diphtheria

Summary

Summary: A localized infection of mucous membranes or skin caused by toxigenic strains of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE. It is characterized by the presence of a pseudomembrane at the site of infection. DIPHTHERIA TOXIN, produced by C. diphtheriae, can cause myocarditis, polyneuritis, and other systemic toxic effects.

Top Publications

  1. Danilova E, Shiryayev A, Skogen V, Kristoffersen E, Sjursen H. Short-term booster effect of diphtheria toxoid in initially long-term protected individuals. Vaccine. 2005;23:1446-50 pubmed
    ..of this study was to investigate the booster antibody response in individuals with initially high levels of diphtheria antitoxin...
  2. Schellenberger M, Grova N, Willième S, Farinelle S, Prodhomme E, Muller C. Modulation of benzo[a]pyrene induced immunotoxicity in mice actively immunized with a B[a]P-diphtheria toxoid conjugate. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2009;240:37-45 pubmed publisher
    ..develop a prophylactic immune strategy against detrimental effects of B[a]P, we have immunized mice with a B[a]P-diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine...
  3. Dylag A, Shah S. Administration of tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine to parents of high-risk infants in the neonatal intensive care unit. Pediatrics. 2008;122:e550-5 pubmed publisher
    Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccination is recommended for adults who are in contact with infants who are younger than 12 months and in the NICU...
  4. Mothershed E, Cassiday P, Pierson K, Mayer L, Popovic T. Development of a real-time fluorescence PCR assay for rapid detection of the diphtheria toxin gene. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:4713-9 pubmed
    We developed and evaluated a real-time fluorescence PCR assay for detecting the A and B subunits of diphtheria toxin (tox) gene. When 23 toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains, 9 nontoxigenic C...
  5. Scheifele D, Halperin S, Ochnio J, Ferguson A, Skowronski D. A modified vaccine reduces the rate of large injection site reactions to the preschool booster dose of diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine: results of a randomized, controlled trial. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005;24:1059-66 pubmed
    Large injection site reactions commonly follow booster doses of diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccines at 4-6 years of age...
  6. Bitragunta S, Murhekar M, Hutin Y, Penumur P, Gupte M. Persistence of diphtheria, Hyderabad, India, 2003-2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:1144-6 pubmed publisher
    During 2003-2006, diphtheria rates in Hyderabad, India, were higher among persons 5-19 years of age, women, and Muslims than among other groups. Vaccine was efficacious among those who received >/=4 doses...
  7. Stickings P, Peyre M, Coombes L, Muller S, Rappuoli R, Del Giudice G, et al. Transcutaneous immunization with cross-reacting material CRM(197) of diphtheria toxin boosts functional antibody levels in mice primed parenterally with adsorbed diphtheria toxoid vaccine. Infect Immun. 2008;76:1766-73 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we examined the potential of TCI to boost preexisting immune responses to diphtheria in mice...
  8. Wagner K, White J, Lucenko I, Mercer D, Crowcroft N, Neal S, et al. Diphtheria in the postepidemic period, Europe, 2000-2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:217-25 pubmed publisher
    b>Diphtheria incidence has decreased in Europe since its resurgence in the 1990s, but circulation continues in some countries in eastern Europe, and sporadic cases have been reported elsewhere...
  9. Dewinter L, Bernard K, Romney M. Human clinical isolates of Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Corynebacterium ulcerans collected in Canada from 1999 to 2003 but not fitting reporting criteria for cases of diphtheria. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:3447-9 pubmed
    ..diphtheriae as a serious blood-borne pathogen. Seven percent of C. diphtheriae and 100% of C. ulcerans isolates produced diphtheria toxin, demonstrating that toxigenic corynebacteria continue to circulate.

More Information

Publications93

  1. Galazka A. Implications of the diphtheria epidemic in the Former Soviet Union for immunization programs. J Infect Dis. 2000;181 Suppl 1:S244-8 pubmed
    The massive diphtheria epidemic in the former Soviet Union provides important lessons for all diphtheria immunization programs: It is important to achieve a high level of childhood immunization, maintain immunity against diphtheria in ..
  2. Aaron L, Heurtebise F, Bachelier M, Guimard Y. [Pseudomembranous diphtheria caused by Corynebacterium ulcerans]. Rev Med Interne. 2006;27:333-5 pubmed
    ..Although exceptional, diphteria must always be evoked in front of a pseudomembranous angina. The insolation of C. ulcerans must make seek diphteric toxin and its complications. ..
