tuberculous pericarditis

Summary

Summary: INFLAMMATION of the sac surrounding the heart (PERICARDIUM) due to MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS infection. Pericarditis can lead to swelling (PERICARDIAL EFFUSION), compression of the heart (CARDIAC TAMPONADE), and preventing normal beating of the heart.

Top Publications

  1. Mayosi B, Burgess L, Doubell A. Tuberculous pericarditis. Circulation. 2005;112:3608-16 pubmed
    The incidence of tuberculous pericarditis is increasing in Africa as a result of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic...
  2. Nardell E, Fan D, Shepard J, Mark E. Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Weekly clinicopathological exercises. Case 22-2004. A 30-year-old woman with a pericardial effusion. N Engl J Med. 2004;351:279-87 pubmed
  3. Reuter H, Burgess L, Doubell A. Role of chest radiography in diagnosing patients with tuberculous pericarditis. Cardiovasc J S Afr. 2005;16:108-11 pubmed
    ..To describe the abnormalities on chest X-ray (CXR) in patients presenting with tuberculous pericardial effusions...
  4. Reuter H, Burgess L, Carstens M, Doubell A. Adenosine deaminase activity--more than a diagnostic tool in tuberculous pericarditis. Cardiovasc J S Afr. 2005;16:143-7 pubmed
    ..To improve the understanding of factors that influence adenosine deaminase ( ADA) activity in large pericardial effusions...
  5. Reuter H, Burgess L, Louw V, Doubell A. The management of tuberculous pericardial effusion: experience in 233 consecutive patients. Cardiovasc J S Afr. 2007;18:20-5 pubmed
    ..on the 30-day and one-year outcome of consecutive effusive pericarditis patients, including those with tuberculous pericarditis, over a six-year-period...
  6. Kobashi Y, Abe M, Mouri K, Obase Y, Miyashita N, Oka M. Rapid diagnosis of tuberculous pericarditis by ELISPOT assay. Scand J Infect Dis. 2010;42:712-5 pubmed publisher
    We describe a case in which the rapid diagnosis of tuberculous pericarditis was made using the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)-specific enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay on pericardial effusion mononuclear cells (PEMCs)...
  7. Trautner B, Darouiche R. Tuberculous pericarditis: optimal diagnosis and management. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;33:954-61 pubmed
    ..We present 10 new cases of tuberculous pericarditis and review the relevant literature...
  8. Strang J, Kakaza H, Gibson D, Allen B, Mitchison D, Evans D, et al. Controlled clinical trial of complete open surgical drainage and of prednisolone in treatment of tuberculous pericardial effusion in Transkei. Lancet. 1988;2:759-64 pubmed
    ..05), and 3 (4%) and 7 (9%) open surgical drainage. By 24 months, apart from the 16 who died from pericarditis, all but 3 patients (2%) had a favourable status...
  9. Hakim J, Ternouth I, Mushangi E, Siziya S, Robertson V, Malin A. Double blind randomised placebo controlled trial of adjunctive prednisolone in the treatment of effusive tuberculous pericarditis in HIV seropositive patients. Heart. 2000;84:183-8 pubmed
    To determine the effect of adjunctive prednisolone on morbidity, pericardial fluid resolution, and mortality in HIV seropositive patients with effusive tuberculous pericarditis.

More Information

Publications84

  1. Cegielski J, Devlin B, Morris A, Kitinya J, Pulipaka U, Lema L, et al. Comparison of PCR, culture, and histopathology for diagnosis of tuberculous pericarditis. J Clin Microbiol. 1997;35:3254-7 pubmed
    ..from a prior study of pericarditis, we compared PCR to culture and histopathology for the diagnosis of tuberculous pericarditis in 36 specimens of pericardial fluid and 19 specimens of pericardial tissue from 20 patients...
  2. Chetchotisakd P, Anunnatsiri S, Kiatchoosakun S, Kularbkaew C. Melioidosis pericarditis mimicking tuberculous pericarditis. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;51:e46-9 pubmed publisher
    Cases of melioidosis (N = 2) and tuberculous pericarditis (N = 33) during 1996-2006 were reviewed. Clinical presentations were similar, but pericardial pathological findings were not...
