mohamid W. Rare presentation of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007;45:670-2 pubmed
    ..avium-intracellulare in a 53-year-old diabetic man. To our knowledge, this infection presenting as a palatal lump in a patient without HIV or pre-existing lung disease has not been previously reported...
  41. Brown R, Farquharson A, Nasseri S. Bilateral bone loss of the maxilla. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2003;96:6-11 pubmed
  42. Gupta P, Fotedar S, Agarwal D, Sansanwal P. Primary tuberculous glossitis in an immunocompetent patient. Hong Kong Med J. 2007;13:330-1 pubmed
    ..The patient had a favourable response to anti-tubercular treatment. This highlights the importance of considering tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis of chronic tongue lesions, even in the absence of pulmonary tuberculosis...
  43. Sareen D, Sethi A, Agarwal A. Primary tuberculosis of the tongue: a rare nodular presentation. Br Dent J. 2006;200:321-2 pubmed
    ..The lesion was diagnosed to be of tuberculous origin and the patient responded well to anti-tubercular chemotherapy...
  44. Iype E, Ramdas K, Pandey M, Jayasree K, Thomas G, Sebastian P, et al. Primary tuberculosis of the tongue: report of three cases. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2001;39:402-3 pubmed
    ..Tuberculosis of the oral cavity is uncommon and poses a diagnostic challenge. We report three patients with primary tuberculosis of the tongue, all of whom responded well to treatment and were cured...
  45. Furugen M, Nakamura H, Tamaki Y, Haranaga S, Yara S, Higa F, et al. [Tuberculosis of the tongue initially suspected of tongue cancer: a case report--including the search for recent 16 cases in Japan]. Kekkaku. 2009;84:605-10 pubmed
  46. Scott P, Middlefell L, Fabbroni G, Mitchell D. Interesting case: oral presentation of tuberculosis. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2005;43:492 pubmed
  47. Miziara I. Tuberculosis affecting the oral cavity in Brazilian HIV-infected patients. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2005;100:179-82 pubmed
    ..Group, Ear, Nose, and Throat Department, São Paulo University Medical School, who had a diagnosis of oral tuberculosis, between 1991 and 2002...
  48. Nortje C. General practitioner's radiology case 31. Atypical tuberculosis. SADJ. 2005;60:171 pubmed
  49. Maragou C, Theologie Lygidakis N, Ioannidis P, Stenou A, Kanavaki S, Iatrou I, et al. Primary tooth abscess caused by Mycobacterium bovis in an immunocompetent child. Eur J Pediatr. 2010;169:1143-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We present the unusual case of an immunocompetent 6-year-old child residing in an urban area with primary oral tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis, which was confirmed by the application of a molecular genetic approach. M...
  50. Bottini D, Garelli A, Felici M, Galante V, Cervelli V. Primary tuberculosis of submandibular gland. J Craniofac Surg. 2007;18:218-9 pubmed
    ..Diagnosis of this kind of disease is extremely difficult and is made with certainty only with the histologic examination, as happened in our case...
  51. Suleiman A. Tuberculous parotitis: report of 3 cases. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2001;39:320-3 pubmed
    ..The diagnosis of tuberculosis was confirmed by the finding of tubercle bacilli in the lesion or the sputum. They all responded well to standard antituberculous drugs...
  52. Menon K, Bem C, Gouldesbrough D, Strachan D. A clinical review of 128 cases of head and neck tuberculosis presenting over a 10-year period in Bradford, UK. J Laryngol Otol. 2007;121:362-8 pubmed
    ..To analyse the epidemiology, presentation and diagnosis of head and neck tuberculosis (TB)...
  53. Lee I, Liu J. Tuberculous parotitis: case report and literature review. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2005;114:547-51 pubmed
    ..Our aim was to better understand the rarely encountered tuberculous (TB) parotitis...
  54. Oudidi A, Ridal M, Hachimi H, el Alami M. [Tuberculosis of the parotid gland]. Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac. 2006;107:152-5 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study is to emphasize the difficulties of diagnosing parotid gland tuberculosis because of its non specific symptoms and to incite the physician to seek it more frequently...