  3. Zasada A, Baczewska Rej M, Wardak S. An increase in non-toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae infections in Poland--molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of strains isolated from past outbreaks and those currently circulating in Poland. Int J Infect Dis. 2010;14:e907-12 pubmed publisher
    ..diphtheriae strains isolated from infections that have occurred over recent years and C. diphtheriae strains isolated from diphtheria cases from past outbreaks in Poland.
  4. Clark S, Adolphe S, Davis M, Cowan A, Kretsinger K. Attitudes of US obstetricians toward a combined tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine for adults. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2006;2006:87040 pubmed
    To describe obstetricians' perspectives related to tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination of mothers and other adults in close contact with infants. Mail survey of national random sample of 400 obstetricians...
  5. Black S, Friedland L, Ensor K, Weston W, Howe B, Klein N. Diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis and inactivated poliovirus vaccines given separately or combined for booster dosing at 4-6 years of age. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008;27:341-6 pubmed publisher
    In the United States, diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) and inactivated poliovirus (IPV) booster vaccinations are recommended for children 4-6 years of age...
  6. Trost E, Blom J, Soares S, Huang I, Al Dilaimi A, Schröder J, et al. Pangenomic study of Corynebacterium diphtheriae that provides insights into the genomic diversity of pathogenic isolates from cases of classical diphtheria, endocarditis, and pneumonia. J Bacteriol. 2012;194:3199-215 pubmed publisher
    ..diphtheriae is one of the most prominent human pathogens and the causative agent of the communicable disease diphtheria. The genomes of 12 strains isolated from patients with classical diphtheria, endocarditis, and pneumonia were ..
  7. Lartigue M, Monnet X, Le Fleche A, Grimont P, Bénet J, Durrbach A, et al. Corynebacterium ulcerans in an immunocompromised patient with diphtheria and her dog. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:999-1001 pubmed
    Corynebacterium ulcerans causes zoonotic infections, such as diphtheria and extrapharyngeal infections. We report here the first case of a diphtheria-like illness caused by C...
  8. Skogen V, Cherkasova V, Maksimova N, Marston C, Sjursen H, Reeves M, et al. Molecular characterization of Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolates, Russia, 1957-1987. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:516-8 pubmed
    In the 1990s, the Newly Independent and Baltic States of the former Soviet Union experienced the largest diphtheria outbreak since the 1960s; it was caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains of a unique clonal group...
  9. Walory J, Grzesiowski J, Hryniewicz W. The prevalence of diphtheria immunity in healthy population in Poland. Epidemiol Infect. 2001;126:225-30 pubmed
    The degree of seroprotection against diphtheria in Poland was evaluated by determination of IgG antibodies to Corymebacterium diphtheriae toxin (IgG-DTAb)...
  10. Zepp F, Knuf M, Habermehl P, Mannhardt Laakmann W, Howe B, Friedland L. Safety of reduced-antigen-content tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine in adolescents as a sixth consecutive dose of acellular pertussis-containing vaccine. J Pediatr. 2006;149:603-610 pubmed
    The safety of a booster dose of a reduced-antigen-content tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine was evaluated in adolescents previously vaccinated with five doses of acellular pertussis-containing vaccine...
  11. McQuillan G, Kruszon Moran D, Deforest A, Chu S, Wharton M. Serologic immunity to diphtheria and tetanus in the United States. Ann Intern Med. 2002;136:660-6 pubmed
    ..To provide national estimates of immunity to diphtheria and tetanus by measurement of serum antibody levels...
  12. Ding Z, Verbaan F, Bivas Benita M, Bungener L, Huckriede A, van den Berg D, et al. Microneedle arrays for the transcutaneous immunization of diphtheria and influenza in BALB/c mice. J Control Release. 2009;136:71-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we investigated in mouse the immune responses after TCI using two model antigens, diphtheria toxoid (DT) and influenza subunit vaccine...
  13. Engler K, Efstratiou A, Norn D, Kozlov R, Selga I, Glushkevich T, et al. Immunochromatographic strip test for rapid detection of diphtheria toxin: description and multicenter evaluation in areas of low and high prevalence of diphtheria. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:80-3 pubmed
    An immunochromatographic strip (ICS) test was developed for the detection of diphtheria toxin by using an equine polyclonal antibody as the capture antibody and colloidal gold-labeled monoclonal antibodies specific for fragment A of the ..
