cutaneous tuberculosis


Summary: Tuberculosis of the skin. It includes scrofuloderma and tuberculid, but not LUPUS VULGARIS.

Top Publications

  1. Freiman A, Ting P, Miller M, Greenaway C. Papulonecrotic tuberculid: a rare form of cutaneous tuberculosis. Cutis. 2005;75:341-6 pubmed
    We describe a case of papulonecrotic tuberculid, a rare form of cutaneous tuberculosis, in a 25-year-old Philippino woman who had immigrated to Canada 8 years previously...
  2. Almaguer Chávez J, Ocampo Candiani J, Rendon A. [Current panorama in the diagnosis of cutaneous tuberculosis]. Actas Dermosifiliogr. 2009;100:562-70 pubmed
    Pulmonary and cutaneous tuberculosis are caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. According to data from the World Health Organization, there are around 8 million new cases per year...
  3. Mert A, Ozaras R, Ozturk R, Tabak F, Bilir M, Aktuglu Y. Cutaneous tuberculosis: an evaluation of 7 cases. Scand J Infect Dis. 2002;34:552-4 pubmed
  4. Senturk N, Sahin S, Kocagoz T. Polymerase chain reaction in cutaneous tuberculosis: is it a reliable diagnostic method in paraffin-embedded tissues?. Int J Dermatol. 2002;41:863-6 pubmed
    Most cutaneous tuberculosis lesions contain few bacilli, so identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in conventional laboratory tests is difficult...
  5. Handog E, Gabriel T, Pineda R. Management of cutaneous tuberculosis. Dermatol Ther. 2008;21:154-61 pubmed publisher
    b>Cutaneous tuberculosis (TB) is an extrapulmonary form of tuberculosis, which may be classified based on the immunologic state of the host. Chemotherapy still remains the treatment of choice...
  6. Arora S, Kumar B, Sehgal S. Development of a polymerase chain reaction dot-blotting system for detecting cutaneous tuberculosis. Br J Dermatol. 2000;142:72-6 pubmed
    For a definitive diagnosis of cutaneous tuberculosis the demonstration of mycobacteria is essential, but this is generally not possible in skin lesions...
  7. Chong L, Lo K. Cutaneous tuberculosis in Hong Kong: a 10-year retrospective study. Int J Dermatol. 1995;34:26-9 pubmed
    b>Cutaneous tuberculosis was once a relatively common skin disease in Hong Kong. Tuberculosis verrucosa cutis was the commonest type...
  8. Ramesh V, Misra R, Beena K, Mukherjee A. A study of cutaneous tuberculosis in children. Pediatr Dermatol. 1999;16:264-9 pubmed
    Sixty-three children out of a total of 199 patients seen with cutaneous tuberculosis during a 7-year period were included in this study...
  9. Angel D, Alfonso R, Faizal M, Ricaurte O, Baez J, Rojas A, et al. Cutaneous tuberculosis diagnosis in an inhospitable Amazonian region by means of telemedicine and molecular biology. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2005;52:S65-8 pubmed
    ..Telemedicine allowed a cutaneous tuberculosis diagnosis to be made of a patient living in a remote town located in the Amazon jungle by using molecular ..

More Information


  1. Ramam M, Mittal R, Ramesh V. How soon does cutaneous tuberculosis respond to treatment? Implications for a therapeutic test of diagnosis. Int J Dermatol. 2005;44:121-4 pubmed
    ..It is difficult to demonstrate Mycobacterium tuberculosis in smears or biopsies and to grow it in culture in cutaneous tuberculosis because most cases are paucibacillary...
  2. Ranawaka R, Abeygunasekara P, Perera E, Weerakoon H. Clinico-histopathological correlation and the treatment response of 20 patients with cutaneous tuberculosis. Dermatol Online J. 2010;16:13 pubmed
    b>Cutaneous tuberculosis (TB) can mimic other granulomatous diseases clinically and histopathologically...
  3. Kivanç Altunay I, Baysal Z, Ekmekci T, Koslu A. Incidence of cutaneous tuberculosis in patients with organ tuberculosis. Int J Dermatol. 2003;42:197-200 pubmed
    ..As a result, the incidence of cutaneous tuberculosis has been increasing as well.