  3. Cherian G, Habashy A, Uthaman B, Hanna R. Tuberculous pericardial effusion--mediastinal lymph glands: the cause and clue to the etiology. Indian Heart J. 2003;55:228-33 pubmed
    ..We studied the mediastinal glands in proven tuberculous pericardial effusion patients and hypothesized that the findings may be of use in the etiological diagnosis of pericardial effusion...
  4. Yang C, Lee M, Liu J, Leu H. Diagnosis of tuberculous pericarditis and treatment without corticosteroids at a tertiary teaching hospital in Taiwan: a 14-year experience. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2005;38:47-52 pubmed
    ..The favorable outcomes of patients in this series suggest that a combination of antituberculosis chemotherapy and timely pericardiectomy may be the optimal therapy for patients with TB pericarditis...
  5. Ntsekhe M, Wiysonge C, Gumedze F, Maartens G, Commerford P, Volmink J, et al. HIV infection is associated with a lower incidence of constriction in presumed tuberculous pericarditis: a prospective observational study. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2253 pubmed publisher
    ..The impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on the incidence of constrictive pericarditis following tuberculous pericardial effusion is unknown...
  6. Aggeli C, Pitsavos C, Brili S, Hasapis D, Frogoudaki A, Stefanadis C, et al. Relevance of adenosine deaminase and lysozyme measurements in the diagnosis of tuberculous pericarditis. Cardiology. 2000;94:81-5 pubmed
    To assess the value of pericardial fluid adenosine deaminase (ADA) and pericardial lysozyme (Lys) as tools in diagnosing tuberculous pericarditis.
  7. Reuter H, Burgess L, Schneider J, Van Vuuren W, Doubell A. The role of histopathology in establishing the diagnosis of tuberculous pericardial effusions in the presence of HIV. Histopathology. 2006;48:295-302 pubmed
    To establish the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on the histopathological features of patients presenting with tuberculous pericarditis.
  8. Syed F, Mayosi B. A modern approach to tuberculous pericarditis. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2007;50:218-36 pubmed
    ..HIV) epidemic has been associated with an increase in all forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis including tuberculous pericarditis. Tuberculosis is responsible for approximately 70% of cases of large pericardial effusion and most cases ..
  9. Komsuoglu B, Goldeli O, Kulan K, Gedik Y. Tuberculous pericarditis in north-east Turkey. An echocardiographic study. Acta Cardiol. 1994;49:157-63 pubmed
    Twenty patients with tuberculous pericarditis who were referred to the Blacksea Technical University Medical School Cardiology Department from January 1979 to January 1992 were followed for 12-18 months by repeated echocardiography, ..
  10. Sagrista Sauleda J, Permanyer Miralda G, Soler Soler J. Tuberculous pericarditis: ten year experience with a prospective protocol for diagnosis and treatment. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1988;11:724-8 pubmed
    Thirteen patients with tuberculous pericarditis (12 men and 1 woman aged 13 to 70 years [mean 41]) were identified in a group of 294 patients consecutively admitted for primary acute pericardial disease...
  11. Long R, Younes M, Patton N, Hershfield E. Tuberculous pericarditis: long-term outcome in patients who received medical therapy alone. Am Heart J. 1989;117:1133-9 pubmed
    A conservative approach to operative intervention in the treatment of active tuberculous pericarditis was adopted and only 4 of 16 consecutive patients underwent pericardiectomy, all within 2 months of diagnosis...
  12. Biglino A, Crivelli P, Concialdi E, Bolla C, Montrucchio G. Clinical usefulness of ELISPOT assay on pericardial fluid in a case of suspected tuberculous pericarditis. Infection. 2008;36:601-4 pubmed publisher
    Rapid and accurate diagnosis of tuberculous pericarditis is often difficult, considering the low specificity of both clinical picture and laboratory tests on pericardial fluid, as well as the low sensitivity of microbiological tests...