  14. Jayashree M, Shruthi N, Singhi S. Predictors of outcome in patients with diphtheria receiving intensive care. Indian Pediatr. 2006;43:155-60 pubmed
    Forty eight patients with a clinical diagnosis of diphtheria, admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) of a tertiary care teaching hospital, from December 1994 to 2002, were analyzed retrospectively with respect to demographic ..
  15. Lumio J, Suomalainen P, Olander R, Saxen H, Salo E. Fatal case of diphtheria in an unvaccinated infant in Finland. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2003;22:844-6 pubmed
  16. Sekaran N, Edwards K. Extensive swelling reaction associated with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006;25:374-5 pubmed
    Although extensive swelling reactions in the injected limb after the administration of diphtheria-tetanus toxoid-acellular pertussis vaccine have been reported previously, to our knowledge, computerized tomography images of this entity ..
  17. Puumalainen T, Dagan R, Wuorimaa T, Zeta Capeding R, Lucero M, Ollgren J, et al. Greater antibody responses to an eleven valent mixed carrier diphtheria- or tetanus-conjugated pneumococcal vaccine in Filipino than in Finnish or Israeli infants. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2003;22:141-9 pubmed
    ..This report compares antibody responses to aluminum-adjuvanted and nonadjuvanted mixed carrier 11-valent diphtheria- or tetanus-conjugated pneumococcal vaccine (11-PncTD) formulations when given at 6, 10 and 14 weeks and 9 ..
  18. Hogg R, Wessels J, Hart J, Efstratiou A, De Zoysa A, Mann G, et al. Possible zoonotic transmission of toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans from companion animals in a human case of fatal diphtheria. Vet Rec. 2009;165:691-2 pubmed
  19. Urschel S, Cremer S, Birnbaum J, Dallapozza R, Fuchs A, Jäger G, et al. Lack of serologic immunity against vaccine-preventable diseases in children after thoracic transplantation. Transpl Int. 2010;23:619-27 pubmed publisher
    ..We found protective antibody levels against diphtheria in 74% of patients, against tetanus in 22%, against Haemophilus influenzae type b in 30% and against ..
  20. Halperin S, Sweet L, Baxendale D, Neatby A, Rykers P, Smith B, et al. How soon after a prior tetanus-diphtheria vaccination can one give adult formulation tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine?. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006;25:195-200 pubmed
    Adult formulation tetanus and diphtheria toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccines (Tdap) have been developed to prevent pertussis in adolescents and adults...
  21. Choi J, Choo E, Huh A, Choi S, Eom J, Lee J, et al. Immunogenicity and safety of diphtheria-tetanus vaccine in adults. J Korean Med Sci. 2010;25:1727-32 pubmed publisher
    This study was conducted to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of diphtheria-tetanus (Td) vaccine in adults over 40 yr old who had never received a diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination...
  22. Scott L. Spotlight on Tdap? vaccine (Covaxis®) as a single-booster immunization for the prevention of tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis: in children (aged ?4 years), adolescents, and adults. Paediatr Drugs. 2011;13:133-5 pubmed publisher
    ..e. combined tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, five component acellular pertussis [namely detoxified pertussis toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin, ..
  23. De Zoysa A, Efstratiou A, Hawkey P. Molecular characterization of diphtheria toxin repressor (dtxR) genes present in nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains isolated in the United Kingdom. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:223-8 pubmed
    ..diphtheriae strains if they possessed functional diphtheria toxin repressor (dtxR) genes. We studied the predominant strain of nontoxigenic C...
  24. Dravid M, Joshi S. Resurgence of diphtheria in Malegaon & Dhule regions of north Maharashtra. Indian J Med Res. 2008;127:616-7 pubmed
  25. Sadoh A, Oladokun R. Re-emergence of diphtheria and pertussis: implications for Nigeria. Vaccine. 2012;30:7221-8 pubmed publisher
    In the prevaccine era pertussis and diphtheria were responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in children...
  26. Lai F, Thoon K, Ang L, Tey S, Heng D, Cutter J, et al. Comparative seroepidemiology of pertussis, diphtheria and poliovirus antibodies in Singapore: waning pertussis immunity in a highly immunized population and the need for adolescent booster doses. Vaccine. 2012;30:3566-71 pubmed publisher
    We assessed the seroepidemiology of pertussis, diphtheria and poliovirus antibodies in a cohort of highly immunized children, together with the burden of these diseases in Singapore.
