mycobacterium avium intracellulare infection

Summary

Summary: A nontuberculous infection when occurring in humans. It is characterized by pulmonary disease, lymphadenitis in children, and systemic disease in AIDS patients. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection of birds and swine results in tuberculosis.

Top Publications

  1. Iseman M. Medical management of pulmonary disease caused by Mycobacterium avium complex. Clin Chest Med. 2002;23:633-41, vii pubmed
    ..At National Jewish, where we mainly see cases complicated by treatment failure and drug intolerance, we use in vitro susceptibility testing and therapeutic drug monitoring to optimize efficacy and reduce toxicity...
  2. Field S, Fisher D, Cowie R. Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease in patients without HIV infection. Chest. 2004;126:566-81 pubmed
    ..The prolonged treatment period, side effects, and possibly reinfection rather than relapse are responsible for the high failure rate...
  3. Kobashi Y, Matsushima T, Oka M. A double-blind randomized study of aminoglycoside infusion with combined therapy for pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex disease. Respir Med. 2007;101:130-8 pubmed
  4. Chung M, Lee K, Koh W, Kim T, Kang E, Kim S, et al. Drug-sensitive tuberculosis, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease in nonAIDS adults: comparisons of thin-section CT findings. Eur Radiol. 2006;16:1934-41 pubmed
    ..In patients with positive sputum AFB, multiple cavities, young age, and previous tuberculosis treatment history imply MDR TB, whereas extensive bronchiectasis, old age, and previous tuberculosis treatment history NTM disease...
  5. Waller E, Roy A, Brumble L, Khoor A, Johnson M, Garland J. The expanding spectrum of Mycobacterium avium complex-associated pulmonary disease. Chest. 2006;130:1234-41 pubmed
  6. Turenne C, Wallace R, Behr M. Mycobacterium avium in the postgenomic era. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2007;20:205-29 pubmed
    ..avium subsets in isolation, it is expected that attention to the similarities and differences between M. avium organisms will provide greater insight into their fundamental differences, including their propensity to cause disease...
  7. Chung M, Lee K, Koh W, Lee J, Kim T, Kwon O, et al. Thin-section CT findings of nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary diseases: comparison between Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex and Mycobacterium abscessus infection. J Korean Med Sci. 2005;20:777-83 pubmed
    ..abscessus pulmonary infection; however, lobar volume loss, nodule, airspace consolidation, and thin-walled cavity are more frequently seen in MAC than M. abscessus infection...
  8. Chaiamnuay S, Heck L. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody vasculitis associated with mycobacterium avium intracellulare infection. J Rheumatol. 2005;32:1610-2 pubmed
    ..Thus, when ANCA associated vasculitis is considered, mycobacterium infection should be excluded before starting immunosuppressive therapy...
  9. Matlova L, Dvorska L, Palecek K, Maurenc L, Bartos M, Pavlik I. Impact of sawdust and wood shavings in bedding on pig tuberculous lesions in lymph nodes, and IS1245 RFLP analysis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis of serotypes 6 and 8 isolated from pigs and environment. Vet Microbiol. 2004;102:227-36 pubmed
    ..Based on identical IS1245 RFLP types of one pig isolate and two isolates of used sawdust from farm A, we have concluded that contaminated sawdust was the source of mycobacterial infection for pigs in our study...

More Information

Publications78

  1. Kim T, Koh W, Han J, Chung M, Lee J, Lee K, et al. Hypothesis on the evolution of cavitary lesions in nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary infection: thin-section CT and histopathologic correlation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2005;184:1247-52 pubmed
  2. Tobin D Angelo M, Blass M, del Rio C, Halvosa J, Blumberg H, Horsburgh C. Hospital water as a source of Mycobacterium avium complex isolates in respiratory specimens. J Infect Dis. 2004;189:98-104 pubmed
    ..We conclude that acquisition of MAC from institutional water systems leads to substantial MAC disease but that most patients with MAC recovered from respiratory specimens have only transient colonization by MAC...
  3. Ichikawa K, Yagi T, Inagaki T, Moriyama M, Nakagawa T, Uchiya K, et al. Molecular typing of Mycobacterium intracellulare using multilocus variable-number of tandem-repeat analysis: identification of loci and analysis of clinical isolates. Microbiology. 2010;156:496-504 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that for use as epidemiological markers of M. intracellulare, the loci in this VNTR assay are highly discriminating and stable over time...