  13. Bozbuga N, Erentug V, Eren E, Erdogan H, Kirali K, Antal A, et al. Pericardiectomy for chronic constrictive tuberculous pericarditis: risks and predictors of survival. Tex Heart Inst J. 2003;30:180-5 pubmed
    ..this study to determine the predictors of early and long-term survival in the surgical treatment of tuberculous pericarditis and to examine the risks of pericardiectomy and the functional outcome in patients after surgery...
  14. Ku C, Chiou K, Lin S, Liu C, Chaing H. Echocardiographic features of tuberculous pericarditis. J Chin Med Assoc. 2003;66:613-6 pubmed
    ..A-70-year old man was found to have tuberculous pericarditis. The history and echocardiographic findings are reported, and relevant literature is reviewed.
  15. Gulati G, Sharma S. Pericardial abscess occurring after tuberculous pericarditis: image morphology on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Clin Radiol. 2004;59:514-9 pubmed
    To study the image morphology on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of pericardial abscess, an uncommon complication of tuberculous pericarditis.
  16. Reuter H, Burgess L, Van Vuuren W, Doubell A. Diagnosing tuberculous pericarditis. QJM. 2006;99:827-39 pubmed
    Definitive diagnosis of tuberculous pericarditis requires isolation of the tubercle bacillus from pericardial fluid, but isolating the organism is often difficult.
  17. Longo Mbenza B, Tonduangu K, Seghers K, Mubagwa D. [HIV infection and pericardial disease invasion in Africa]. Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss. 1997;90:1377-84 pubmed
    ..8% per year. Etiology of pericardial disease depends on evolution and immunodepression level; 90.5% of pericardial effusions related to HIV are caused by tuberculosis as shown at the second pericardiocenthesis...
  18. Tuon F, Litvoc M, Lopes M. Adenosine deaminase and tuberculous pericarditis--a systematic review with meta-analysis. Acta Trop. 2006;99:67-74 pubmed
    Adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in pericardial fluid is a valuable aid in the diagnosis of tuberculous pericarditis (TP), but there is no systematic review performed to evaluate the benefits of ADA activity as an adjunctive test for TP ..
  19. Mayosi B, Wiysonge C, Ntsekhe M, Volmink J, Gumedze F, Maartens G, et al. Clinical characteristics and initial management of patients with tuberculous pericarditis in the HIV era: the Investigation of the Management of Pericarditis in Africa (IMPI Africa) registry. BMC Infect Dis. 2006;6:2 pubmed
    The incidence of tuberculous pericarditis has increased in Africa as a result of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic...
  20. Reuter H, Burgess L, Doubell A. Epidemiology of pericardial effusions at a large academic hospital in South Africa. Epidemiol Infect. 2005;133:393-9 pubmed
    ..Eighty-four patients (36.1%) were found to be HIV positive; 81 of these (96.4 %) had tuberculous pericarditis. More than 65% of the study population was aged between 15 and 39 years...
  21. Burgess L, Reuter H, Carstens M, Taljaard J, Doubell A. Cytokine production in patients with tuberculous pericarditis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2002;6:439-46 pubmed
    ..An academic hospital in the Western Cape, South Africa...
  22. Burgess L, Reuter H, Carstens M, Taljaard J, Doubell A. The use of adenosine deaminase and interferon-gamma as diagnostic tools for tuberculous pericarditis. Chest. 2002;122:900-5 pubmed
    ..We investigated ADA and IFN-gamma levels in pericardial effusions of different etiologies...
  23. Mayosi B, Wiysonge C, Ntsekhe M, Gumedze F, Volmink J, Maartens G, et al. Mortality in patients treated for tuberculous pericarditis in sub-Saharan Africa. S Afr Med J. 2008;98:36-40 pubmed
    To determine the mortality rate and its predictors in patients with a presumptive diagnosis of tuberculous pericarditis in sub-Saharan Africa.