  27. Heijstek M, van Gageldonk P, Berbers G, Wulffraat N. Differences in persistence of measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria and tetanus antibodies between children with rheumatic disease and healthy controls: a retrospective cross-sectional study. Ann Rheum Dis. 2012;71:948-54 pubmed publisher
    To compare the persistence of measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria and tetanus antibodies between patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and healthy controls.
  28. Shukla A, Singh B, Katare O. Significant systemic and mucosal immune response induced on oral delivery of diphtheria toxoid using nano-bilosomes. Br J Pharmacol. 2011;164:820-7 pubmed publisher
    Over the last decade apprehension has been growing over the effectiveness of existing parenteral vaccines for diphtheria and has created an interest in the development of a mucosally active vaccine...
  29. Kretsinger K, Broder K, Cortese M, Joyce M, Ortega Sanchez I, Lee G, et al. Preventing tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis among adults: use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) and recommendation of ACIP, suppor. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2006;55:1-37 pubmed
    On June 10, 2005, a tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) formulated for use in adults and adolescents was licensed in the United States for persons aged 11-64 years (ADACEL, manufactured by ..
  30. Mertsola J, Van Der Meeren O, He Q, Linko Parvinen A, Ramakrishnan G, Mannermaa L, et al. Decennial administration of a reduced antigen content diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine in young adults. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;51:656-62 pubmed publisher
    Booster vaccination against tetanus and diphtheria at 10-year intervals is commonly recommended...
  31. Speranza F, Ishii S, Hirata R, Mattos Guaraldi A, Milagres L. Diphtheria toxin IgG levels in military and civilian blood donors in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2010;43:120-3 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we determined serum IgG levels against diphtheria toxin of military and civilian blood donors (N = 75; 69.3% males and 30...
  32. Zhang Q, Han F, Nie Q, Ren H, Zhang B, Liu Q, et al. Seroprevalence of antibodies to pertussis and diphtheria among healthy adults in China. J Infect. 2011;63:441-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In China, booster vaccinations against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis are not used in adults, and little is known about pertussis incidence in the age group...
  33. Pichichero M, Detora L, Johnson D. An adolescent and adult formulation combined tetanus, diphtheria and five-component pertussis vaccine. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2006;5:175-87 pubmed
    ..ADACEL is a tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis combination vaccine (incorporating pertussis toxoid, filamentous hemagglutinin, pertactin ..
  34. Gatchalian S, Ramakrishnan G, Bock H, Lefevre I, Jacquet J. Immunogenicity, reactogenicity and safety of three-dose primary and booster vaccination with combined diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis-hepatitis B-reduced antigen content Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine in Filipino children. Hum Vaccin. 2010;6:664-72 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the immunogenicity, reactogenicity and safety of primary and booster vaccination with DTPw-HBVLT/Hib2.5 vaccine containing low thiomersal and reduced quantities of Hib polysaccharide (PRP)...
  35. Phalkey R, Bhosale R, Joshi A, Wakchoure S, Tambe M, Awate P, et al. Preventing the preventable through effective surveillance: the case of diphtheria in a rural district of Maharashtra, India. BMC Public Health. 2013;13:317 pubmed publisher
    Epidemic diphtheria is still poorly understood and continues to challenge both developing and developed countries...
  36. Piradov M, Pirogov V, Popova L, Avdunina I. Diphtheritic polyneuropathy: clinical analysis of severe forms. Arch Neurol. 2001;58:1438-42 pubmed
    Diphtheritic polyneuropathy (DP) is a dangerous complication of diphtheria, especially its severe forms with bulbar, respiratory tract, and circulatory disturbances...
  37. Lumio J, Olander R, Groundstroem K, Suomalainen P, Honkanen T, Vuopio Varkila J. Epidemiology of three cases of severe diphtheria in Finnish patients with low antitoxin antibody levels. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2001;20:705-10 pubmed
    During the 1990-1998 diphtheria epidemic in the newly independent states of the former Soviet Union, more than 150,000 infections and 5,000 deaths occurred...
  38. Mills K, Cosgrove C, McNeela E, Sexton A, Giemza R, Jabbal Gill I, et al. Protective levels of diphtheria-neutralizing antibody induced in healthy volunteers by unilateral priming-boosting intranasal immunization associated with restricted ipsilateral mucosal secretory immunoglobulin a. Infect Immun. 2003;71:726-32 pubmed
    ..Using the genetically inactivated mutant diphtheria toxoid CRM(197) in a bioadhesive polycationic polysaccharide chitosan delivery system, we found that a single ..
