multidrug resistant tuberculosis

Summary

Summary: Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.

Top Publications

  1. Wright A, Zignol M, van Deun A, Falzon D, Gerdes S, Feldman K, et al. Epidemiology of antituberculosis drug resistance 2002-07: an updated analysis of the Global Project on Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Surveillance. Lancet. 2009;373:1861-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The Global Project on Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance has been gathering data since 1994. This study provides the latest data on the extent of drug resistance worldwide...
  2. Nic Fhogartaigh C, Vargas Prada S, Huancaré V, Lopez S, Rodriguez J, Moore D. Physician-initiated courtesy MODS testing for TB and MDR-TB diagnosis and patient management. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2008;12:555-60 pubmed
    ..Laboratorio de Investigación de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia (UPCH) and government health centres, Lima, Peru...
  3. Cohen T, Colijn C, Wright A, Zignol M, Pym A, Murray M. Challenges in estimating the total burden of drug-resistant tuberculosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008;177:1302-6 pubmed publisher
  4. Keshavjee S, Gelmanova I, Farmer P, Mishustin S, Strelis A, Andreev Y, et al. Treatment of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in Tomsk, Russia: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet. 2008;372:1403-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains that cause untreatable drug-resistant disease are a threat worldwide. We describe the treatment, management, and outcomes of patients with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in Tomsk, Russia...
  5. Kwon Y, Kim Y, Suh G, Chung M, Kim H, Kwon O, et al. Treatment outcomes for HIV-uninfected patients with multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;47:496-502 pubmed publisher
    ..Multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) is more difficult to treat than is drug-susceptible TB. To elucidate the optimal therapy for MDR TB, we assessed the treatment outcomes and prognostic factors for patients with MDR TB...
  6. Orenstein E, Basu S, Shah N, Andrews J, Friedland G, Moll A, et al. Treatment outcomes among patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2009;9:153-61 pubmed publisher
    ..These results underscore the importance of strong patient support and treatment follow-up systems to develop successful MDR tuberculosis treatment programmes...
  7. Temple B, Ayakaka I, Ogwang S, Nabanjja H, Kayes S, Nakubulwa S, et al. Rate and amplification of drug resistance among previously-treated patients with tuberculosis in Kampala, Uganda. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;47:1126-34 pubmed publisher
    ..There is a need to measure the extent of and risk factors for drug resistance in such patients...
  8. Affolabi D, Odoun M, Sanoussi N, Martin A, Palomino J, Kestens L, et al. Rapid and inexpensive detection of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis with the nitrate reductase assay using liquid medium and direct application to sputum samples. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:3243-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In total 56% of the results were obtained in 10 days by the NRA. NRA performed in liquid medium is rapid and inexpensive and can be easily implemented in low-income countries...
  9. Shean K, Willcox P, Siwendu S, Laserson K, Gross L, Kammerer S, et al. Treatment outcome and follow-up of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients, West Coast/Winelands, South Africa, 1992-2002. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2008;12:1182-9 pubmed
    ..Brooklyn Chest Hospital, Western Cape, South Africa...

More Information

Publications72

  1. Evans J, Stead M, Nicol M, Segal H. Rapid genotypic assays to identify drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in South Africa. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2009;63:11-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the efficacy of such assays in this setting, the GenoType MTBDRplus assay (HAIN Lifescience) and multiplex allele-specific PCR assays were carried out...
  2. He G, Zhao Y, Jiang G, Liu Y, Xia H, Wang S, et al. Prevalence of tuberculosis drug resistance in 10 provinces of China. BMC Infect Dis. 2008;8:166 pubmed publisher
    ..The emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) hampers TB control. Ten provinces in China performed drug resistance surveys among tuberculosis (TB) patients in 1996-2004 to assess levels of drug resistance...
  3. Masjedi M, Tabarsi P, Chitsaz E, Baghaei P, Mirsaeidi M, Amiri M, et al. Outcome of treatment of MDR-TB patients with standardised regimens, Iran, 2002-2006. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2008;12:750-5 pubmed
    ..There is still no consensus on the subject, with controversies regarding treatment protocols, treatment outcomes and the various treatment regimens...
  4. Vijdea R, Stegger M, Sosnovskaja A, Andersen A, Thomsen V, Bang D. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: rapid detection of resistance to rifampin and high or low levels of isoniazid in clinical specimens and isolates. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2008;27:1079-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The assay was rapid, easy to perform and directly applicable in smear-positive specimens. We predict that the assay may be a useful tool to combat and prevent new cases of multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis...