  4. Bhutto A, Solangi A, Khaskhely N, Arakaki H, Nonaka S. Clinical and epidemiological observations of cutaneous tuberculosis in Larkana, Pakistan. Int J Dermatol. 2002;41:159-65 pubmed
    b>Cutaneous tuberculosis is widespread in Pakistan but has not been fully documented. This study was conducted to determine the clinical pattern, nature and existence of the disease in Larkana, Sindh province, Pakistan.
  5. Umapathy K, Begum R, Ravichandran G, Rahman F, Paramasivan C, Ramanathan V. Comprehensive findings on clinical, bacteriological, histopathological and therapeutic aspects of cutaneous tuberculosis. Trop Med Int Health. 2006;11:1521-8 pubmed
    To define the bacteriological and histological correlates of the three predominant clinical forms of cutaneous tuberculosis and to evaluate the efficacy of a 9-month daily regimen containing rifampicin and isoniazid.
  6. Tigoulet F, Fournier V, Caumes E. [Clinical forms of the cutaneous tuberculosis]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2003;96:362-7 pubmed
    ..The most common clinical forms of cutaneous tuberculosis are lupus vulgaris and scrofuloderma...
  7. Kumar B, Rai R, Kaur I, Sahoo B, Muralidhar S, Radotra B. Childhood cutaneous tuberculosis: a study over 25 years from northern India. Int J Dermatol. 2001;40:26-32 pubmed
    We undertook this study to analyse the pattern of childhood cutaneous tuberculosis prevailing in northern India over the past 25 years and to highlight differences from and similarities to adult tuberculosis.
  8. Vashisht P, Sahoo B, Khurana N, Reddy B. Cutaneous tuberculosis in children and adolescents: a clinicohistological study. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2007;21:40-7 pubmed
    ..The current study was conducted to analyse the clinicopathological characteristics of cutaneous TB in children and adolescents...
  9. Fenniche S, Ben Jennet S, Marrak H, Khayat O, Zghal M, Ben Ayed M, et al. [Cutaneous tuberculosis: anatomoclinical features and clinical course (26 cases)]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2003;130:1021-4 pubmed
    ..The prevalence of cutaneous tuberculosis is estimated as 2.1 p. 100 and represents a rare localization among the extra-pulmonary forms...
  10. Singal A, Aggarwal P, Pandhi D, Rohatgi J. Cutaneous tuberculosis and phlyctenular keratoconjunctivitis: a forgotten association. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2006;72:290-2 pubmed
    b>Cutaneous tuberculosis may be associated with concurrent systemic foci in the body such as lung, lymph node, bone or CNS...
  11. Abdalla C, de Oliveira Z, Sotto M, Leite K, Canavez F, de Carvalho C. Polymerase chain reaction compared to other laboratory findings and to clinical evaluation in the diagnosis of cutaneous tuberculosis and atypical mycobacteria skin infection. Int J Dermatol. 2009;48:27-35 pubmed publisher
    b>Cutaneous tuberculosis has re-emerged in the last 15 years together with the higher incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis and multidrug resistance. The choice for a single diagnostic tool among the many available today is a challenge...
  12. Hamada M, Urabe K, Moroi Y, Miyazaki M, Furue M. Epidemiology of cutaneous tuberculosis in Japan: a retrospective study from 1906 to 2002. Int J Dermatol. 2004;43:727-31 pubmed
    ..In Japan, the incidence of tuberculosis has declined since the 1950s, but has shown a tendency to increase in the past 10 years...
  13. Bravo F, Gotuzzo E. Cutaneous tuberculosis. Clin Dermatol. 2007;25:173-80 pubmed
    b>Cutaneous tuberculosis continues to be one of the most elusive and more difficult diagnoses to make for dermatologists practicing in developing countries...
  14. Fujita M, Arakawa K, Mizuno S, Wakabayashi M, Totani Y, Demura Y, et al. [A case of cutaneous tuberculosis under steroid & immunosuppressant therapy for dermatomyositis]. Kekkaku. 2002;77:465-70 pubmed
    ..Chemoprophylaxis for tuberculosis seems to be desirable for higher risk patients...
