latent tuberculosis


Summary: The dormant form of TUBERCULOSIS where the person shows no obvious symptoms and no sign of the causative agent (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) in the SPUTUM despite being positive for tuberculosis infection skin test.

Top Publications

  1. Akolo C, Adetifa I, Shepperd S, Volmink J. Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection in HIV infected persons. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;:CD000171 pubmed publisher
    ..94, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.05). Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection reduces the risk of active TB in HIV positive individuals especially in those with a positive ..
  2. Milburn H, Ashman N, Davies P, Doffman S, Drobniewski F, Khoo S, et al. Guidelines for the prevention and management of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and disease in adult patients with chronic kidney disease. Thorax. 2010;65:557-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Guidelines have been compiled by the Joint Tuberculosis Committee of the British Thoracic Society for the prevention and management of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and disease in patients with all grades of renal impairment. ..
  3. Starke J. Interferon-? release assays for diagnosis of tuberculosis infection and disease in children. Pediatrics. 2014;134:e1763-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Although diagnosis and treatment of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (also referred to as latent tuberculosis infection [LTBI] or TB infection) remain the lynchpins of TB prevention, there is no diagnostic reference ..
  4. Hsiao C, Chiu H, Wang T, Tsai T. Serial QuantiFERON-TB Gold testing in patients with psoriasis treated with ustekinumab. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0184178 pubmed publisher
    There is increasing concern about the risk of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) reactivation during the use of biologics for psoriasis...
  5. Castro Garza J, García Jacobo P, Rivera Morales L, Quinn F, Barber J, Karls R, et al. Detection of anti-HspX antibodies and HspX protein in patient sera for the identification of recent latent infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181714 pubmed publisher
    ..050) compared to the background median with an average of 9,900 pg/ml and a range of 1,000 to 36,000 pg/ml. Thus, presence of anti-HspX IgM antibodies and HspX protein in sera may be markers of latent TB. ..
  6. Pantsulaia I, Kikodze N, Chikovani T. LATENT TUBERCULOSIS POTENTIAL BIOMARKERS: REACTIVATION OF INFECTION. Georgian Med News. 2017;:54-58 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the identification new biomarkers which can distinguish various stages within latency are urgently needed in order to prioritize those LTB individuals with the highest risk to reactivate the infection. ..
  7. Stagg H, Zenner D, Harris R, Muñoz L, Lipman M, Abubakar I. Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection: a network meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2014;161:419-28 pubmed publisher
    Effective treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is an important component of TB elimination programs. Promising new regimens that may be more effective are being introduced...
  8. Mandalakas A, Menzies D. Is screening immigrants for latent tuberculosis cost-effective?. Lancet Infect Dis. 2011;11:418-9 pubmed publisher
  9. . Treatment guidelines for latent tuberculosis infection. Kekkaku. 2014;89:21-37 pubmed
    The treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) has been established as valid for patients at high risk for developing active tuberculosis...

More Information


  1. Pease C, Hutton B, Yazdi F, Wolfe D, Hamel C, Quach P, et al. Efficacy and completion rates of rifapentine and isoniazid (3HP) compared to other treatment regimens for latent tuberculosis infection: a systematic review with network meta-analyses. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:265 pubmed publisher and network meta-analysis (NMA) to examine the efficacy and completion rates of treatments for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI)...
  2. Humphries C. Latency: A sleeping giant. Nature. 2013;502:S14-5 pubmed publisher
  3. Crouser E, White P, Caceres E, Julian M, Papp A, Locke L, et al. A Novel In Vitro Human Granuloma Model of Sarcoidosis and Latent Tuberculosis Infection. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2017;57:487-498 pubmed publisher
    ..using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) derived from patients with active sarcoidosis, latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI), or normal healthy control subjects...
  4. Parmer J, Allen L, Walton W. CE: Tuberculosis: A New Screening Recommendation and an Expanded Approach to Elimination in the United States. Am J Nurs. 2017;117:24-34 pubmed publisher
    ..tuberculosis in the United States, however, an expanded approach to testing and treating people with latent tuberculosis infection must be implemented. Recently, the U.S...
  5. . Recommendations for use of an isoniazid-rifapentine regimen with direct observation to treat latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011;60:1650-3 pubmed
    ..Although the INH-RPT regimen was well tolerated in treatment trials, monitoring for adverse effects is recommended. Severe adverse effects should be reported to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and CDC. ..
  6. . Severe isoniazid-associated liver injuries among persons being treated for latent tuberculosis infection - United States, 2004-2008. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010;59:224-9 pubmed
    Since the 1960s, 6 to 9 months of isoniazid (INH) has been the mainstay of treatment for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), but its application has been limited by concerns about the toxicity of INH and the long duration of treatment...