  39. Mattos Guaraldi A, Moreira L, Damasco P, Hirata Junior R. Diphtheria remains a threat to health in the developing world--an overview. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2003;98:987-93 pubmed
    Changes in the epidemiology of diphtheria are occurring worldwide. A large proportion of adults in many industrialized and developing countries are now susceptible to diphtheria...
  40. Golaz A, Hardy I, Strebel P, Bisgard K, Vitek C, Popovic T, et al. Epidemic diphtheria in the Newly Independent States of the Former Soviet Union: implications for diphtheria control in the United States. J Infect Dis. 2000;181 Suppl 1:S237-43 pubmed
    The re-emergence of diphtheria in the Newly Independent States of the former Soviet Union in the 1990s raised global awareness of the potential for resurgent disease in countries with long-standing immunization programs...
  41. Reacher M, Ramsay M, White J, De Zoysa A, Efstratiou A, Mann G, et al. Nontoxigenic corynebacterium diphtheriae: an emerging pathogen in England and Wales?. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6:640-5 pubmed
    ..K. or non-U.K. residents. The upward trend in nontoxigenic C. diphtheriae probably represented increased ascertainment, although dissemination of a particular strain or clone may have been a factor...
  42. Baskan E, Tunali S, Kacar S, Adim S, Saricaoglu H. A case of granuloma annulare in a child following tetanus and diphtheria toxoid vaccination. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2005;19:639-40 pubmed
  43. Southern J, Gelb D, Andrews N, Waight P, Morris R, Cartwright K, et al. Reactogenicity of meningococcal C conjugate vaccines when administered at the same time as, or a month prior to or after, tetanus and diphtheria booster vaccinations. Hum Vaccin. 2006;2:237-42 pubmed
    This single blind study was conducted to address safety concerns regarding coadministration of diphtheria/ tetanus (DT,Td) boosters and meningococcal C conjugate (MCC) vaccines containing diphtheria or tetanus conjugate proteins.
  44. Gajdos V, Soubeyrand B, Vidor E, Richard P, Boyer J, Sadorge C, et al. Immunogenicity and safety of combined adsorbed low-dose diphtheria, tetanus and inactivated poliovirus vaccine (REVAXIS (®)) versus combined diphtheria, tetanus and inactivated poliovirus vaccine (DT Polio (®)) given as a booster dose at 6 years of a. Hum Vaccin. 2011;7:549-56 pubmed
    ..comparative, phase-IIIb study conducted in France aimed to demonstrate whether seroprotection against diphtheria, tetanus and poliomyelitis 1 month after a single dose of REVAXIS (low-dose diphtheria) is non-inferior to ..
  45. Aue A, Hennig H, Krüger S, Closius B, Kirchner H, Seyfarth M. Immunity against diphtheria and tetanus in German blood donors. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2003;192:93-7 pubmed
    After the recent diphtheria epidemics in Eastern Europe in the early 1990s, we re-evaluated the diphtheria and tetanus immunity of 321 German blood donors (192 men and 129 women)...
  46. Robbins J, Schneerson R, Trollfors B, Sato H, Sato Y, Rappuoli R, et al. The diphtheria and pertussis components of diphtheria-tetanus toxoids-pertussis vaccine should be genetically inactivated mutant toxins. J Infect Dis. 2005;191:81-8 pubmed
    ..of cellular with acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines has considerably reduced the systemic reactions observed with diphtheria-tetanus toxoids-pertussis vaccine but has not eliminated the extensive swelling (sometimes involving an entire ..
  47. Halasa N, O Shea A, Shi J, Lafleur B, Edwards K. Poor immune responses to a birth dose of diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine. J Pediatr. 2008;153:327-32 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of an additional birth dose of diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP).
  48. Crowcroft N, White J, Efstratiou A, George R. Screening and toxigenic corynebacteria spread. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:520-1 pubmed
  49. Tharmaphornpilas P, Yoocharoan P, Prempree P, Youngpairoj S, Sriprasert P, Vitek C. Diphtheria in Thailand in the 1990s. J Infect Dis. 2001;184:1035-40 pubmed
    b>Diphtheria remains endemic in developing countries, but there are limited published data on the subject. Thailand's diphtheria surveillance data are relatively complete and may give a fuller picture of the situation in similar countries...