  15. Tan S, Tan H, Sun Y, Goh C. Clinical utility of polymerase chain reaction in the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in different types of cutaneous tuberculosis and tuberculids. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2001;30:3-10 pubmed
    The role of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the diagnosis of cutaneous tuberculosis in clinical practice has not been defined as no PCR assay has been tested in a large-scale clinical study...
  16. Barbagallo J, Tager P, Ingleton R, Hirsch R, Weinberg J. Cutaneous tuberculosis: diagnosis and treatment. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2002;3:319-28 pubmed
    As we move into the 21st century, cutaneous tuberculosis has re-emerged in areas with a high incidence of HIV infection and multi-drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis...
  17. Singal A, Sonthalia S. Cutaneous tuberculosis in children: the Indian perspective. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2010;76:494-503 pubmed publisher
    b>Cutaneous tuberculosis continues to be a significant medical problem even with the advent of highly effective antituberculous drugs. It constitutes about 1.5% of all extra pulmonary tuberculosis...
  18. Kumar B, Muralidhar S. Cutaneous tuberculosis: a twenty-year prospective study. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 1999;3:494-500 pubmed
    ..A tertiary care hospital in northern India...
  19. Aggarwal P, Singal A, Bhattacharya S, Mishra K. Comparison of the radiometric BACTEC 460 TB culture system and Löwenstein-Jensen medium for the isolation of mycobacteria in cutaneous tuberculosis and their drug susceptibility pattern. Int J Dermatol. 2008;47:681-7 pubmed publisher
    Mycobacterial isolation from cutaneous tuberculosis on Löwenstein-Jensen (L-J) medium has been reported to be low. The radiometric BACTEC 460 TB culture system (BACTEC system) has shown better isolation rates in pulmonary tuberculosis...
  20. Leccese K, Ferreira J, Delorme J, Montreuil B. Tuberculous pseudoaneurysm of the femoral artery complicated by cutaneous tuberculosis of the foot: a case report. J Vasc Surg. 2006;44:654-7 pubmed
    ..We propose that mycobacterial cultures should be routine when initial cultures and Gram stain are negative...
  21. Ho C, Ho M, Chong L. Cutaneous tuberculosis in Hong Kong: an update. Hong Kong Med J. 2006;12:272-7 pubmed
    To provide an update on cutaneous tuberculosis in Hong Kong.
  22. Ramesh V. Sporotrichoid cutaneous tuberculosis. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2007;32:680-2 pubmed
    Three patients with sporotrichoid cutaneous tuberculosis have been described. Two were children of either sex with lesions of lupus vulgaris along the lower limb and one woman had scrofuloderma along the left arm...
  23. Mathur N, Dhawan R, Rana I, Gudwani S. Multiple step-ladder cervical sinuses. J Assoc Physicians India. 2005;53:697 pubmed
  24. Ray M, Kataria S, Singhi P. Unusual presentation of disseminated tuberculosis. Indian Pediatr. 2002;39:88-91 pubmed
  25. Muto J, Kuroda K, Tajima S. Papular tuberculides post-BCG vaccination: case report and review of the literature in Japan. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2006;31:611-2 pubmed
  26. Hay R. Cutaneous infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis: how has this altered with the changing epidemiology of tuberculosis?. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2005;18:93-5 pubmed
  27. García Rodríguez J, Monteagudo Sánchez B, Mariño Callejo A. [Cutaneous tuberculosis: a 15-year descriptive study]. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2008;26:205-11 pubmed
    b>Cutaneous tuberculosis has experienced a resurgence following a period of decline. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of cutaneous tuberculosis in the Ferrol Healthcare Area (Spain)...
  28. Bartley J. Vitamin D, innate immunity and upper respiratory tract infection. J Laryngol Otol. 2010;124:465-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Vitamin D appears to play an important role in the regulation of innate immunity in the upper respiratory tract. Optimal vitamin D levels and appropriate dosing schedules have yet to be determined. ..
  29. Angus B, Yates M, Conlon C, Byren I. Cutaneous tuberculosis of the penis and sexual transmission of tuberculosis confirmed by molecular typing. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;33:E132-4 pubmed
    ..These organisms were confirmed to be indistinguishable by use of molecular techniques. ..