  24. Wiysonge C, Ntsekhe M, Gumedze F, Sliwa K, Blackett K, Commerford P, et al. Contemporary use of adjunctive corticosteroids in tuberculous pericarditis. Int J Cardiol. 2008;124:388-90 pubmed
    There is controversy concerning the effectiveness of adjunctive corticosteroids in reducing mortality in tuberculous pericarditis. To assess the impact of this controversy on contemporary clinical practice, we studied the use of ..
  25. Reuter H, Burgess L, Louw V, Doubell A. Experience with adjunctive corticosteroids in managing tuberculous pericarditis. Cardiovasc J S Afr. 2006;17:233-8 pubmed
    ..placebo in addition to closed pericardiocentesis and anti-tuberculous therapy in patients with tuberculous pericarditis. Patients with large pericardial effusions requiring pericardiocentesis were included...
  26. Liebenberg J, Dold C, Olivier L. A prospective investigation into the effect of colchicine on tuberculous pericarditis. Cardiovasc J Afr. 2016;27:350-355 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this research was to investigate the merit for the use of colchicine in the management of tuberculous pericarditis, specifically to prevent constrictive pericarditis...
  27. Lasso B M, Pérez G J. [Pericarditis due to multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in an HIV infected patient: case report and review of literature]. Rev Chilena Infectol. 2009;26:156-61 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe the clinical management, outcome and final recovery of the patient. The epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of TB pericarditis in HIV positive patients are reviewed. ..
  28. Yano S, Kobayashi K, Kato K, Saito S. [A case of tuberculous pericarditis, the diagnosis of which was complicated by the delay in the rise of adenosine deaminase in the pericardial effusion]. Kekkaku. 2003;78:407-10 pubmed
    ..was not high at the first admission, was elevated in the second admission, and the diagnosis was made as tuberculous pericarditis two months later...
  29. Tuon F. Video-assisted thoracoscopy and tuberculous pericarditis. Ann Thorac Surg. 2006;81:2338 pubmed
  30. Méndez Echevarría A, Baquero Artigao F, Alvarez Ferreira F, de Ceano Vivas M, García de Miguel M, Del Castillo Martin F. [Tuberculous pericarditis diagnosed by PCR in pericardiac biopsy]. An Pediatr (Barc). 2005;62:77-8 pubmed
  31. Patil D, Sabnis G, Phadke M, Lanjewar C, Mishra P, Kulkarni D, et al. Echocardiographic parameters in clinical responders to surgical pericardiectomy - A single center experience with chronic constrictive pericarditis. Indian Heart J. 2016;68:316-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Developing countries continue to face a significant burden of CCP secondary to tuberculous pericarditis. Surgical pericardiectomy offers potential cure...
  32. Güler E, Babur Güler G, Demir G, Kızılırmak F. Non-surgical treatment of a right ventricle puncture during diagnostic pericardiocentesis. Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars. 2015;43:565-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This case presents a patient suspected of tuberculous pericarditis who underwent diagnostic pericardiocentesis complicated by right ventricular puncture...
  33. Badis N, Bouldouyre M, Rollot Trad F, Burckel C, Guillevin L, Salmon Ceron D. [Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging of tuberculous constrictive pericarditis]. Presse Med. 2006;35:912-3 pubmed
  34. Reuter H. Tuberculous pericarditis and HIV infection in Africa. S Afr Med J. 2008;98:29-30 pubmed
  35. Bossert T, Rahmel A, Gummert J, Battellini R, Mohr F. [Right heart failure following pericarditis constrictiva tuberculosa--urgent surgical treatment]. Zentralbl Chir. 2003;128:573-5 pubmed
    ..In the absence of concurrent extracardiac TB, diagnosis of pericardial TB is difficult. Nevertheless, rapid diagnosis and treatment are crucial to reduce mortality. ..
  36. Maher D, Harries A. Tuberculous pericardial effusion: a prospective clinical study in a low-resource setting--Blantyre, Malawi. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 1997;1:358-64 pubmed
    ..Tuberculous pericardial effusion is a common problem in Blantyre and is strongly associated with HIV infection. Successful management using a standard protocol is possible in a low-resource setting. ..