  50. Slusarczyk J, Dulny G, Nowak K, Krszyna J, Wysokińska T, Fordymacka A, et al. [Immunity of children aged 6-8 against pertussis, tetanus and diphtheria]. Przegl Epidemiol. 2002;56:39-48 pubmed
    ..For comparison purposes immunity against tetanus and diphtheria was tested...
  51. Titov L, Kolodkina V, Dronina A, Grimont F, Grimont P, Lejay Collin M, et al. Genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains isolated from patients in belarus during an epidemic period. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:1285-8 pubmed
    ..strains (93 of the gravis biotype and nine of the mitis biotype) isolated from clinical cases during the Belarus diphtheria epidemic were characterized by biotyping, toxigenicity testing by the Elek test and an indirect hemagglutination ..
  52. Ohuabunwo C, Perevoscikovs J, Griskevica A, Gargiullo P, Brilla A, Viksna L, et al. Respiratory diphtheria among highly vaccinated military trainees in Latvia: improved protection from DT compared with Td booster vaccination. Scand J Infect Dis. 2005;37:813-20 pubmed
    An outbreak of respiratory diphtheria occurred among highly-vaccinated trainees at a Latvian military academy in August-September 2000...
  53. Tejedor J, Moro M, Ruiz Contreras J, Castro J, Gómez Campderá J, Navarro M, et al. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of primary immunization with a hexavalent diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated polio-Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine coadministered with two doses of a meningococcal C-tetanus toxoid c. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006;25:713-20 pubmed
  54. Sing A, Bierschenk S, Heesemann J. Classical diphtheria caused by Corynebacterium ulcerans in Germany: amino acid sequence differences between diphtheria toxins from Corynebacterium diphtheriae and C. ulcerans. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;40:325-6 pubmed
  55. De Benoist A, White J, Efstratiou A, Kelly C, Mann G, Nazareth B, et al. Imported cutaneous diphtheria, United Kingdom. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10:511-3 pubmed
    Cutaneous diphtheria is endemic in tropical countries but unusual in the United Kingdom. Four cases occurred in the United Kingdom within 2 months in 2002...
  56. Gatchalian S, Palestroque E, de Vleeschauwer I, Han H, Poolman J, Schuerman L, et al. The development of a new heptavalent diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis-hepatitis B-Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A and C vaccine: a randomized dose-ranging trial of the conjugate vaccine components. Int J Infect Dis. 2008;12:278-88 pubmed
    ..antibody persistence, immune memory, and reactogenicity of a novel heptavalent DTPw-HBV/Hib-MenAC (diphtheria, tetanus, whole cell pertussis-hepatitis B virus/Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups ..
  57. Zarei S, Jeddi Tehrani M, Akhondi M, Zeraati H, Kheirkhah T, Ghazanfari M, et al. Immunogenicity of a triple diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis vaccine in Iranian preschool children. Iran J Immunol. 2007;4:101-9 pubmed
    Immunization against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis has been applied in Iran since 1950. WHO suggests periodical evaluation of effectiveness of the triple diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis (DTwP) vaccine, worldwide.
  58. Edmunds W, Pebody R, Aggerback H, Baron S, Berbers G, Conyn van Spaendonck M, et al. The sero-epidemiology of diphtheria in Western Europe. ESEN Project. European Sero-Epidemiology Network. Epidemiol Infect. 2000;125:113-25 pubmed
    ..in Western Europe collected large, representative serum banks across the entire age range and tested them for diphtheria anti-toxin (sample size ranged from 2991 to 7715)...
  59. Hla K, Thein S, Aye A, Han H, Bock H, David M, et al. Reactogenicity and immunogenicity profiles of a novel pentavalent diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis-hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine: a randomized dose-ranging trial of the Hib tetanus-conjugate content. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006;25:706-12 pubmed
    Combined vaccines containing diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis whole-cell (DTPw), Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), and hepatitis-B vaccines are essential for the continuing success of vaccination programs in developing nations...
  60. Tomovici A, Barreto L, Zickler P, Meekison W, Noya F, Voloshen T, et al. Humoral immunity 10 years after booster immunization with an adolescent and adult formulation combined tetanus, diphtheria, and 5-component acellular pertussis vaccine. Vaccine. 2012;30:2647-53 pubmed publisher
    Persistence of antibodies after a single dose of Tdap vaccine (tetanus, diphtheria, and 5-component acellular pertussis vaccine) was evaluated in a follow-up study of adolescents (N=324) and adults (N=644) who had received Tdap in earlier ..