  30. Rotaru M, Tăban S, Ţăroi M, Pătraşcu V, Popa F. An immunocompetent young patient with tuberculosis of the penis: a challenging case. Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2015;56:569-74 pubmed
    Tuberculous chancre is an extremely rare form of cutaneous tuberculosis. The genital area is a possible site of presentation...
  31. García Clemente M, García Pravia C, González Budiño T. [Skin tuberculosis due to direct inoculation]. Med Clin (Barc). 2003;120:599 pubmed
  32. Ara M, Seral C, Baselga C, Navarro M, del Pilar Grasa M, Carapeto F. Primary tuberculous chancre caused by Mycobacterium bovis after goring with a bull's horn. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000;43:535-7 pubmed
    ..The tuberculin test was positive and a culture of the aspiration biopsy specimen of the axillary lymph node yielded Mycombacterium bovis. ..
  33. Amraoui N, Krich S, Meziane M, Gallouj S, Abid H, Elmrini A, et al. Cutaneous tuberculosis revealing multifocal tuberculosis in immunocompetent patients. Int J Mycobacteriol. 2015;4:255-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These patients had no context of immunosuppression which is uncommon, but should be kept in mind, especially in endemic countries. ..
  34. Ross G, Chong H, Collyns T, Gascoyne Binzi D, Sarkany R. Lichen scrofulosorum caused by Mycobacterium szulgai: a new cause of a tuberculide reaction. Br J Dermatol. 2007;156:586-7 pubmed
  35. Perez B, Pifarre R, de Vera C, Garcia J, Baradad M, Vila M, et al. [Cutaneous tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an uncommon pathology]. An Med Interna. 2006;23:560-1 pubmed
  36. Aliagaoglu C, Atasoy M, Karakuzu A, Cayir K, Melikoglu M. Rapidly developing giant sized lupus vulgaris on the chest associated with bilateral scrofuloderma on the neck. J Dermatol. 2006;33:481-5 pubmed
    Lupus vulgaris and scrofuloderma are the opposite poles of cutaneous tuberculosis. Lupus vulgaris of a giant size and scrofuloderma in the vicinity of this lesion were both present in a 70-year-old female patient...
  37. Veronese F, Zavattaro E, Farinelli P, Colombo E, Savoia P. An unusual cutaneous infection caused by Mycobacterium marinum. JMM Case Rep. 2017;4:e005088 pubmed publisher
    ..features, and our diagnostic hypotheses were oriented towards sporotrichosis, atypical mycobacteriosis, cutaneous tuberculosis and cutaneous sarcoidosis...
  38. Forgione P, Nunzi E, Cavalchini A, Clapasson A, Piccirillo F, Langella M, et al. [Scrofuloderma. a clinical case]. Minerva Pediatr. 2004;56:119-22 pubmed
    Scrofuloderma is a form of colliquative cutaneous tuberculosis resulting from the spread of an underlying focus, generally represented by lymphnodes; osteoarticular tubercular locations or epididimus locations can also lead to ulcerative ..
  39. Enani M, Enani M. Lichen scrofulosorum in a Saudi adolescent with multifocal tuberculosis. Ann Saudi Med. 2008;28:213-6 pubmed
  40. Asano Y, Kano Y, Shiohara T. Atypical cutaneous tuberculosis in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis treated with infliximab. Acta Derm Venereol. 2008;88:183-4 pubmed publisher
  41. Sellami K, Boudaya S, Chaabane H, Amouri M, Masmoudi A, Mseddi M, et al. Twenty-nine cases of lupus vulgaris. Med Mal Infect. 2016;46:93-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Cutaneous tuberculosis (TB) is a rare presentation of extrapulmonary TB. Lupus vulgaris (LV) is a common presentation of cutaneous TB...
  42. Pardo M, Bonifaz A, Valencia A, Araiza J, Mejia S, Mena Cedillos C. Actinomycetoma by Nocardia brasiliensis in a girl with Down syndrome. Dermatol Online J. 2008;14:9 pubmed
    ..Therapy was continued over 1(1/2) years, with a tapering dose. After 2(1/2) years of continuous treatment, clinical and microbiological healing was achieved. ..
  43. Robinson A, Solofomalala G, Andriatahina T, Ravelomanana N. [Cutaneous tuberculosis: a pediatric case in Madagascar]. Med Trop (Mars). 2008;68:173-5 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this report is to describe a case of nodular type cutaneous tuberculosis located in the subclavian region of a 5-month-old child living in Antananarivo, Madagascar...