  4. Lawn S, Bicanic T, Macallan D. Pyomyositis and cutaneous abscesses due to Mycobacterium avium: an immune reconstitution manifestation in a patient with AIDS. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38:461-3 pubmed
  5. Rosenzweig S, Dorman S, Uzel G, Shaw S, Scurlock A, Brown M, et al. A novel mutation in IFN-gamma receptor 2 with dominant negative activity: biological consequences of homozygous and heterozygous states. J Immunol. 2004;173:4000-8 pubmed
    ..The mutant construct 791delG exerts dominant negative effects on IFN-gamma signaling without cell surface display, suggesting that it is acting on pathways other than those involved in cell surface recognition of ligand...
  6. Sakatani M. [The non-tuberculous mycobacteriosis]. Kekkaku. 2005;80:25-30 pubmed
    ..They revealed that the clinical effect of the combined chemotherapy (RFP, EB, SM and CAM) was better than that of the other regimens. However the efficacy of this therapy was unsatisfactory compared with the effect for pulmonary TB...
  7. Biet F, Boschiroli M, Thorel M, Guilloteau L. Zoonotic aspects of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC). Vet Res. 2005;36:411-36 pubmed
    ..The possibilities of control and management programmes for these mycobacterial infections are examined with regards to the importance of their natural reservoirs...
  8. Okumura M, Iwai K, Ogata H, Ueyama M, Kubota M, Aoki M, et al. Clinical factors on cavitary and nodular bronchiectatic types in pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex disease. Intern Med. 2008;47:1465-72 pubmed
    ..We analyzed the clinical feature of these two radiologically different types and identified their prognostic factors...
  9. Wickremasinghe M, Ozerovitch L, Davies G, Wodehouse T, Chadwick M, Abdallah S, et al. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria in patients with bronchiectasis. Thorax. 2005;60:1045-51 pubmed
    ..Patients with pre-existing lung damage are susceptible to NTM, but their prevalence in bronchiectasis is unknown. Distinguishing between lung colonisation and disease can be difficult...
  10. Han X, Tarrand J, Infante R, Jacobson K, Truong M. Clinical significance and epidemiologic analyses of Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare among patients without AIDS. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:4407-12 pubmed
    ..The prevalence rate of 1.86% in postmenopausal women suggests the need to further investigate the public health significance of M. intracellulare...
  11. Watanabe M, Hasegawa N, Ishizaka A, Asakura K, Izumi Y, Eguchi K, et al. Early pulmonary resection for Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease treated with macrolides and quinolones. Ann Thorac Surg. 2006;81:2026-30 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to examine the postoperative outcomes of patients with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung lesions persisting despite treatment with multiple antibiotics...
  12. Koh W, Kwon O, Lee K. Diagnosis and treatment of nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary diseases: a Korean perspective. J Korean Med Sci. 2005;20:913-25 pubmed
    ..In all of the situations, outcomes can be best optimized only when clinicians, radiologists, and laboratories work cooperatively...
  13. Lam P, Griffith D, Aksamit T, Ruoss S, Garay S, Daley C, et al. Factors related to response to intermittent treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006;173:1283-9 pubmed
    ..Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease (MAC-PD) is associated with substantial morbidity, and standard daily multidrug therapy is difficult to tolerate...
  14. Field S, Cowie R. Treatment of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex lung disease with a macrolide, ethambutol, and clofazimine. Chest. 2003;124:1482-6 pubmed
    ..Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAC) causes progressive lung disease. Recommended treatment regimens include a macrolide and a rifamycin, but drug intolerance and relapse after treatment is completed often limit successful therapy...
  15. Shiraishi Y, Nakajima Y, Katsuragi N, Kurai M, Takahashi N. Pneumonectomy for nontuberculous mycobacterial infections. Ann Thorac Surg. 2004;78:399-403 pubmed
    ..However, this procedure carries high morbidity. We report on our experience in using pneumonectomy for treating patients with nontuberculous mycobacterial infections...
  16. Griffith D, Brown Elliott B, Langsjoen B, Zhang Y, Pan X, Girard W, et al. Clinical and molecular analysis of macrolide resistance in Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006;174:928-34 pubmed
    ..The clinical features and outcome of macrolide-resistant Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease are not known...