  55. Moure C, Mbuyamba S, Bruniau A, Gbaguidi C, Testelin S, Boutemy M, et al. [Tuberculosis of the submandibular gland: a case report]. Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac. 2006;107:115-8 pubmed
    ..After a certain decline, its incidence has remained unchanged since 1990. 30% of tuberculosis cases are extra-pulmonary form, most of them concern nodes especially in cervical areas...
  56. Silverman S. HIV and AIDS in children and adolescents. Alpha Omegan. 2005;98:43-5 pubmed
  57. Memon G, Khushk I. Primary tuberculosis of tongue. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2003;13:604-5 pubmed
    ..Initial biopsy and histopathological examination revealed non-specific inflammation. After surgery, biopsy report proved primary tuberculosis of tongue. Anti-tubercular therapy for nine months showed uneventful recovery of the patient...
  58. Umadevi M, Adeyemi O, Patel M, Reichart P, Robinson P. (B2) Periodontal diseases and other bacterial infections. Adv Dent Res. 2006;19:139-45 pubmed
    ..It is necessary to design collaborative multi-center longitudinal studies. The results obtained from such large sample sizes can contribute eventually to interpretation of the outcome...
  59. Karthikeyan B, Pradeep A, Sharma C. Primary tuberculous gingival enlargement: a rare entity. J Can Dent Assoc. 2006;72:645-8 pubmed
    ..After 1-year follow-up there was no recurrence of the disease. This case emphasizes the need for dentists to include tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis of gingival enlargement so that they may play a role in its early detection...
  60. Andreadis D, Epivatianos A, Poulopoulos A, Nomikos A, Papazoglou G, Antoniades D, et al. Detection of C-KIT (CD117) molecule in benign and malignant salivary gland tumours. Oral Oncol. 2006;42:57-65 pubmed
  61. Gill J, Sandhu S, Gill S. Primary tuberculosis masquerading as gingival enlargement. Br Dent J. 2010;208:343-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Early detection and prompt treatment is the key for management of this highly infectious and communicable disease...
  62. Feller L, Anagnostopoulos C, Bouckaert M, Raubenheimer E. HIV/TB co-infection: literature review and report of multiple tuberculosis oral ulcers. SADJ. 2005;60:330-2, 343 pubmed
  63. Chan A, Ma T, Yu B, King A, Ho F, Tse G. Nasopharyngeal granulomatous inflammation and tuberculosis complicating undifferentiated carcinoma. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2004;130:125-30 pubmed
    ..Four cases of nasopharyngeal granulomatous inflammation after radiotherapy for undifferentiated carcinoma were analyzed for tuberculosis, and the histologic features were compared...
  64. Tovaru S, Costache M, Sardella A. Primary oral tuberculosis: a case series from Bucharest, Romania. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2008;105:e41-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, although primary oral TB was previously considered a disease of the young, these cases demonstrate that it may occur in subjects of all ages...
  65. Erbaycu A, Taymaz Z, Tuksavul F, Afrashi A, Güçlü S. What happens when oral tuberculosis is not treated?. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis. 2007;67:116-8 pubmed
    ..Although unusual oral cavity manifestations of TB are rare, clinicians should be aware of possible occurrance...
  66. Brook I. Acute bacterial suppurative parotitis: microbiology and management. J Craniofac Surg. 2003;14:37-40 pubmed
    ..The choice of antimicrobial depends on the etiologic agent. Maintenance of good oral hygiene, adequate hydration, and early and proper therapy of bacterial infection of the oropharynx may reduce the occurrence of suppurative parotitis...
  67. Garg R, Singhal P. Primary tuberculosis of the tongue: a case report. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2007;8:74-80 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this article is to report a rare case of primary tuberculosis of the tongue...
  68. Vidal M, Delevaux I, Andre M, Marroun I, Gavet F, Voinchet H, et al. [Lingual tuberculosis revealing disseminated tuberculosis]. Rev Med Interne. 2007;28:124-6 pubmed
    ..Tuberculous lesions of the oral cavity are uncommon. Most of cases are secondary to pulmonary disease and the primary form is rare...