  44. Hod N, Hendler A, Dotan E, Horne T. Disseminated tuberculosis of the skin detected on gallium-67 scintigraphy. Isr Med Assoc J. 2004;6:785-6 pubmed
  45. Cuchet E, Templier I, Brion J, Beani J. [A persistent ulceration after a fortuitous BCG revaccination]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2004;131:1077-9 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, such complications can occur by accident, as the case in our patient. ..
  46. Madan V, Gupta U. A report of scrofuloderma in siblings. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2006;20:1029-30 pubmed
  47. Min J, Biswal S, Deroose C, Gambhir S. Tetraphenylphosphonium as a novel molecular probe for imaging tumors. J Nucl Med. 2004;45:636-43 pubmed
    ..The sensitive tumor accumulation of (3)H-TPP with less propensity for inflammatory regions warrants further investigation of radiolabeled phosphonium analogs for tumor imaging in living subjects. ..
  48. Gandhi V, Vij A, Bhattacharya S. Lichen scrofulosorum on the genitalia--an unusual presentation. Int J Dermatol. 2007;46:548-9 pubmed
  49. Busam K, Kiehn T, Salob S, Myskowski P. Histologic reactions to cutaneous infections by Mycobacterium haemophilum. Am J Surg Pathol. 1999;23:1379-85 pubmed
    ..haemophilum and to misdiagnoses. Furthermore, our findings emphasize the importance of simultaneous biopsies for culture and histology in immunocompromised patients...
  50. Monteagudo B, García Rodríguez J, de las Heras C, Labandeira J, Ginarte M, Durana C, et al. [Scrofuloderma with osteoarticular tuberculosis in the Ferrol health district]. Actas Dermosifiliogr. 2007;98:470-5 pubmed
    ..There is a high probability of visceral involvement in patients with scrofuloderma. Underlying bone involvement should be rule out in all patients with scrofuloderma, especially in those with incomplete response to medical treatment. ..
  51. Mlika R, Tounsi J, Fenniche S, Hajlaoui K, Marrak H, Mokhtar I. Childhood cutaneous tuberculosis: a 20-year retrospective study in Tunis. Dermatol Online J. 2006;12:11 pubmed
    ..We assessed the epidemiologic and clinical profiles of childhood cutaneous tuberculosis in our dermatology department from 1981 to 2000 and compared it to previous Tunisian reports and to the ..
  52. Ramdial P, Calonje E, Sydney C, Subrayen S, Meyiwa P, Aboobaker J. Tuberculids as sentinel lesions of tuberculous epididymo-orchitis. J Cutan Pathol. 2007;34:830-6 pubmed
    ..Tuberculous epididymo-orchitis (TBEO) has been associated rarely with papulonecrotic tuberculid (PNT) but not with erythema induratum (EI) or the simultaneous occurrence of different tuberculids...
  53. Kang G, Yam A. Vacuum-assisted closure of a large palmar defect after debriding a midpalmar tuberculous abscess. Int Wound J. 2008;5:45-8 pubmed publisher
  54. Jovanovic M, Sente R, Golusin Z, Kurucin T, Vujanović L, Poljacki M. [Lupus vulgaris: isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the affected skin scraping and mucous membranes]. Med Pregl. 2006;59:580-3 pubmed
    ..Lupus vulgaris is a chronic form of the secondary tuberculosis of the skin...
  55. Roche E, García Melgares M, Vilata J, Fortea J. [Long-standing scrofuloderma]. Actas Dermosifiliogr. 2005;96:522-4 pubmed
    ..As we suspected cutaneous tuberculosis, we performed a number of complementary examinations to confirm the diagnosis and rule out bone ..
  56. Khandpur S, Bansal A, Ramam M, Sharma V, Das A, Singh M, et al. Verrucous tuberculid mimicking Kyrle disease. Int J Dermatol. 2007;46:1298-301 pubmed publisher
    b>Cutaneous tuberculosis shows wide clinical variation depending upon the virulence of the organism and host immunity...