  7. Gao L, Li X, Liu J, Wang X, Lu W, Bai L, et al. Incidence of active tuberculosis in individuals with latent tuberculosis infection in rural China: follow-up results of a population-based, multicentre, prospective cohort study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2017;17:1053-1061 pubmed publisher
    ..However, national guidelines on latent tuberculosis infection testing and treatment have not yet been developed in China...
  8. Shea K, Kammerer J, Winston C, Navin T, Horsburgh C. Estimated rate of reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection in the United States, overall and by population subgroup. Am J Epidemiol. 2014;179:216-25 pubmed publisher
    ..10) than among persons born in the United States (0.082 cases/100 person-years; 95% CI: 0.080, 0.083). Differences in rates of TB reactivation across subgroups support current recommendations for targeted testing and treatment of LTBI. ..
  9. Kon O. Time for a preventative strategy for TB in the UK: further evidence for new entrant screening in primary care. Thorax. 2014;69:305-6 pubmed publisher
  10. Khan M, Bhaskar A, Upadhyay S, Kumari P, Rajmani R, Jain P, et al. Protein kinase G confers survival advantage to Mycobacterium tuberculosis during latency-like conditions. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:16093-16108 pubmed publisher
    ..pathology and established a role for PknG in the formation of stable granuloma, hallmark structures of latent tuberculosis. Taken together, PknG-mediated GarA phosphorylation is important for maintenance of both mycobacterial ..
  11. Zhang L, Cheng X, Bian S, Song Y, Li Q, Gao M, et al. Utility of Th1-cell immune responses for distinguishing active tuberculosis from non-active tuberculosis: A case-control study. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0177850 pubmed publisher
    ..Forty-five volunteers with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and twenty with evidence of previous TB were enrolled during the same period as the non-..
  12. Nathavitharana R, Bond P, Dramowski A, Kotze K, Lederer P, Oxley I, et al. Agents of change: The role of healthcare workers in the prevention of nosocomial and occupational tuberculosis. Presse Med. 2017;46:e53-e62 pubmed publisher
    ..However, these efforts cannot succeed without increased political will, supportive legal frameworks and financial investments to support HCWs in efforts to decrease TB transmission. ..
  13. Getahun H, Matteelli A, Chaisson R, Raviglione M. Latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. N Engl J Med. 2015;372:2127-35 pubmed publisher
  14. Anuradha R, Munisankar S, Bhootra Y, Dolla C, Kumaran P, Nutman T, et al. Modulation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific humoral immune responses is associated with Strongyloides stercoralis co-infection. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005569 pubmed publisher
    Helminth infections are known to influence T cell responses in latent tuberculosis (LTBI). Whether helminth infections also modulate B cell responses in helminth-tuberculosis co-infection is not known...
  15. Lobue P, Mermin J. Latent tuberculosis infection: the final frontier of tuberculosis elimination in the USA. Lancet Infect Dis. 2017;17:e327-e333 pubmed publisher
    ..Both epidemiological data and modelling underline the necessity of addressing latent tuberculosis infection if further progress is to be made in eliminating the disease...
  16. Chan P, Huang L, Suo J. It is time to deal with latent tuberculosis infection in Taiwan. J Formos Med Assoc. 2009;108:901-3 pubmed
  17. Mullie G, Schwartzman K, Zwerling A, N Diaye D. Revisiting annual screening for latent tuberculosis infection in healthcare workers: a cost-effectiveness analysis. BMC Med. 2017;15:104 pubmed publisher
    ..For most North American healthcare workers, annual tuberculosis screening appears poorly cost-effective. Reconsideration of screening practices is warranted. ..
  18. Ma J, Teng X, Wang X, Fan X, Wu Y, Tian M, et al. A Multistage Subunit Vaccine Effectively Protects Mice Against Primary Progressive Tuberculosis, Latency and Reactivation. EBioMedicine. 2017;22:143-154 pubmed publisher
    ..CMFO-DMT represents a promising candidate to prevent the occurrence of adult TB through both prophylactic and therapeutic methods, and warrants assessment in preclinical and clinical trials. ..
  19. Zelner J, Murray M, Becerra M, Galea J, Lecca L, Calderon R, et al. Age-specific risks of tuberculosis infection from household and community exposures and opportunities for interventions in a high-burden setting. Am J Epidemiol. 2014;180:853-61 pubmed publisher
    ..We compared the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among persons who had received the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine in households with ..