  37. Metaxas E, Kotsifas K, Tatsis G, Simpsiris P, Ntanos I, Tsoukalas G. Tuberculous pericarditis: three cases and brief review. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis. 2010;73:44-50 pubmed
    b>Tuberculous pericarditis is a form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis that is considered unusual in western coun-tries. Diagnosis is often challenging, while proper treatment has a major impact on prognosis...
  38. Yang H, Song J, Song J, Kang D, Lee C, Nam G, et al. Clinical characteristics of constrictive pericarditis diagnosed by echo-Doppler technique in Korea. J Korean Med Sci. 2001;16:558-66 pubmed
    ..Early diagnosis and decision-making using follow-up echocardiography are crucial to improve the prognosis of patients with CP. ..
  39. Afzal A, Keohane M, Keeley E, Borzak S, Callender C, Iannuzzi M. Myocarditis and pericarditis with tamponade associated with disseminated tuberculosis. Can J Cardiol. 2000;16:519-21 pubmed
    Tuberculous involvement of the myocardium is relatively rare. Tuberculous pericarditis with tamponade and myocarditis in a young woman with no evidence of immunosuppression and disseminated tuberculosis is described...
  40. Meyburg J, Schmidt K, Nutzenadel W, Bettendorf M. Tuberculous pericarditis in an infant evolving during triple chemotherapy. Eur J Pediatr. 2002;161:138-41 pubmed
    ..Rapid intervention and treatment adjustment in infants with tuberculous pericarditis may prevent pericardial constriction and may lead to full recovery.
  41. Mizutani H, Horiba M, Shindoh J, Kimura T, Son M, Wakahara K. [A case of tuberculous pericarditis developing constrictive pericarditis]. Kekkaku. 2001;76:71-5 pubmed
    A case of constrictive pericarditis which developed after the onset of clinical manifestation of tuberculous pericarditis was reported. A 75-year-old male, complaining of anorexia, was admitted to our hospital...
  42. Testempassi E, Kubota K, Morooka M, Ito K, Masuda Miyata Y, Yamashita H, et al. Constrictive tuberculous pericarditis diagnosed using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography: a report of two cases. Ann Nucl Med. 2010;24:421-5 pubmed publisher
    We present two cases of tuberculous pericarditis that were diagnosed using 18F-fluorodeoxyglycose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)...
  43. Man M, Niţu M, Strâmbu L, Florescu C, Streba C, Trofor A. Tuberculous constrictive pericarditis complicated with tuberculous mediastinitis - case report. Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2016;57:237-42 pubmed
    ..After a pericardiectomy done to restore cardiac compensation and to identify etiological factors, a tuberculous pericarditis (TBP) was diagnosed...
  44. Butany J, El Demellawy D, Collins M, Nair V, Israel N, Woo A, et al. Constrictive pericarditis: case presentation and a review of the literature. Can J Cardiol. 2004;20:1137-44 pubmed
    ..However, the majority of CP cases are idiopathic. This report presents three cases of postoperative, tuberculous and idiopathic CP, highlighting the clinical and pathological changes seen in CP, and a review of the literature. ..
  45. Lee J, Lee C, Lee S, Yang H, Hong M, Kim J, et al. Comparison of polymerase chain reaction with adenosine deaminase activity in pericardial fluid for the diagnosis of tuberculous pericarditis. Am J Med. 2002;113:519-21 pubmed
  46. George S, Salama A, Uthaman B, Cherian G. Echocardiography in differentiating tuberculous from chronic idiopathic pericardial effusion. Heart. 2004;90:1338-9 pubmed
  47. Fukuda M, Yoshida F, Kurosawa T. [A case of tuberculous pericarditis]. Kekkaku. 1990;65:19-25 pubmed
    A case of tuberculous pericarditis successfully managed with medical treatment alone was reported. A 78-year-old male was admitted because of cough, dyspnea and fever. Chest X-P and echocardiogram revealed massive pericardial effusion...