  17. Smole S, McAleese F, Ngampasutadol J, von Reyn C, Arbeit R. Clinical and epidemiological correlates of genotypes within the Mycobacterium avium complex defined by restriction and sequence analysis of hsp65. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:3374-80 pubmed
  18. Kubo K, Yamazaki Y, Hanaoka M, Nomura H, Fujimoto K, Honda T, et al. Analysis of HLA antigens in Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare pulmonary infection. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000;161:1368-71 pubmed
    ..0015, OR = 4.05). MAI pulmonary infection with nodular bronchiectasis shows two types of outcome, deteriorated and not deteriorated. The subjects with A-26 antigen might indicate the deterioration of MAI infection...
  19. Lein A, von Reyn C, Ravn P, Horsburgh C, Alexander L, Andersen P. Cellular immune responses to ESAT-6 discriminate between patients with pulmonary disease due to Mycobacterium avium complex and those with pulmonary disease due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1999;6:606-9 pubmed
    ..IFN-gamma responses to ESAT-6 are specific for disease due to M. tuberculosis and are not observed in patients with MAC disease or in healthy controls...
  20. Fujiuchi S, Matsumoto H, Yamazaki Y, Nakao S, Takahashi M, Satoh K, et al. Analysis of chest CT in patients with Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease. Respiration. 2003;70:76-81 pubmed
    ..The radiographic changes of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) pulmonary disease during therapy have not been studied well...
  21. Fujita J, Ohtsuki Y, Shigeto E, Suemitsu I, Yamadori I, Bandoh S, et al. Pathological findings of bronchiectases caused by Mycobacterium avium intracellulare complex. Respir Med. 2003;97:933-8 pubmed
    ..Our present study demonstrates that destruction of fundamental bronchial structure due to extensive granuloma formation throughout the airways was likely the main cause of bronchiectases in MAC infection...
  22. Wittram C, Weisbrod G. Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease in immunocompetent patients: radiography-CT correlation. Br J Radiol. 2002;75:340-4 pubmed
    ..We believe that these characteristic radiological signs will assist the physician in the diagnostic work-up of patients with MAC lung disease...
  23. Shiraishi Y, Nakajima Y, Takasuna K, Hanaoka T, Katsuragi N, Konno H. Surgery for Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease in the clarithromycin era. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2002;21:314-8 pubmed
    ..This study examines whether surgery can still play an important role in the management of MAC lung disease in the current era...
  24. Griffith D, Brown B, Girard W, Griffith B, Couch L, Wallace R. Azithromycin-containing regimens for treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;32:1547-53 pubmed
    ..There were no statistically significant differences in outcome between the 3 regimens. These studies demonstrate the effectiveness of daily and t.i.w. regimens containing azithromycin for treatment of MAC lung disease...
  25. Griffith D, Brown B, Cegielski P, Murphy D, Wallace R. Early results (at 6 months) with intermittent clarithromycin-including regimens for lung disease due to Mycobacterium avium complex. Clin Infect Dis. 2000;30:288-92 pubmed
    ..Intermittent (3 times per week) administration of clarithromycin appears to be as effective as daily administration in effecting sputum conversion in pulmonary MAC disease...
  26. Kirk O, Gatell J, Mocroft A, Pedersen C, Proenca R, Brettle R, et al. Infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium among HIV-infected patients after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. EuroSIDA Study Group JD. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000;162:865-72 pubmed
    ..These factors could also explain some of the decrease in MAC over time, though there remained a significantly lower risk of MAC than expected...
  27. Myojo M, Fujiuchi S, Matsumoto H, Yamazaki Y, Takahashi M, Satoh K, et al. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (DMAC) in an immunocompetent adult. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2003;7:498-501 pubmed
    ..We detected serotypes 1, 2 and 4 from mycobacteria cultured from the right scapula, and conclude that this case could be the result of undetected immune deficiency and/or unrecognised virulence of the infecting isolate...
  28. Pavlik I, Svastova P, Bartl J, Dvorska L, Rychlik I. Relationship between IS901 in the Mycobacterium avium complex strains isolated from birds, animals, humans, and the environment and virulence for poultry. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2000;7:212-7 pubmed
    ..The remaining 111 strains, of serotypes 4 to 28, were nonvirulent and did not incorporate IS901. None of the 152 strains isolated from humans was virulent for poultry, including 12 strains which were IS901 positive...
  29. Yoder S, Argueta C, Holtzman A, Aronson T, Berlin O, Tomasek P, et al. PCR comparison of Mycobacterium avium isolates obtained from patients and foods. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1999;65:2650-3 pubmed
    ..avium infection. This study demonstrates a rapid, inexpensive method for typing M. avium, possibly replacing pulsed-field gel electrophoresis...