  20. Piccini P, Chiappini E, Tortoli E, de Martino M, Galli L. Clinical peculiarities of tuberculosis. BMC Infect Dis. 2014;14 Suppl 1:S4 pubmed publisher
    ..Given that TB is a disease which often involves more than one member in a family, a closer collaboration is needed between pediatricians and clinicians who take care of adults. ..
  21. Zhang X, Jia H, Liu F, Pan L, Xing A, Gu S, et al. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Latent Tuberculosis Infection among Health Care Workers in China: A Cross-Sectional Study. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e66412 pubmed publisher
    Health care workers (HCWs) are at risk of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI)...
  22. Clifford V, Tebruegge M, Zufferey C, Germano S, Forbes B, Cosentino L, et al. Mycobacteria-specific cytokine responses as correlates of treatment response in active and latent tuberculosis. J Infect. 2017;75:132-145 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, mycobacteria-specific IL-1ra responses are potential correlates of successful therapy in both active and latent TB. ..
  23. Bae J. Suggestions for the promotion of evidence-based public health in South Korea. Epidemiol Health. 2017;39:e2017030 pubmed publisher
    ..Debates about the latent tuberculosis infection control program suggested by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2017 ..
  24. Duarte R, Carvalho A, Correia A. Two-month regimen of isoniazid, rifampin and pirazinamid for latent tuberculosis infection. Public Health. 2012;126:760-2 pubmed publisher
  25. Salame F, Ferreira M, Belo M, Teixeira E, Cordeiro Santos M, Ximenes R, et al. Knowledge about tuberculosis transmission and prevention and perceptions of health service utilization among index cases and contacts in Brazil: Understanding losses in the latent tuberculosis cascade of care. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0184061 pubmed publisher
    Tuberculosis contacts are candidates for active and latent tuberculosis infection screening and eventual treatment. However, many losses occur in the different steps of the contacts' cascade of care. Reasons for this are poorly understood.
  26. Jambaldorj E, Han M, Jeong J, Koo T, Min S, Song E, et al. Poor predictability of QuantiFERON-TB assay in recipients and donors for tuberculosis development after kidney transplantation in an intermediate-TB-burden country. BMC Nephrol. 2017;18:88 pubmed publisher
    ..758; 95% CI, 0.106-29.274; P?=?0.694) could not predict post-KT TB. The QFT of recipients or living donors pre-KT cannot predict the short-term development of post-KT TB in an intermediate TB-burden country. ..
  27. Tanabe M, Nakamura A, Arai A, Yamasaki D, Hirano K, Kobayashi T, et al. The Direct Comparison of Two Interferon-gamma Release Assays in the Tuberculosis Screening of Japanese Healthcare Workers. Intern Med. 2017;56:773-779 pubmed publisher
    ..The agreement between the two IGRAs in the screening of healthcare workers (HCWs) for latent tuberculosis is not well known...
  28. Abubakar I, Griffiths C, Ormerod P. Diagnosis of active and latent tuberculosis: summary of NICE guidance. BMJ. 2012;345:e6828 pubmed publisher
  29. Bae J. An opposing view on including high school students in a latent tuberculosis infection control program in Korea. Epidemiol Health. 2017;39:e2017015 pubmed publisher
    ..The 2015 World Health Organization guidelines do not recommend inclusion of asymptomatic high school students in LTBI control programs. Based on this guideline, the KCDC should consider excluding this population from the program. ..
  30. Ai J, Ruan Q, Liu Q, Zhang W. Updates on the risk factors for latent tuberculosis reactivation and their managements. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2016;5:e10 pubmed publisher
    The preventive treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is of great importance for the elimination and control of tuberculosis (TB) worldwide, but existing screening methods for LTBI are still limited in predicting the onset of ..
  31. Chan E, Keane J, Iseman M. Should cigarette smoke exposure be a criterion to treat latent tuberculous infection?. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010;182:990-2 pubmed publisher
  32. Bosco M, Hou H, Mao L, Wu X, Ramroop K, Lu Y, et al. The performance of the TBAg/PHA ratio in the diagnosis of active TB disease in immunocompromised patients. Int J Infect Dis. 2017;59:55-60 pubmed publisher
    ..patients with active tuberculosis (ATB), and it is difficult using T-SPOT results to distinguish ATB from latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in this condition...
  33. Gan S, KhinMar K, Barkham T, Koh C, Shen L, Wang Y, et al. Interferon-? responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific antigens in diabetes mellitus. Eur Respir J. 2014;44:805-8 pubmed publisher
  34. Zenner D, Beer N, Harris R, Lipman M, Stagg H, van der Werf M. Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection: An Updated Network Meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2017;167:248-255 pubmed publisher
    Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is an important component of tuberculosis (TB) control, and this study updates a previous network meta-analysis of the best LTBI treatment options to inform public health action and ..