  61. Kwon H, Lee J, Chung N, Cho B, Kim H, Kang J. Assessment of serologic immunity to diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis after treatment of Korean pediatric hematology and oncology patients. J Korean Med Sci. 2012;27:78-83 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to investigate the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis antibody titers after antineoplastic treatment and to suggest an appropriate vaccination approach for pediatric hemato-oncologic patients...
  62. Rydell N, Sjöholm I. Mucosal vaccination against diphtheria using starch microparticles as adjuvant for cross-reacting material (CRM197) of diphtheria toxin. Vaccine. 2005;23:2775-83 pubmed
    ..In this investigation, polyacryl starch microparticles were conjugated to diphtheria toxin cross-reacting material (CRM197) as a mucosal adjuvant for oral or intranasal immunisation of mice...
  63. Kruger S, Müller Steinhardt M, Kirchner H, Kreft B. A 5-year follow-up on antibody response after diphtheria and tetanus vaccination in hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis. 2001;38:1264-70 pubmed
    ..An impaired vaccination response rate has been reported for vaccines against hepatitis B, influenza, tetanus, diphtheria, and others...
  64. Dinelli M, Fisberg M, de Moraes Pinto M. Tetanus and diphtheria immunity in adolescents from São Paulo, Brazil. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2007;40:259-63 pubmed
    Tetanus and diphtheria vaccines are of special concern in adolescents because boosters are necessary for adequate maintenance of protection and are often omitted...
  65. Campbell J, Edelman R, King J, Papa T, Ryall R, Rennels M. Safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of a tetravalent meningococcal polysaccharide-diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine given to healthy adults. J Infect Dis. 2002;186:1848-51 pubmed
    ..old, were immunized once with a tetravalent (serogroups A, C, Y, and W-135) meningococcal vaccine conjugated to diphtheria toxoid at 1 of 3 doses and were monitored for safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity...
  66. Freitas F, Sato H, Aranda C, Arantes B, Pacheco M, Waldman E. [Adverse events following diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus vaccinations and factors associated with severity]. Rev Saude Publica. 2007;41:1032-41 pubmed
    To analyze adverse events following vaccinations against diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus (AEFV-DPT) and to investigate factors associated with event severity.
  67. Sharma N, Banavaliker J, Ranjan R, Kumar R. Bacteriological & epidemiological characteristics of diphtheria cases in & around Delhi -a retrospective study. Indian J Med Res. 2007;126:545-52 pubmed
    b>Diphtheria infections caused by the different toxigenic biotypes of Corynebacterium diphtheriae are endemic in Delhi. Information on biochemical identification, toxigenicity and antimicrobial susceptibility to this bacterium is scanty...
  68. Scheifele D, Ochnio J, Halperin S. Cellular immunity as a potential cause of local reactions to booster vaccination with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis antigens. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009;28:985-9 pubmed publisher
    Booster doses of diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccines restore waning serum antibody values but frequently cause local inflammation...
  69. Chironna M, Germinario C, Lopalco P, Carrozzini F, Barbuti S, Quarto M. Immunity to diphtheria among refugees in southern Italy. Vaccine. 2003;21:3157-61 pubmed
    This study assessed the immune status against diphtheria of a sample of refugees (mainly Kosovars and Kurds) in southern Italy (Puglia). The 54.8% of 1128 subjects showed full protection against diphtheria, 30...
  70. Robinson M, Heal C, Gardener E, Powell P, Sims D. Antibody response to diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis immunization in preterm infants who receive dexamethasone for chronic lung disease. Pediatrics. 2004;113:733-7 pubmed
    To study the effect of dexamethasone in preterm infants with chronic lung disease (CLD) on antibody response to routine immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTP).
  71. Taylor D, Efstratiou A, Reilly W. Diphtheria toxin production by Corynebacterium ulcerans from cats. Vet Rec. 2002;150:355 pubmed
  72. Healy C, Rench M, Baker C. Importance of timing of maternal combined tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) immunization and protection of young infants. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;56:539-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Pertussis booster vaccine (Tdap) recommendations assume that pertussis-specific antibodies in women immunized preconception, during, or after previous pregnancies persist at sufficient levels to protect newborn infants...