  30. Maslow J, Brar I, Smith G, Newman G, Mehta R, Thornton C, et al. Latent infection as a source of disseminated disease caused by organisms of the Mycobacterium avium complex in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus macaques. J Infect Dis. 2003;187:1748-55 pubmed
  31. Griffith D. Risk-benefit assessment of therapies for Mycobacterium avium complex infections. Drug Saf. 1999;21:137-52 pubmed
    ..It is to be hoped that even better drugs that are more active against MAC and are associated with less toxicity and drug-drug interactions will be introduced in the future...
  32. Greinert U, Rusch Gerdes S, Vollmer E, Schlaak M. Extensive mediastinal lymphadenopathy in an adult immunocompetent woman caused by Mycobacterium avium complex. Chest. 1999;116:1814-6 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first report of an extensive mediastinal lymphadenopathy caused by MAC in an immunocompetent adult...
  33. Bauer J, Andersen A. Stability of insertion sequence IS1245, a marker for differentiation of Mycobacterium avium strains. J Clin Microbiol. 1999;37:442-4 pubmed
    ..avium cultures and found frequent small one- to two-band changes. However, following repeated in vitro passages over 1 year, similar one- to two-band changes were observed in the IS1245 patterns of only six M. avium strains investigated...
  34. Hollings N, Wells A, Wilson R, Hansell D. Comparative appearances of non-tuberculous mycobacteria species: a CT study. Eur Radiol. 2002;12:2211-7 pubmed
    ..Patients with MAI infection have more severe bronchiectasis and more nodules on CT than the other NTM species. Morphological differences between the other species were identified but were less distinct...
  35. Salama C, Policar M, Venkataraman M. Isolated pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex infection in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection: case reports and literature review. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;37:e35-40 pubmed
    ..Two patients underwent bronchoscopy with biopsy, revealing endobronchial lesions and granuloma formation, and all 4 patients responded well to MAC therapy...
  36. Koh D, Burn P, Mathews G, Nelson M, Healy J. Abdominal computed tomographic findings of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infection in HIV seropositive patients. Can Assoc Radiol J. 2003;54:45-50 pubmed
    ..To compare the computed tomographic (CT) findings of abdominal Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection and Mycobacterium avium intracellulare (MAI) infection in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection...
  37. von Reyn C, Arbeit R, Horsburgh C, Ristola M, Waddell R, Tvaroha S, et al. Sources of disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection in AIDS. J Infect. 2002;44:166-70 pubmed
    ..To identify the sources of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in AIDS...
  38. Srinivasan M, Smith D. Drug interaction with anti-mycobacterial treatment as a cause of clopidogrel resistance. Postgrad Med J. 2008;84:217-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A brief overview of drug interaction as a risk factor for clopidogrel resistance is given. ..
  39. Haider A, Schliep T, Zeana C. Nontuberculous mycobacterium disease with pleural empyema in a patient with advanced AIDS. Am J Med Sci. 2009;338:418-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Our patient had good outcome after treatment with antitubercular agents (isoniazid, rifabutin, and clarithromycin). ..
  40. Kurashima A. [Clinical study on development of nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease]. Kekkaku. 2004;79:737-41 pubmed
    ..The prognosis of nodular bronchiectatic type was better than that of post-tuberculosis type. Extent of disease measured by chest X-ray examination at the time of first visit may be a most affecting factor to the survival rate. ..
  41. Deshpande D, Srivastava S, Meek C, Leff R, Gumbo T. Ethambutol optimal clinical dose and susceptibility breakpoint identification by use of a novel pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model of disseminated intracellular Mycobacterium avium. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:1728-33 pubmed publisher
    ..avium in Middlebrook broth. Given that the modal MIC of clinical isolates is around 2 mg/liter, most isolates should be considered ethambutol resistant. ..
  42. Sato N, Kawabata Y, Nagata M, Hagiwara K, Kanazawa M. [A case of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex disease, mimicking hot tub lung]. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi. 2006;44:962-7 pubmed
    ..It is not long time since the disease was first recognized, and thus few cases have been reported in Japan. Our report may provide valuable information on the disease in this country. ..
  43. Gebo K, Fleishman J, Reilly E, Moore R. High rates of primary Mycobacterium avium complex and Pneumocystis jiroveci prophylaxis in the United States. Med Care. 2005;43:III23-30 pubmed
    ..Integration into the healthcare system is an important correlate of receiving OI prophylaxis. ..