  48. Yetkin U, Ilhan G, Calli A, Yesil M, Gurbuz A. Severe calcific chronic constrictive tuberculous pericarditis. Tex Heart Inst J. 2008;35:224-5 pubmed
  49. Arroyo M, Soberman J. Adenosine deaminase in the diagnosis of tuberculous pericardial effusion. Am J Med Sci. 2008;335:227-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The diagnosis of probable tuberculous effusion can be made without demonstration of mycobacterium...
  50. Kohno Y, Hara K, Izumikawa K, Izumikawa K. [A case of cardiac tamponade caused by tuberculous pericarditis]. Kekkaku. 2010;85:155-8 pubmed
    ..As these parameters strongly suggested tuberculous pericarditis, pericardial drainage was continued for another two weeks, and a delayed combination therapy with ..
  51. Suzuki S, Yano K. [Infective pericarditis]. Nihon Rinsho. 2007;Suppl 5 Pt 2:358-61 pubmed
  52. Stucki A, Cottagnoud P, Fischli S. [Rare cause of right heart failure: two cases]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2005;130:1314-7 pubmed
    ..Both patients presented with a clear clinical picture of systemic venous hypertension and moderate pulmonary congestion. Patient B had a paradoxical pulse compatible to cardiac tamponade...
  53. Cury P, Linhares M, Fiorelli A, Favarato D, Mansur A. Perioperative myocardial infarction in a patient with tuberculous constrictive pericarditis in the absence of coronary artery disease. J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino). 2001;42:57-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, necropsy revealed tuberculosis as the etiology of constrictive pericarditis. Thus, myocardial infarction may occur in constrictive pericarditis in the setting of pericardiectomy and absence of coronary artery disease...
  54. Danbauchi S, Odigie V, Rafindadi A, Kalayi G, Mohammed I. Tuberculosis myocarditis: a case report. Niger Postgrad Med J. 2001;8:199-202 pubmed
    ..We suggest that in experienced hands myocardial biopsy could be useful in making the diagnosis...
  55. Madershahian N, Franke U, Bruhin R, Wahlers T. Reoperation for calcific constrictive pericarditis 43 years after pericardiectomy. J Card Surg. 2005;20:549-51 pubmed
    ..The patient underwent total pericardiectomy of his residual pericardium through median sternotomy using cardiopulmonary bypass resulting in complete relief of his symptoms...
  56. Cademartiri F, Nieman K, Mollet N, Alfieri O, de Feyter P, Krestin G. Images in cardiovascular medicine. Sixteen-row multislice computed tomography of tuberculous pericardial abscess. Ital Heart J. 2003;4:575-6 pubmed
  57. Lazarus A, Thilagar B. Tuberculosis of pericardium, larynx, and other uncommon sites. Dis Mon. 2007;53:46-54 pubmed
  58. Smedema J, Katjitae I, Reuter H, Burgess L, Louw V, Pretorius M, et al. Twelve-lead electrocardiography in tuberculous pericarditis. Cardiovasc J S Afr. 2001;12:31-4 pubmed
    ..We determined the diagnostic accuracy of ECG parameters for cardiac tamponade...
  59. Bergonzini R, Di Scioscio V, Sciascia N, Zompatori M. A tamponade with a happy ending. Radiol Med. 2002;104:494-7 pubmed
  60. Ntsekhe M, Mayosi B. Cardiac manifestations of HIV infection: an African perspective. Nat Clin Pract Cardiovasc Med. 2009;6:120-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, we review the cardiac manifestations of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa...
  61. Blaas S, Bohm S, Martin G, Erler W, Gluck T, Lehn N, et al. Pericarditis as primary manifestation of Mycobacterium bovis SSP. caprae infection. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2003;47:431-3 pubmed
    ..Pericarditis is a rare manifestation of tuberculosis and can be fatal even when diagnosed and treated appropriately. In low incidence countries diagnosis is often delayed and even overlooked...