  5. Cohen T, Colijn C, Finklea B, Wright A, Zignol M, Pym A, et al. Are survey-based estimates of the burden of drug resistant TB too low? Insight from a simulation study. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2363 pubmed publisher
  6. French C, Glynn J, Kruijshaar M, Ditah I, Delpech V, Abubakar I. The association between HIV and antituberculosis drug resistance. Eur Respir J. 2008;32:718-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to some previous studies, this large, up-to-date study provides little evidence that HIV co-infected tuberculosis patients in England and Wales are at increased risk of firstline antituberculosis drug resistance...
  7. Murphy R. The emerging crisis of drug-resistant tuberculosis in South Africa: lessons from New York City. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46:1729-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Unlike many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, South Africa has the capacity to mount a rapid and large-scale response before drug-resistant tuberculosis envelops a much larger and far poorer region...
  8. Huyen M, Tiemersma E, Lan N, Cobelens F, Dung N, Sy D, et al. Validation of the GenoType MTBDRplus assay for diagnosis of multidrug resistant tuberculosis in South Vietnam. BMC Infect Dis. 2010;10:149 pubmed publisher
    To control multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), the drug susceptibility profile is needed to guide therapy. Classical drug susceptibility testing (DST) may take up to 2 to 4 months...
  9. Mitnick C, Shin S, Seung K, Rich M, Atwood S, Furin J, et al. Comprehensive treatment of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. N Engl J Med. 2008;359:563-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe the management of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis and treatment outcomes among patients who were referred for individualized outpatient therapy in Peru...
  10. Hu Y, Mathema B, Wang W, Hoffner S, Kreiswirth B, Xu B. Prevalence of multidrug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis in counties with different duration of DOTS implementation in rural China. Microb Drug Resist. 2008;14:227-32 pubmed publisher
  11. Mdivani N, Zangaladze E, Volkova N, Kourbatova E, Jibuti T, Shubladze N, et al. High prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Georgia. Int J Infect Dis. 2008;12:635-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Tuberculosis (TB) has emerged as a serious public health problem in the country of Georgia. However, little or no data exist on rates and risk factors for drug-resistant TB, including multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB, in Georgia...
  12. Migliori G, Lange C, Girardi E, Centis R, Besozzi G, Kliiman K, et al. Fluoroquinolones: are they essential to treat multidrug-resistant tuberculosis?. Eur Respir J. 2008;31:904-5 pubmed publisher
  13. Ano H, Matsumoto T, Suetake T, Nagai T, Tamura Y, Takamatsu I, et al. Relationship between the isoniazid-resistant mutation katGS315T and the prevalence of MDR-/XDR-TB in Osaka, Japan. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2008;12:1300-5 pubmed
    ..To determine the prevalence of katGS315T mutations in isoniazid (INH) resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and to elucidate the association of katGS315T mutations with the prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB)...
  14. He G, Xie Y, Wang L, Borgdorff M, van der Werf M, Fan J, et al. Follow-up of patients with multidrug resistant tuberculosis four years after standardized first-line drug treatment. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10799 pubmed publisher
    ..Multi-drug resistant (MDR) TB was detected in 7.2% of new and 30.4% of retreatment patients. All received treatment with standardized first-line drug (FLD) regimens...
  15. Varela G, González S, Gadea P, Coitinho C, Mota I, Gonzalez G, et al. Prevalence and dissemination of the Ser315Thr substitution within the KatG enzyme in isoniazid-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated in Uruguay. J Med Microbiol. 2008;57:1518-22 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings are in agreement with published data from regions where the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) is intermediate and may be due in part to the success of the local TB control programme...
  16. Bwanga F, Hoffner S, Haile M, Joloba M. Direct susceptibility testing for multi drug resistant tuberculosis: a meta-analysis. BMC Infect Dis. 2009;9:67 pubmed publisher
  17. Huang W, Chen H, Kuo Y, Jou R. Performance assessment of the GenoType MTBDRplus test and DNA sequencing in detection of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:2520-4 pubmed publisher
    ..001). We suggest that new alleles of INH resistance genes should be evaluated to improve the sensitivity of the GenoType MTBDRplus test, especially for different geographic areas with genetically diverse M. tuberculosis strains...
  18. Lawson L, Habib A, Okobi M, Idiong D, Olajide I, Emenyonu N, et al. Pilot study on multidrug resistant tuberculosis in Nigeria. Ann Afr Med. 2010;9:184-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Drug resistant tuberculosis (TB) has lately emerged and it represents a serious public health problem. We set out to determine drug resistance among TB patients...