  57. Ghariani N, Kourda M, Denguezli M, Belajouza C, Mhalla S, Nouira R. [Papules of the face]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2002;129:1181-2 pubmed
  58. Lin C, Yeh S, Huang H, Liao Y, Chiu C. Perianal tuberculosis during neutropenia: a rare case report and review of literature. Ann Hematol. 2006;85:547-8 pubmed
  59. Thami G, Kaur S, Kanwar A, Mohan H. Lichen scrofulosorum: a rare manifestation of a common disease. Pediatr Dermatol. 2002;19:122-6 pubmed
    ..The appearance of lichen scrofulosorum after initiation of treatment due to a probable increase in cell-mediated immunity is emphasized...
  60. Ichihashi K, Katoh N, Takenaka H, Kishimoto S. Orificial tuberculosis: presenting as a refractory perianal ulcer. Acta Derm Venereol. 2004;84:331-2 pubmed
  61. Fujita M, Nakanishi Y, Hamada M, Hamada N, Kuwano K, Furue M. [A case of pulmonary tuberculosis preceded by skin tuberculosis]. Kansenshogaku Zasshi. 2003;77:618-21 pubmed
    ..Although skin tuberculosis becomes rare disease, physician should pay attention for this disease as differential diagnosis of lasting eruption...
  62. Datta S, Spencer J. Cutaneous tuberculosis in pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2004;24:455 pubmed
  63. Ho M, Lee K, Chong L. Perianal ulceration in a "healthy" Chinese man with disseminated tuberculosis. J Dermatol. 2002;29:366-70 pubmed
    ..PCR shortens the time of diagnosing rare presentations of cutaneous tuberculosis and prevents delays in treatment...
  64. Duzgun N, Peksari Y, Sonel B, Yucesan C, Erekul S, Duman M. Localization of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in the synovial membrane, skin, and meninges in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus and IgG deficiency. Rheumatol Int. 2002;22:41-4 pubmed
    ..It is also worth mentioning that, in this patient, tissues involved with extrapulmonary tuberculosis were the primary areas of involvement with SLE...
  65. Miah M, Chowdhury U, Ahmed N, Shafique M, Islam N. Simultaneous occurrence of multiple types of cutaneous tuberculosis (TVC and PNT) with internal organ tuberculosis (PTB). Mymensingh Med J. 2007;16:108-12 pubmed
    ..Standard anti tuberculosis chemotherapy already started to offer cure of all lesions...
  66. Diaz Betancourt M, Olano A, Klinger J. Mycobacterium tuberculosis responsible for cutaneous disease after percutaneal inoculation of solutions: a case report. Int J Dermatol. 2003;42:564-6 pubmed
  67. Massi D, Trotta M, Franchi A, Pimpinelli N, Santucci M. Atypical CD30+ cutaneous lymphoid proliferation in a patient with tuberculosis infection. Am J Dermatopathol. 2004;26:234-6 pubmed
  68. Wong H, Tay Y, Sim C. Papular eruption on a tattoo: a case of primary inoculation tuberculosis. Australas J Dermatol. 2005;46:84-7 pubmed
    The pathogenesis of inoculation cutaneous tuberculosis requires a break in the skin, through minor abrasions or injury, allowing the entry of tubercle bacilli...
  69. Spyridis N, Georgouli H, Tsoukatou T, Sakou I, Tsolia M, Miriokefalitakis N, et al. Severe disseminated tuberculosis in a 4-month-old infant initially presenting with multiform cutaneous lesions. Scand J Infect Dis. 2006;38:306-8 pubmed
    ..The patient was treated with isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrizinamide, streptomycin and dexamethasone. Skin lesions resolved completely but severe neurological deficits persisted...
  70. Miller M, Fales W, McCracken W, O Bryan M, Jarnagin J, Payeur J. Inflammatory pseudotumor in a cat with cutaneous mycobacteriosis. Vet Pathol. 1999;36:161-3 pubmed
    ..Not only is mycobacteriosis an uncommon cause of cutaneous masses in cats, but this case was unusual because of the lack of granuloma formation and the similarity of the mass to a spindle cell tumor...
  71. Hsiao P, Tzen C, Chen H, Su H. Polymerase chain reaction based detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in tissues showing granulomatous inflammation without demonstrable acid-fast bacilli. Int J Dermatol. 2003;42:281-6 pubmed
    b>Cutaneous tuberculosis is especially difficult to distinguish from other granulomatous dermatoses...