  44. Nishigaki Y, Fujiuchi S, Fujita Y, Yamazaki Y, Sato M, Yamamoto Y, et al. Increased serum level of vascular endothelial growth factor in Mycobacterium avium complex infection. Respirology. 2006;11:407-13 pubmed
    ..This study suggests that VEGF may be associated with the pathogenesis of pulmonary MAC infection. Additionally, serum VEGF levels may be a useful surrogate marker for evaluating the extent of disease and of the response to treatment. ..
  45. Coitinho C, Brandes E, Pardinas M, Rivas C. [Disseminated mycobacterial infections in patients with HIV/AIDS. Evaluation of blood cultures]. Rev Argent Microbiol. 2005;37:196-8 pubmed
    ..The frequency of isolates of M. tuberculosis and MAC in AIDS patients is according with a moderate prevalence of tuberculosis in Uruguay. ..
  46. Ye J, Wu T, Chiang P, Lee M. Factors that affect sputum conversion and treatment outcome in patients with Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex pulmonary disease. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2007;40:342-8 pubmed
    ..Patients tend to be older. Inappropriate treatment might lead to failure of sputum conversion. Treatment with rational combination regimens for at least 5 months could be necessary for sputum conversion. ..
  47. Lai C, Tan C, Chou C, Hsu H, Liao C, Huang Y, et al. Increasing incidence of nontuberculous mycobacteria, Taiwan, 2000-2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:294-6 pubmed publisher
    ..3% to 49.8%. Associated disease incidence increased from 2.7 to 10.2 cases per 100,000 patients. Mycobacterium avium complex and M. abscessus were most frequently isolated. ..
  48. Reddy V, Suleman F, Hayworth D. Mycobacterium avium binds to mouse intestinal mucus aldolase. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2004;84:303-10 pubmed
    ..MAC binds to intestinal mucus aldolase, conceivably facilitating intestinal colonization of the organism. ..
  49. Thomson R, Yew W. When and how to treat pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacterial diseases. Respirology. 2009;14:12-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Randomized controlled trials in well-described patients would provide stronger evidence-based data to guide therapy of non-tuberculous mycobacteria lung diseases, and thus are much needed. ..
  50. Spencer S, Power N. The acute abdomen in the immune compromised host. Cancer Imaging. 2008;8:93-101 pubmed publisher
    ..The typical radiological appearances of the commonest conditions are illustrated. The challenges and limitations in the radiological diagnosis of these conditions are discussed...
  51. Hibiya K, Miyagi K, Tamayose M, Nabeya D, Kinjo T, Takeshima S, et al. Do infections with disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex precede sweet's syndrome? A case report and literature review. Int J Mycobacteriol. 2017;6:336-343 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, should a patient have systemic infection without lymphadenitis, it will be more difficult to clinically confirm that MAC disease is a predisposing factor for Sweet's syndrome. ..
  52. Valerga M, Cugliari M, Cefalo E, Martin M. [Mycobacterium avium infection in a renal transplant recipient]. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2007;25:294-5 pubmed
  53. Sato K, Hayashi M, Utsugi M, Ishizuka T, Takagi H, Mori M. Acute pancreatitis in a patient treated with micafungin. Clin Ther. 2007;29:1468-73 pubmed
    ..A score of 6 was obtained, indicating a probable ADR from micafungin treatment. We report a case of acute pancreatitis probably associated with micafungin use in an elderly patient. ..
  54. Okumura M, Iwai K, Ogata H, Yoshiyama T, Yoshimori K, Mizutani S, et al. [Clinical studies on the pathogenetic factors of cavitary and nodular bronchiectatic types in pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex disease]. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi. 2006;44:3-11 pubmed
    ..The average age at death was 74.4 years old in men and 73.8 years old in women, and the two radiological patterns did not change throughout the entire disease course...
  55. Krzywinska E, Bhatnagar S, Sweet L, Chatterjee D, Schorey J. Mycobacterium avium 104 deleted of the methyltransferase D gene by allelic replacement lacks serotype-specific glycopeptidolipids and shows attenuated virulence in mice. Mol Microbiol. 2005;56:1262-73 pubmed
    ..avium 104 strain, which preferentially activates macrophages in vitro and shows attenuated virulence in mice. Together our data support a role for GPLs in M. avium pathogenesis...
  56. Nishimura T, Hasegawa N, Watanabe M, Takebayashi T, Tasaka S, Ishizaka A. Bronchoscopic microsampling to analyze the epithelial lining fluid of patients with pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex disease. Respiration. 2008;76:338-43 pubmed publisher
    ..While the number of immunocompetent patients with pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex(MAC) disease is growing, the precise pathogenesis of the disease remains to be clarified...