  19. Mitnick C, Appleton S, Shin S. Epidemiology and treatment of multidrug resistant tuberculosis. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2008;29:499-524 pubmed publisher
    b>Multidrug resistant tuberculosis is now thought to afflict between 1 and 2 million patients annually...
  20. D souza D, Mistry N, Vira T, Dholakia Y, Hoffner S, Pasvol G, et al. High levels of multidrug resistant tuberculosis in new and treatment-failure patients from the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme in an urban metropolis (Mumbai) in Western India. BMC Public Health. 2009;9:211 pubmed publisher
    India, China and Russia account for more than 62% of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) globally...
  21. Buu T, Huyen M, Lan N, Quy H, Hen N, Zignol M, et al. The Beijing genotype is associated with young age and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in rural Vietnam. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2009;13:900-6 pubmed
  22. Ghebremichael S, Petersson R, Koivula T, Pennhag A, Romanus V, Berggren I, et al. Molecular epidemiology of drug-resistant tuberculosis in Sweden. Microbes Infect. 2008;10:699-705 pubmed publisher
    ..To identify chains of transmission, molecular epidemiological characterization of TB isolates should, if possible, be performed on isolates from all new TB patients...
  23. Bifani P, Mathema B, Kurepina N, Shashkina E, Bertout J, Blanchis A, et al. The evolution of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: from a mono-rifampin-resistant cluster into increasingly multidrug-resistant variants in an HIV-seropositive population. J Infect Dis. 2008;198:90-4 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that host factors, such as HIV status, may allow dissemination of mono-RIF(R) strains and facilitate the accumulation of additional drug resistance...
  24. KLIIMAN K, Altraja A. Predictors of extensively drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis. Ann Intern Med. 2009;150:766-75 pubmed
    ..About 40 000 cases of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis emerge worldwide annually, but the predictors of extensive drug resistance are unclear...
  25. Boonaiam S, Chaiprasert A, Prammananan T, Leechawengwongs M. Genotypic analysis of genes associated with isoniazid and ethionamide resistance in MDR-TB isolates from Thailand. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2010;16:396-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Of 24 ethionamide-resistant isolates, 13 had mutations in the ethA gene. However, these mutations were dispersed along the entire gene, with no codon predominating significantly...
  26. Shah N, Pratt R, Armstrong L, Robison V, Castro K, Cegielski J. Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in the United States, 1993-2007. JAMA. 2008;300:2153-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Worldwide emergence of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has raised global public health concern, given the limited therapy options and high mortality...
  27. Tho D, Ha D, Duy P, Lan N, Hoa D, Chau N, et al. Comparison of MAS-PCR and GenoType MTBDR assay for the detection of rifampicin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2008;12:1306-12 pubmed
    ..Pham Ngoc Thach Hospital for Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases, the tertiary referral hospital for tuberculosis (TB) in Southern Vietnam...
  28. Loveday M, Thomson L, Chopra M, Ndlela Z. A health systems assessment of the KwaZulu-Natal tuberculosis programme in the context of increasing drug resistance. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2008;12:1042-7 pubmed
    ..High mortality and high transmission rates of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) in KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa have highlighted the role of hospitals in the spread of TB and drug-resistant TB...
  29. Oeltmann J, Varma J, Ortega L, Liu Y, O Rourke T, Cano M, et al. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis outbreak among US-bound Hmong refugees, Thailand, 2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:1715-21 pubmed publisher
    ..An MDR TB outbreak among US-bound refugees led to importation of disease; enhanced pre-immigration TB screening and treatment decreased subsequent importation...
  30. Chan E, Strand M, Iseman M. Treatment outcomes in extensively resistant tuberculosis. N Engl J Med. 2008;359:657-9 pubmed publisher
  31. Vree M, Huong N, Duong B, Sy D, Van L, Hung N, et al. Survival and relapse rate of tuberculosis patients who successfully completed treatment in Vietnam. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2007;11:392-7 pubmed
    ..9%, 95%CI 6.6-14). A substantial proportion of patients (15%) had died or relapsed after being successfully treated for TB in northern Vietnam. ..
  32. Sun Y, Lee A, Wong S, Heersma H, Kremer K, van Soolingen D, et al. Genotype and phenotype relationships and transmission analysis of drug-resistant tuberculosis in Singapore. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2007;11:436-42 pubmed
    ..However, the overall transmission rate of DR-TB in Singapore is low. ..