  35. Zumla A, Maeurer M. IFN-? Release Assays for Risk Assessment in Contacts of Patients with Tuberculosis in Low-Burden European Countries. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015;191:1101-3 pubmed publisher
  36. Levy A, Toren K, Elsenboss C, Narita M. Applying the 15 Public Health Emergency Preparedness Capabilities to Support Large-Scale Tuberculosis Investigations in Complex Congregate Settings. Am J Public Health. 2017;107:S142-S147 pubmed publisher
    ..These incidents exemplify how investments in public health emergency preparedness can enhance health outcomes in traditional areas of public health. ..
  37. Alfarisi O, Alghamdi W, Al Shaer M, Dooley K, Peloquin C. Rifampin vs. rifapentine: what is the preferred rifamycin for tuberculosis?. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2017;10:1027-1036 pubmed publisher
    One-third of the world's population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb.). Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) can progress to tuberculosis disease, the leading cause of death by infection...
  38. Halliday A, Whitworth H, Kottoor S, Niazi U, Menzies S, Kunst H, et al. Stratification of Latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection by Cellular Immune Profiling. J Infect Dis. 2017;215:1480-1487 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal marked biological heterogeneity underlying the clinically homogeneous phenotype of LTBI, providing a rationale for immunological risk stratification to improve targeting of LTBI treatment. ..
  39. Winthrop K, Weinblatt M, Daley C. You can't always get what you want, but if you try sometimes (with two tests--TST and IGRA--for tuberculosis) you get what you need. Ann Rheum Dis. 2012;71:1757-60 pubmed publisher
  40. Li F, Kang H, Li J, Zhang D, Zhang Y, Dannenberg A, et al. Subunit Vaccines Consisting of Antigens from Dormant and Replicating Bacteria Show Promising Therapeutic Effect against Mycobacterium Bovis BCG Latent Infection. Scand J Immunol. 2017;85:425-432 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that subunit vaccines consisting of both latency and replicating-associated antigens show promising therapeutic effects in BCG latent infection animal models. ..
  41. Pai M, Sotgiu G. Diagnostics for latent TB infection: incremental, not transformative progress. Eur Respir J. 2016;47:704-6 pubmed publisher
  42. Tiberi S, Carvalho A, Sulis G, Vaghela D, Rendon A, Mello F, et al. The cursed duet today: Tuberculosis and HIV-coinfection. Presse Med. 2017;46:e23-e39 pubmed publisher
    ..However, still more resources will be required to implement an integrated approach, install new diagnostic tests, and develop simpler and shorter treatment regimens. ..
  43. Campos Outcalt D. USPSTF recommendations: A 2017 roundup. J Fam Pract. 2017;66:310-314 pubmed
    ..Colorectal cancer screening and primary CVD prevention have general and selectively applied updates. This review also covers medical services to avoid and those without sufficient evidence to recommend. ..
  44. Ormerod L. Further evidence supporting programmatic screening for, and treatment of latent TB Infection (LTBI) in new entrants to the UK from high TB prevalence countries. Thorax. 2013;68:201 pubmed publisher
  45. Adekambi T, Ibegbu C, Cagle S, Kalokhe A, Wang Y, Hu Y, et al. Biomarkers on patient T cells diagnose active tuberculosis and monitor treatment response. J Clin Invest. 2015;125:1827-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Registration is not required for observational studies. This study was funded by Emory University, the NIH, and the Yerkes National Primate Center. ..
  46. Oliveira S, Trajman A, Paniago A, Motta Castro A, Ruffino Netto A, Maciel E, et al. Frequency of indeterminate results from an interferon-gamma release assay among HIV-infected individuals. J Bras Pneumol. 2017;43:215-218 pubmed publisher
    ..A necessidade de repetir o teste aumenta seu custo e deve ser levada em conta em estudos da relação entre custo e eficácia. O processamento das amostras pode alterar significativamente os resultados. ..
  47. Kumar N, Moideen K, Dolla C, Kumaran P, Babu S. Prediabetes is associated with the modulation of antigen-specific Th1/Tc1 and Th17/Tc17 responses in latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0178000 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine the role of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell cytokines in latent tuberculosis (LTB) with coincident PDM, we studied the baseline, mycobacterial, control antigen and mitogen-stimulated T ..
  48. Reddy D, Walker J, White L, Brandeis G, Russell M, Horsburgh C, et al. Latent Tuberculosis Infection Testing Practices in Long-Term Care Facilities, Boston, Massachusetts. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2017;65:1145-1151 pubmed publisher
    To describe latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) testing practices in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Retrospective cohort study. Three Boston-area LTCFs. Residents admitted between January 1 and December 31, 2011...