  57. Richardson G, Links I, Windsor P. Gudair (OJD) vaccine self-inoculation: a case for early debridement. Med J Aust. 2005;183:151-2 pubmed
  58. Corti M, Palmero D. Mycobacterium avium complex infection in HIV/AIDS patients. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2008;6:351-63 pubmed publisher
    ..In this article, we describe the epidemiological, clinical, immunological, therapeutic and preventive aspects of MAC infection in HIV-seropositive patients in the pre- and post-HAART era...
  59. Alvarez J, García I, Aranaz A, Bezos J, Romero B, de Juan L, et al. Genetic diversity of Mycobacterium avium isolates recovered from clinical samples and from the environment: molecular characterization for diagnostic purposes. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:1246-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Molecular techniques applied in this study demonstrated their usefulness for this purpose...
  60. Pumpradit W, Ariyoshi K, Petkanchanapong W, Wichukchinda N, Chaiprasert A, Rojanawat A, et al. Mycobacterium avium and Burkholderia pseudomallei (Melioidosis) coinfection in an HIV-positive patient. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol. 2006;24:239-43 pubmed
    ..Clarithromycin and ofloxacin were added after the identification of Mycobacterium avium and its susceptibility test. The patients demonstrated clinical improvement with decreasing abdominal pain and resolution of fever...
  61. Teraki Y, Ono S, Izaki S. Sweet's syndrome associated with Mycobacterium avium infection. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2008;33:599-601 pubmed publisher
    ..avium infection, and dome-shaped, subcutaneous abscesses developed on the limbs and trunk. Sweet's syndrome may thus occur in association with nontuberculous mycobacterial infection...
  62. Wei J, Bond J, Sykes K, Selvarangan R, Jackson M. Treatment outcomes for nontuberculous mycobacterial cervicofacial lymphadenitis in children based on the type of surgical intervention. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2008;138:566-71 pubmed publisher
    ..To report treatment outcomes of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) cervicofacial lymphadenitis...
  63. Mahapatra S, Tripathy S, Rath G, Dash A, Mahapatra A. Mycobacterium avium intracellularae complex associated extrapulmonary axillary lymphadenitis in a HIV-seropositive infant--a rare case report. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2005;23:192-4 pubmed
  64. Cai S, Shimizu T, Tomioka H. Comparative studies on the roles of mediator molecules in expression of the suppressor activity of Mycobacterium avium complex-induced immunosuppressive macrophages against T cell and B cell mitogenic responses. Clin Exp Immunol. 2006;143:560-71 pubmed
    ..Therefore, there are significant differences in the modes of suppressor action of MAC-MPhis against T cell and B cell mitogenesis...
  65. Harada S, Harada Y, Ochiai S, Emori M, Kajiki A, Kitahara Y, et al. [A clinical study on cases with pulmonary M. avium complex (MAC) disease followed up for more than 10 years]. Kekkaku. 2003;78:517-23 pubmed
    ..Based on these results, we made some remarks on the treatment and management of pulmonary M. avium complex disease...
  66. Nicholson O, Feja K, Larussa P, George D, Unal E, Della Latta P, et al. Nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients: case report and review of the literature. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006;25:263-7 pubmed
    ..We reviewed NTM infections among pediatric HSCT patients at our institution from 2000-2004 and identified 2 additional cases. Fourteen published case reports of NTM disease in children are reviewed...
  67. Hibiya K, Higa F, Tateyama M, Fujita J. [The pathogenesis and the development mechanism of Mycobacterium avium complex infection]. Kekkaku. 2007;82:903-18 pubmed
    ..In this review, we specifically discuss the development mechanism of disseminated MAC disease in recently-identified several pathological conditions...
  68. Tran D. Susceptibility to mycobacterial infections due to interferon-gamma and interleukin-12 pathway defects. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2005;26:418-21 pubmed
    ..2) Although less frequent, patients with impaired IFN-gamma/IL-12 mediated immunity are more susceptible to cytomegalovirus, human herpesvirus 8, herpes simplex virus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Histoplasma capsulatum...
  69. Eloumou B, Assi C, Doukoure B, Soro D, Okon A, N da J, et al. [Chronic abdominal pain and fever in an Ivoirian woman: Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare duodenitis in an AIDS patient in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire]. Med Trop (Mars). 2009;69:599-602 pubmed
    ..Despite improvement of general condition, fever persisted and the patient died after 40 days of treatment...