  33. Markel H, Gostin L, Fidler D. Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis: an isolation order, public health powers, and a global crisis. JAMA. 2007;298:83-6 pubmed
  34. Migliori G, Lange C, Girardi E, Centis R, Besozzi G, KLIIMAN K, et al. Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis is worse than multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: different methodology and settings, same results. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46:958-9 pubmed publisher
  35. Yew W, Chau C, Wen K. Linezolid in the treatment of 'difficult' multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2008;12:345-6 pubmed
  36. Nikolayevskyy V, Brown T, Bazhora Y, Asmolov A, Balabanova Y, Drobniewski F. Molecular epidemiology and prevalence of mutations conferring rifampicin and isoniazid resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains from the southern Ukraine. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2007;13:129-138 pubmed publisher
    ..4% vs. 45.7%; RR 1.74; 95% CI 1.17-2.57), suggesting that this group may be responsible for rapid transmission of MDR TB in the southern Ukraine. ..
  37. Shah N, Wright A, Bai G, Barrera L, Boulahbal F, Martin Casabona N, et al. Worldwide emergence of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:380-7 pubmed
    ..9%) met criteria for XDR TB. Further investigation of population-based trends and expanded efforts to prevent drug resistance and effectively treat patients with MDR TB are crucial for protection of public health and control of TB. ..
  38. Wang F, Langley R, Gulten G, Dover L, Besra G, Jacobs W, et al. Mechanism of thioamide drug action against tuberculosis and leprosy. J Exp Med. 2007;204:73-8 pubmed publisher
    ..tuberculosis and M. leprae InhA. Knowledge of the precise structures and mechanisms of action of these drugs provides insights into designing new drugs that can overcome drug resistance...
  39. Basu S, Andrews J, Poolman E, Gandhi N, Shah N, Moll A, et al. Prevention of nosocomial transmission of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in rural South African district hospitals: an epidemiological modelling study. Lancet. 2007;370:1500-7 pubmed
    ..XDR tuberculosis transmission will probably continue in the community, indicating the need to develop and implement parallel community-based programmes. ..
  40. Marttila H, Makinen J, Marjamäki M, Ruutu P, Soini H. Molecular genetics of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Finland, 1995-2004. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2008;12:338-43 pubmed
    ..Screening of mutations that confer INH and RMP resistance seems to be feasible if risk factors for multidrug resistance exist. ..
  41. Kim H, Hwang S, Kim H, Lee S, Yoo C, Kim Y, et al. Impact of extensive drug resistance on treatment outcomes in non-HIV-infected patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45:1290-5 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to elucidate the impact of extensive drug resistance on treatment outcomes in non-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB)...
  42. Singh J, Upshur R, Padayatchi N. XDR-TB in South Africa: no time for denial or complacency. PLoS Med. 2007;4:e50 pubmed
  43. Raviglione M, Smith I. XDR tuberculosis--implications for global public health. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:656-9 pubmed
  44. Cox H, Kalon S, Allamuratova S, Sizaire V, Tigay Z, Rüsch Gerdes S, et al. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment outcomes in Karakalpakstan, Uzbekistan: treatment complexity and XDR-TB among treatment failures. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e1126 pubmed
    ..A pilot programme to treat multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) was implemented in Karakalpakstan, Uzbekistan in 2003. This region has particularly high levels of MDR-TB, with 13% and 40% among new and previously treated cases, respectively...
  45. Rodrigues C, Shenai S, Sadani M, Thakkar P, Sodha A, Udwadia Z, et al. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Mumbai: it's only getting worse. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2006;10:1421-2 pubmed
  46. Cobelens F. Tuberculosis risks for health care workers in Africa. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44:324-6 pubmed
  47. Shin S, Pasechnikov A, Gelmanova I, Peremitin G, Strelis A, Mishustin S, et al. Adverse reactions among patients being treated for MDR-TB in Tomsk, Russia. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2007;11:1314-20 pubmed
    ..Treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is challenging because of the toxicity of second-line medications. Little is known about whether adverse events impact treatment outcome...
  48. Sakoane R. XDR-TB in South Africa: back to TB sanatoria perhaps?. PLoS Med. 2007;4:e160 pubmed
  49. Bai G, Park Y, Choi Y, Bai J, Kim H, Chang C, et al. Trend of anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in Korea, 1994-2004. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2007;11:571-6 pubmed
    ..The 245 health centres through which the National Tuberculosis Programme (NTP) is implemented in Korea and the TB Laboratory Network of the Korean National Tuberculosis Association...