  72. Torrelo A, Valverde E, Mediero I, Zambrano A. Lichen scrofulosorum. Pediatr Dermatol. 2000;17:373-6 pubmed
    ..tuberculosis infection in which evidence of the bacillus has not been found to date. Lichen scrofulosorum is now considered a rare form of tuberculid but should not be neglected...
  73. Esquivel P, Palmieri O, Corti M. [Tumoral lesion of the anterior chest wall in a patient with AIDS]. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2002;20:223-4 pubmed
  74. Chen Y, Shieh P, Shen J. Orificial tuberculosis and Kaposi's sarcoma in an HIV-negative individual. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2000;25:393-7 pubmed
    Orificial tuberculosis is a rare form of cutaneous tuberculosis. It happens mainly in immunocompromised patients and is characterized by rapidly ulcerating papules in the orifices, including oropharynx or anus, due to autoinoculation of ..
  75. Mittal R, Sudha R, Veeraraghavan M, Murugan S, Adikrishnan S, Krishnakanth M, et al. Disseminated tuberculosis with involvement of prostate--a case report. Indian J Tuberc. 2010;57:48-52 pubmed
    ..Chest X-ray was suggestive of pulmonary tuberculosis. A prostate biopsy was also suggestive of tuberculosis. A diagnosis of disseminated tuberculosis was made and the patient showed a good response in two weeks...
  76. Barba Borrego J, Mayorga J, Tarango Martínez V. [Simultaneous bilateral lymphangitic sporotrichosis]. Rev Iberoam Micol. 2009;26:247-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Sporotrichosis is the most frequent subcutaneous mycoses in Jalisco, Mexico. The forms of transmission described in the literature are from bites of different animals and injuries due to utensils...
  77. Otaki Y, Nakanishi T, Nanami M, Aizawa M, Yanase K, Hiraoka K, et al. A rare combination of sites of involvement by Mycobacterium intracellulare in a hemodialysis patient: multifocal synovitis, spondylitis, and multiple skin lesions. Nephron. 2002;92:730-4 pubmed
    ..Atypical mycobacterial infection is a rare but serious hazard in immunocompromised patients including those undergoing maintenance hemodialysis and immunosuppressive therapy. Recognition of unusual involvement patterns is important...
  78. Ghosh S, Bandyopadhyay D, Ghosh A, Mandal R, Bhattacharyya K, Chatterjee S. Non-healing perianal ulcer: A rare presentation of cutaneous tuberculosis. Dermatol Online J. 2009;15:9 pubmed
  79. Grieb S, Korkmaz H, Reuter S, Bruch Gerharz D, Reifenberger J, Schulte K, et al. [Tuberculosis cutis colliquativa. Even today an important differential diagnosis]. Hautarzt. 2009;60:272-5 pubmed publisher
    ..examinations lead to the diagnosis of tuberculosis cutis colliquativa, a form of postprimary cutaneous tuberculosis. Tuberculosis cutis colliquativa can be caused by either contiguous spread from an underlying structure, ..
  80. Kumaran M, Dogra S, Kaur I, Kumar B. Lichen scrofulosorum in a patient with lepromatous leprosy after BCG immunotherapy. Lepr Rev. 2005;76:170-4 pubmed
    ..We describe an unusual case of occurrence of lichen scrofulosorum following BCG immunotherapy in a patient with lepromatous leprosy...
  81. Olson D, Day C, Magula N, Sahid F, Moosa M. Cutaneous extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;77:551-4 pubmed
    ..b>Cutaneous tuberculosis without any current or past history of pulmonary tuberculosis was diagnosed...
  82. Rivera Olivero I, Guevara A, Escalona A, Oliver M, Pérez Alfonzo R, Piquero J, et al. [Soft-tissue infections due to non-tuberculous mycobacteria following mesotherapy. What is the price of beauty]. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2006;24:302-6 pubmed
  83. Ejaz A, Aurangzeb -, Awan Z. Scrofuloderma neck with chest wall abscess. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2006;16:420-1 pubmed
    b>Cutaneous tuberculosis (TB) is among the uncommon varieties of tuberculosis but it is also on the rise, commensurate with the general resurgence of the disease...