  69. Saarinen R, Kolho K, Pitkaranta A. Cases presenting as parotid abscesses in children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2007;71:897-901 pubmed
    ..A parotid abscess is a rare complication of acute suppurative parotitis which most often requires hospitalization, intravenous antibiotic therapy, and surgical drainage...
  70. Koffi S, Kouassi A, Faye Kette H, Kouassi M bengue A, Ahui J, Aka Danguy E. [Tuberculosis of the oral mucosa in an HIV/AIDS patient]. Med Mal Infect. 2008;38:167-8 pubmed publisher
  71. Eguchi J, Ishihara K, Watanabe A, Fukumoto Y, Okuda K. PCR method is essential for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis in oral cavity samples. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2003;18:156-9 pubmed
    ..tuberculosis, but strains of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis, and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans did not. The present study concludes that the PCR method is essential for detecting M. tuberculosis in oral samples...
  72. Kakisi O, Kechagia A, Kakisis I, Rafailidis P, Falagas M. Tuberculosis of the oral cavity: a systematic review. Eur J Oral Sci. 2010;118:103-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Diagnostic work-up for systemic involvement and control of healthcare-associated spread is important, while therapeutic options are still considered adequate...
  73. Bradley P. Benign salivary gland disease. Hosp Med. 2001;62:392-5 pubmed
    ..However, there are numerous minor salivary glands located in the mucosa of the head and neck which have the same predilection to the same diseases that affect the major glands but to a lesser frequency...
  74. Pekiner F, Erseven G, Borahan M, Gumru B. Natural barrier in primary tuberculosis inoculation: oral mucous membrane. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2006;10:1418 pubmed
  75. Vargas P, Villalba H, Passos A, Saldiva P, Mauad T, Caiaffa Filho H, et al. Simultaneous occurrence of lymphoepithelial cysts, cytomegalovirus and mycobacterial infections in the intraparotid lymph nodes of a patient with AIDS. J Oral Pathol Med. 2001;30:507-9 pubmed
    ..These data emphasize that in immunosuppressed patients, simultaneous diseases of the parotid gland may occur and should be considered for diagnosis and treatment...
  76. Sezer B, Zeytinoglu M, Tuncay U, Unal T. Oral mucosal ulceration: a manifestation of previously undiagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis. J Am Dent Assoc. 2004;135:336-40 pubmed
    ..Tuberculosis, or TB, is a chronic infectious disease that can affect any part of the body, including the mouth. Oral lesions may be the only finding of primary pulmonary TB, in which case proper diagnosis by dentists is vital...
  77. Cheuk W, Chan J. Kuttner tumor of the submandibular gland: fine-needle aspiration cytologic findings of seven cases. Am J Clin Pathol. 2002;117:103-8 pubmed
    ..In combination with the clinical findings, the fine-needle aspiration cytologic findings can strongly suggest the diagnosis of Kuttner tumor and may obviate the need of surgical intervention...
  78. Mehta D, Willging J. Pediatric salivary gland lesions. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2006;15:76-84 pubmed
    ..As such, establishing a definitive diagnosis is often quite challenging. This article reviews widely used diagnostic approaches and briefly describes various salivary gland lesions within an etiologic framework...
  79. Chirch L, Ahmad K, Spinner W, Jimenez V, Donelan S, Smouha E. Tuberculous otitis media: report of 2 cases on Long Island, N.Y., and a review of all cases reported in the United States from 1990 through 2003. Ear Nose Throat J. 2005;84:488, 490, 492 passim pubmed
    ..Clinicians should maintain a high degree of suspicion for tuberculosis in patients with chronic otitis symptoms, particularly those who are at higher risk of exposure to tuberculosis...
  80. Janmeja A, Das S, Kochhar S, Handa U. Tuberculosis of the parotid gland. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci. 2003;45:67-9 pubmed
    ..An early diagnosis can avoid parotidectomy, which can be a hazardous procedure in a medically treatable condition...
  81. Handa U, Kumar S, Punia R, Mohan H, Abrol R, Saini V. Tuberculous parotitis: a series of five cases diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology. J Laryngol Otol. 2001;115:235-7 pubmed
    ..Parotid gland tuberculosis is still a rare entity and has mostly been diagnosed after parotidectomy. We present five cases which were diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and managed medically avoiding surgical intervention...