  62. Reuter H, Burgess L, Carstens M, Doubell A. Characterization of the immunological features of tuberculous pericardial effusions in HIV positive and HIV negative patients in contrast with non-tuberculous effusions. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2006;86:125-33 pubmed
    ..To investigate the immunopathogenesis of pericardial tuberculosis (TB) and the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on the anti-tuberculous immune response...
  63. Rubin J. Invited commentary. Ann Thorac Surg. 2006;81:529-30 pubmed
  64. Ha J, Ko Y, Choi B. Images in cardiology. Delayed hyperenhancement of the pericardium by magnetic resonance imaging as a marker of pericardial inflammation in a patient with tuberculous effusive constrictive pericarditis. Heart. 2006;92:494 pubmed
  65. Syed F, Aje A, Ntsekhe M, Mayosi B, Moosa S, Tshifularo M, et al. Resolution of nodular myocardial tuberculosis demonstrated by contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Cardiovasc J Afr. 2008;19:198-9 pubmed
    ..We present an HIV sero-positive patient in whom both pericardial and myocardial tuberculosis were diagnosed, and highlight the value of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis and management of this condition...
  66. Jolobe O. Interferon-gamma may be a better test for tuberculous pericarditis. Am J Med Sci. 2008;336:215; author reply 215-6 pubmed publisher
  67. Schwartz T. [Heart diseases in Africa]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2008;128:1688-91 pubmed
  68. Kamimura M, Suzuki T, Kudo K. Intrapericardial infusion of urokinase for the treatment of purulent pericarditis. Intern Med. 2002;41:412-3 pubmed
  69. Gultekin F, Bakici M, Elaldi N, Bakir M. Tuberculous pericarditis: a report of three cases. Curr Med Res Opin. 2001;17:142-5 pubmed
    Three cases with the rare condition of tuberculous pericarditis are reported.
  70. Al Ajmi J, Al Soub H, El Deeb Y. Pyopneumopericardium due to esophago-pericardial fistula in patient with tuberculous pericarditis. Saudi Med J. 2007;28:969-70 pubmed
  71. de León Peña A, Stanislawsky Mileant E, Sáenz Aguado G, Ruíz Macías V, González Carmona V, Bernal M. [Tuberculous myocarditis. Presentation of a case and review of the literature]. Arch Inst Cardiol Mex. 1989;59:511-6 pubmed
    ..Tuberculosis myocarditis was found at the necropsy. It is important to point out the frequency of this pathology, the uncommon clinical presentation of this case; as well as the lack of immunologic response to the tuberculous bacillus...
  72. Agrawal S, Radhakrishnan S, Sinha N. Echocardiographic demonstration of resolving intrapericardial mass in tuberculous pericardial effusion. Int J Cardiol. 1990;26:240-1 pubmed
    ..The resolution of the mass suggests that it was a conglomeration of fibrinous exudates deposited in the pericardial cavity. Presence of such exudates should not be considered an indication for surgical intervention...
  73. Amacher A, Rutishauser M. [Sources of errors and pitfalls in tuberculosis diagnosis]. Pneumologie. 1990;44:1211-2 pubmed
    ..Spontaneous resolution of the symptoms or an improvement under non-tuberculostatic therapy does not exclude tuberculosis. In fact encephalitic signs may improve or disappear spontaneously despite subsequent positive liquor culture (4)...
  74. Strang J, Kakaza H, Gibson D, Girling D, Nunn A, Fox W. Controlled trial of prednisolone as adjuvant in treatment of tuberculous constrictive pericarditis in Transkei. Lancet. 1987;2:1418-22 pubmed
    ..It is recommended that, in the absence of a specific contraindication, antituberculosis chemotherapy should be initially supplemented by steroids...
  75. So T, Watanabe Y, Ohyama O, Nobuoka S, Hirayama T, Miyake F, et al. [A case of Vietnamese immigrant with tuberculous mediastinopericarditis]. Kansenshogaku Zasshi. 1990;64:218-23 pubmed
    ..Although occurrence of tuberculous mediastinopericarditis is rare at the present time in Japan, this disease has not been exterminated and should be kept in mind...