  73. McCormack P. Reduced-antigen, combined diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis vaccine, adsorbed (Boostrix®): a review of its properties and use as a single-dose booster immunization. Drugs. 2012;72:1765-91 pubmed publisher
    Reduced-antigen, combined diphtheria, tetanus and three-component acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap; Boostrix®) is indicated for booster vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis in individuals from age four years onwards in ..
  74. Hirobe S, Matsuo K, Quan Y, Kamiyama F, Morito H, Asada H, et al. Clinical study of transcutaneous vaccination using a hydrogel patch for tetanus and diphtheria. Vaccine. 2012;30:1847-54 pubmed publisher
    ..present study, we performed a clinical study to apply our TCI formulation for vaccination against tetanus and diphtheria in human...
  75. Gardner P. Issues related to the decennial tetanus-diphtheria toxoid booster recommendations in adults. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2001;15:143-53, ix-x pubmed
    ..case can be made for a policy that focuses on assuring high levels of primary immunization with tetanus and diphtheria (Td) toxoids and abandons the decennial Td booster in favor of a single midlife booster at age 50-65 years...
  76. Anima H, Malay M, Santanu H, Rajashree R, Sita C, Baran S. A study on determinants of occurrence of complications and fatality among diphtheria cases admitted to ID & BG Hospital of Kolkata. J Commun Dis. 2008;40:53-8 pubmed
    This was a hospital-based case series study of diphtheria patients admitted to ID & BG Hospital of Kolkata from May 2004 to April 2005. A total of 107 patients were included in the study...
  77. Kombarova S, Kim C, Melnikov V, Reeves M, Borisova O, Mazurova I, et al. Rapid identification of Corynebacterium diphtheriae clonal group associated with diphtheria epidemic, Russian Federation. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7:133-6 pubmed
    ..Our data show that RAPD can reliably, reproducibly, and rapidly screen a large number of strains to identify the epidemic clonal group...
  78. Adem A, Tacettin I, Sevin A, Vildan E. Diphtheria immunization rates and the effect of several sociodemographic factors on immunization of children in eastern Turkey. Pediatr Int. 2003;45:461-6 pubmed
    One of the aims of the World Health Organization is to eliminate diphtheria in all countries. Thus, it is important to achieve a high level of childhood immunization...
  79. Cheuvart B, Burgess M, Zepp F, Mertsola J, Wolter J, Schuerman L. Anti-diphtheria antibody seroprotection rates are similar 10 years after vaccination with dTpa or DTPa using a mathematical model. Vaccine. 2004;23:336-42 pubmed
    The reduced antigen content diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis (dTpa) vaccine (Boostrixtrade mark) has been shown to induce a strong booster response to all the vaccine components in 4-6 year olds...
  80. Launay O, Toneatti C, Bernede C, Njamkepo E, Petitprez K, Leblond A, et al. Antibodies to tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis among healthy adults vaccinated according to the French vaccination recommendations. Hum Vaccin. 2009;5:341-6 pubmed
    ..sero-epidemiological study, we investigated humoral immunity to three vaccine-preventable diseases--tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis--among 331 adults (aged 18-60 years) attending vaccination centres for travellers and who had been ..
  81. Saikia L, Nath R, Saikia N, Choudhury G, Sarkar M. A diphtheria outbreak in Assam, India. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2010;41:647-52 pubmed
    Between May and July 2009 there was a small outbreak of diphtheria in adults in Assam, India, with 13 confirmed cases, 8 males and 5 females. The mean age of the confirmed patients was 21.8 +/- 10.5 years...
  82. Saxena S, Jais M, Dutta R, Dutta A. Serological immunity to diphtheria and tetanus in healthy adults in Delhi, India. Trop Doct. 2009;39:160-3 pubmed publisher
    Widespread childhood immunization with DPT (diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus) has largely eradicated diphtheria and tetanus from many countries...
  83. Pachón I, Amela C, de Ory F. Age-specific seroprevalence of poliomyelitis, diphtheria and tetanus antibodies in Spain. Epidemiol Infect. 2002;129:535-41 pubmed
    ..in Spain, with the main aim of estimating the population's immunity against poliomyelitis, tetanus and diphtheria. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted, covering the population aged 2-39 years...
  84. Sagheb M, Sajjadi S, Sajjady G. A study on the protection of hemodialysis patients against diphtheria and tetanus. Ren Fail. 2009;31:904-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We found out that only 16% of our hemodialysis patients were immune to diphtheria (19% of the control group), and this rate for tetanus was 24% (48.2% in the healthy control)...