  49. Mohammadi T, Bansback N, Marra F, Khakban A, Campbell J, FitzGerald J, et al. Testing the External Validity of a Discrete Choice Experiment Method: An Application to Latent Tuberculosis Infection Treatment. Value Health. 2017;20:969-975 pubmed publisher
    ..A DCE was performed in patients before being offered treatment for latent tuberculosis infection. A mixed logit model was estimated using hierarchical Bayes...
  50. McClintock A, Eastment M, McKinney C, Pitney C, Narita M, Park D, et al. Treatment completion for latent tuberculosis infection: a retrospective cohort study comparing 9 months of isoniazid, 4 months of rifampin and 3 months of isoniazid and rifapentine. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:146 pubmed publisher
    The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommended a new regimen for treatment of latent tuberculosis (three months of weekly isoniazid and rifapentine) in late 2011...
  51. Auguste P, Tsertsvadze A, Pink J, Court R, McCarthy N, Sutcliffe P, et al. Comparing interferon-gamma release assays with tuberculin skin test for identifying latent tuberculosis infection that progresses to active tuberculosis: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:200 pubmed publisher
    Timely and accurate identification of people with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is important for controlling Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB). There is no gold standard for diagnosis of LTBI...
  52. Seshadri C, Sedaghat N, Campo M, Peterson G, Wells R, Olson G, et al. Transcriptional networks are associated with resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0175844 pubmed publisher
    ..tb infection (cases) and matched controls with latent tuberculosis infection...
  53. Belo C, Naidoo S. Prevalence and risk factors for latent tuberculosis infection among healthcare workers in Nampula Central Hospital, Mozambique. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:408 pubmed publisher
    ..Most of them acquire Mycobacterium tuberculosis but do not progress to the active disease - latent tuberculosis infection...
  54. Houben R, Yates T, Moore D, McHugh T, Lipman M, Vynnycky E. Re: "Estimated rate of reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection in the United States, overall and by population subgroup". Am J Epidemiol. 2014;180:450-1 pubmed publisher
  55. de Martino M, Galli L, Chiappini E. Reflections on the immunology of tuberculosis: will we ever unravel the skein?. BMC Infect Dis. 2014;14 Suppl 1:S1 pubmed publisher
    ..To gain these objectives is vital and urgent considering that tuberculosis is a common cause of morbidity and is a leading cause of death. ..
  56. Santos D, Garcia M, Costa A, Pieri F, Meier D, Albanese S, et al. [Latent tuberculosis infection in persons with HIV/AIDS, associated factors, and progression to active disease in a city in southern Brazil]. Cad Saude Publica. 2017;33:e00050916 pubmed publisher
    The study proposed to identify the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), associated factors, and progression to active tuberculosis among the identified cases...
  57. Tsai T, Chiu H, Song M, Chan D. A case of latent tuberculosis reactivation in a patient treated with ustekinumab without concomitant isoniazid chemoprophylaxis in the PEARL trial. Br J Dermatol. 2013;168:444-6 pubmed publisher
  58. Arroyave L, Keynan Y, Lopez L, Marin D, Arbelaez M, Rueda Z. Negative latent tuberculosis at time of incarceration: identifying a very high-risk group for infection. Epidemiol Infect. 2017;145:2491-2499 pubmed publisher
    The main aim was to measure the incidence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and identify risk factors associated with infection. In addition, we determined the number needed to screen (NNS) to identify LTBI and active tuberculosis...
  59. Hernandez M, Casar C, Garcia P, Morales V, Mamani N, Gómez Cofré N, et al. [Latent tuberculosis infection screening in healthcare workers in four large hospitals in Santiago, Chile]. Rev Chilena Infectol. 2014;31:254-60 pubmed publisher
    It is currently unknown which is the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection in healthcare workers in Chile, but this group has been described as at higher risk of developing active tuberculosis than general population...
  60. Martinez L, Shen Y, Mupere E, Kizza A, Hill P, Whalen C. Transmission of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis in Households and the Community: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Am J Epidemiol. 2017;185:1327-1339 pubmed publisher
    ..We systematically searched for and included studies in which latent tuberculosis infection was assessed in 2 groups: children exposed and unexposed to a household member with tuberculosis...
  61. Zhou F, Xu X, Wu S, Cui X, Pan W. ORFeome-based identification of biomarkers for serodiagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis latent infection. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:793 pubmed publisher
    The challenges posed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection require the gradual removal of the pool of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI)...