  50. Barnard M, Albert H, Coetzee G, O BRIEN R, Bosman M. Rapid molecular screening for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in a high-volume public health laboratory in South Africa. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008;177:787-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Conventional methods for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance take weeks to months to produce results. Rapid molecular testing for drug resistance is available but has not been implemented in high-TB-burden settings...
  51. Zager E, McNerney R. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. BMC Infect Dis. 2008;8:10 pubmed publisher
    ..In this article we propose that current methods of describing the epidemiology of drug resistant tuberculosis are not adequate for this purpose and argue for the inclusion of population based statistics in global surveillance data...
  52. Shiferaw G, Woldeamanuel Y, Gebeyehu M, Girmachew F, Demessie D, Lemma E. Evaluation of microscopic observation drug susceptibility assay for detection of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45:1093-7 pubmed
    ..8%; kappa value, 0.932). Results for MODS were obtained in a median time of 9 days. MODS is an optimal alternative method for identifying MDR-TB in a timely and affordable way in resource-limited settings...
  53. Aziz M, Wright A, Laszlo A, de Muynck A, Portaels F, van Deun A, et al. Epidemiology of antituberculosis drug resistance (the Global Project on Anti-tuberculosis Drug Resistance Surveillance): an updated analysis. Lancet. 2006;368:2142-54 pubmed
    ..This study aimed to analyse data on antituberculosis drug resistance gathered by the WHO and International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Global Project on Anti-tuberculosis Drug Resistance Surveillance...
  54. Irfan S, Hassan Q, Hasan R. Assessment of resistance in multi drug resistant tuberculosis patients. J Pak Med Assoc. 2006;56:397-400 pubmed
    ..To study MDR-TB isolates and to identify primary and secondary resistance at microbiology laboratory Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan...
  55. Javaid A, Hasan R, Zafar A, Ghafoor A, Pathan A, Rab A, et al. Prevalence of primary multidrug resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs in Pakistan. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2008;12:326-31 pubmed
    ..In this cross-sectional study, sputum samples from 742 untreated newly diagnosed pulmonary TB patients from all over the country were used...
  56. Ejigu G, Woldeamanuel Y, Shah N, Gebyehu M, Selassie A, Lemma E. Microscopic-observation drug susceptibility assay provides rapid and reliable identification of MDR-TB. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2008;12:332-7 pubmed
    ..Liquid culture systems are more rapid and sensitive for both the detection and drug susceptibility testing (DST) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
  57. Kapp C. XDR tuberculosis spreads across South Africa. Lancet. 2007;369:729 pubmed
  58. Choi J, Lim S, Suh G, Chung M, Kim H, Kwon O, et al. Drug resistance rates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis at a private referral center in Korea. J Korean Med Sci. 2007;22:677-81 pubmed
    ..This underscores the need for an improved control program, coupled with early diagnosis of MDR-TB, to reduce the spread and development of resistance...
  59. Atre S, D Souza D, Dholakia Y, Mistry N. Observations on categorisation of new TB cases: implications for controlling drug resistance. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2007;11:1152-3 pubmed
    ..Suggested measures include detailed screening of new cases, computerisation of patient records and an empathetic dialogue between patient and health care provider...
  60. Richter E, Rüsch Gerdes S, Hillemann D. First linezolid-resistant clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51:1534-6 pubmed
    ..The MICs of linezolid were 4 microg/ml (one strain) and 8 microg/ml (three strains). Since no mutations were detected in potential target genes, the mechanism of resistance remains unclear...
  61. Mitnick C, Castro K, Harrington M, Sacks L, Burman W. Randomized trials to optimize treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. PLoS Med. 2007;4:e292 pubmed
  62. Quezada C, Kamanzi E, Mukamutara J, De Rijk P, Rigouts L, Portaels F, et al. Implementation validation performed in Rwanda to determine whether the INNO-LiPA Rif.TB line probe assay can be used for detection of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in low-resource countries. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45:3111-4 pubmed
    ..No substantial difference was found between results obtained in Rwanda and results obtained in Belgium with the same samples. This rapid diagnostic test for MDR-TB can therefore be reliably implemented in a resource-poor setting...
  63. Gandhi N, Moll A, Sturm A, Pawinski R, Govender T, Lalloo U, et al. Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis as a cause of death in patients co-infected with tuberculosis and HIV in a rural area of South Africa. Lancet. 2006;368:1575-80 pubmed
    ..We assessed the prevalence and consequences of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis in a rural area in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa...