actinomycetales infections

Summary

Summary: Infections with bacteria of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.

Top Publications

  1. Reinhard M, Prag J, Kemp M, Andresen K, Klemmensen B, Højlyng N, et al. Ten cases of Actinobaculum schaalii infection: clinical relevance, bacterial identification, and antibiotic susceptibility. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:5305-8 pubmed
    ..A. schaalii is easily overlooked due to its slow growth in ambient air and its resemblance to the normal bacterial flora on skin and mucosa...
  2. Raoult D, Fenollar F, Rolain J, Minodier P, Bosdure E, Li W, et al. Tropheryma whipplei in children with gastroenteritis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:776-82 pubmed publisher
    ..002). High incidence in patients and evidence of clonal circulation suggests that some cases of gastroenteritis are caused or exacerbated by T. whipplei, which may be co-transmitted with other intestinal pathogens...
  3. Giguere S, Cohen N, Chaffin M, Hines S, Hondalus M, Prescott J, et al. Rhodococcus equi: clinical manifestations, virulence, and immunity. J Vet Intern Med. 2011;25:1221-30 pubmed publisher
    ..equi. A complementary consensus statement providing recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment, control, and prevention of infections caused by R. equi in foals can be found in the same issue of the Journal...
  4. Hsu F, Wohlmann J, Turk J, Haas A. Structural definition of trehalose 6-monomycolates and trehalose 6,6'-dimycolates from the pathogen Rhodococcus equi by multiple-stage linear ion-trap mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2011;22:2160-70 pubmed publisher
  5. Sturm P, van Eijk J, Veltman S, Meuleman E, Schulin T. Urosepsis with Actinobaculum schaalii and Aerococcus urinae. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:652-4 pubmed
    ..Additional patients were diagnosed using this method. The prevalence of Actinobaculum species in urinary tract infections is underestimated since it is not isolated by routine urine culture procedures...
  6. Santos T, Caixeta L, Machado V, Rauf A, Gilbert R, Bicalho R. Antimicrobial resistance and presence of virulence factor genes in Arcanobacterium pyogenes isolated from the uterus of postpartum dairy cows. Vet Microbiol. 2010;145:84-9 pubmed publisher
    ..All four virulence factor genes occurred in isolates from normal puerperium and clinical metritis; however, the fimA gene was present in significantly higher frequency in isolates from metritis cows...
  7. Pei Y, Parreira V, Nicholson V, Prescott J. Mutation and virulence assessment of chromosomal genes of Rhodococcus equi 103. Can J Vet Res. 2007;71:1-7 pubmed
  8. Dawson T, Horohov D, Meijer W, Muscatello G. Current understanding of the equine immune response to Rhodococcus equi. An immunological review of R. equi pneumonia. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2010;135:1-11 pubmed publisher
  9. Lai C, Wang C, Liu C, Tan C, Lin S, Liao C, et al. Infections caused by Gordonia species at a medical centre in Taiwan, 1997 to 2008. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2010;16:1448-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Accurate identification with molecular methods is required if the role of Gordonia spp. in causing infection is to be recognized...

More Information

Publications72

  1. von Bargen K, Wohlmann J, Taylor G, Utermöhlen O, Haas A. Nitric oxide-mediated intracellular growth restriction of pathogenic Rhodococcus equi can be prevented by iron. Infect Immun. 2011;79:2098-111 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that nitric oxide is central to the restriction of bacterial access to iron in activated macrophages...
  2. Cattoir V, Varca A, Greub G, Prod hom G, Legrand P, Lienhard R. In vitro susceptibility of Actinobaculum schaalii to 12 antimicrobial agents and molecular analysis of fluoroquinolone resistance. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2010;65:2514-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the in vitro susceptibility of Actinobaculum schaalii to 12 antimicrobial agents as well as to dissect the genetic basis of fluoroquinolone resistance...
  3. Langer A, Feja K, Lasker B, Hinrikson H, Morey R, Pellegrini G, et al. Investigation of an apparent outbreak of Rhodococcus equi bacteremia. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2010;67:95-100 pubmed publisher
    ..equi but genetically distinct, and 1 was identified as Gordonia polyisoprenivorans. Rapid reference laboratory support prevented an unnecessary outbreak investigation...
  4. Nielsen H, Søby K, Christensen J, Prag J. Actinobaculum schaalii: a common cause of urinary tract infection in the elderly population. Bacteriological and clinical characteristics. Scand J Infect Dis. 2010;42:43-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The incidence of A. schaalii infections is much higher than previously reported. We present numerous case reports and describe the bacteriological and clinical characteristics of this overlooked uropathogen...
  5. Aoyama K, Kang Y, Yazawa K, Gonoi T, Kamei K, Mikami Y. Characterization of clinical isolates of Gordonia species in Japanese clinical samples during 1998-2008. Mycopathologia. 2009;168:175-83 pubmed publisher
    ..aichiensis (2 strains), and G. terrae (1 strain), and G. otitidis (1 strain). Results of drug susceptibility tests for these 31 strains of Gordonia isolates are reported herein...
  6. Oliveira A, Ferraz L, Brocchi M, Roque Barreira M. Oral administration of a live attenuated Salmonella vaccine strain expressing the VapA protein induces protection against infection by Rhodococcus equi. Microbes Infect. 2007;9:382-90 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that attenuated Salmonella encoding VapA may be used in foals to prevent rhodococcosis...
  7. Renvoise A, Roux V, Casalta J, Thuny F, Riberi A. Kytococcus schroeteri, a rare agent of endocarditis. Int J Infect Dis. 2008;12:223-7 pubmed
  8. Pei Y, Nicholson V, Woods K, Prescott J. Immunization by intrabronchial administration to 1-week-old foals of an unmarked double gene disruption strain of Rhodococcus equi strain 103+. Vet Microbiol. 2007;125:100-10 pubmed
    ..equi pneumonia because of an inability to mount an effective immune response. This has been suspected previously but this is the first time that this has been demonstrated experimentally...
  9. Muscatello G, Leadon D, Klayt M, Ocampo Sosa A, Lewis D, Fogarty U, et al. Rhodococcus equi infection in foals: the science of 'rattles'. Equine Vet J. 2007;39:470-8 pubmed
    ..equi on stud farms in the future. Reliance on vaccines alone, in the absence of management strategies to control the on-farm challenge is likely to be disappointing...
  10. Martinaud C, Gaillard T, Brisou P, Gisserot O, de Jaureguiberry J. [Bacteremia caused by Kocuria kristinae in a patient with acute leukaemia]. Med Mal Infect. 2008;38:165-6 pubmed publisher
  11. Chambers E, Gardiner R, Peeler E. An investigation into the prevalence of Renibacterium salmoninarum in farmed rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), and wild fish populations in selected river catchments in England and Wales between 1998 and 2000. J Fish Dis. 2008;31:89-96 pubmed publisher
    ..One hundred and fifty fish were sampled from each RBT farm, but none of the fish was found to be R. salmoninarum-positive. Evidence was found, for the first time, for the presence of R. salmoninarum in an eel, Anguilla anguilla...
  12. Bouza E, Pérez Parra A, Rosal M, Martín Rabadán P, Rodriguez Creixems M, Marin M. Tsukamurella: a cause of catheter-related bloodstream infections. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2009;28:203-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Genotypic methods such as PCR 16S rRNA can allow a reliable identification at the genus level of Tsukamurella strains faster than a combination of conventional phenotypic methods...
  13. Bousbia S, Papazian L, Auffray J, Fenollar F, Martin C, Li W, et al. Tropheryma whipplei in patients with pneumonia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:258-63 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified 4 novel genotypes of T. whipplei. In 1 case, T. whipplei was the only bacterium; in 4 others, it was associated with buccal flora. We suggest that T. whipplei should be investigated as an etiologic agent of pneumonia...
  14. Ribeiro M, Takai S, de Vargas A, Mattos Guaraldi A, Ferreira Camello T, Ohno R, et al. Short report: Identification of virulence-associated plasmids in Rhodococcus equi in humans with and without acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Brazil. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011;85:510-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Five VapB-positive isolates had the type 8 virulence plasmid. Eleven of the patients had a history of contact with livestock and/or a farm environment, and none had contact with pigs...
  15. Murray A, Hall M, Munro L, Wallace I. Modelling management strategies for a disease including undetected sub-clinical infection: bacterial kidney disease in Scottish salmon and trout farms. Epidemics. 2011;3:171-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Culling appears of little value for BKD control. BKD prevalence for rainbow trout farms is less sensitive to controls than it is for Atlantic salmon farms and so different management strategies may be required for the sectors...
  16. Giguere S, Lee E, Williams E, Cohen N, Chaffin M, Halbert N, et al. Determination of the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance to macrolide antimicrobials or rifampin in Rhodococcus equi isolates and treatment outcome in foals infected with antimicrobial-resistant isolates of R equi. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2010;237:74-81 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance to macrolide antimicrobials or rifampin in Rhodococcus equi isolates and to describe treatment outcome in foals infected with antimicrobial-resistant isolates of R equi...
  17. Oliveira A, Ruas L, Cardoso S, Soares S, Roque Barreira M. Vaccination of mice with salmonella expressing VapA: mucosal and systemic Th1 responses provide protection against Rhodococcus equi infection. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e8644 pubmed publisher
    ..enterica Typhimurium expressing VapA induces specific and long-lasting humoral and cellular responses against the pathogen, which are appropriately regulated and allow tissue integrity after challenge...
  18. Topino S, Galati V, Grilli E, Petrosillo N. Rhodococcus equi infection in HIV-infected individuals: case reports and review of the literature. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2010;24:211-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Prompt diagnosis, early initiation of antiretroviral treatment and combined antimicrobial treatment seem to be effective to eradicate the infection and to improve the outcome...
  19. Yamshchikov A, Schuetz A, Lyon G. Rhodococcus equi infection. Lancet Infect Dis. 2010;10:350-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We review the pathogenesis and clinical characteristics of infections with Rhodococcus spp, and discuss approaches to treatment of this disease entity in populations of patients who are immunocompromised...
  20. Coulson G, Agarwal S, Hondalus M. Characterization of the role of the pathogenicity island and vapG in the virulence of the intracellular actinomycete pathogen Rhodococcus equi. Infect Immun. 2010;78:3323-34 pubmed publisher
    ..equi-infected foals, we hypothesized that vapG could be an important virulence factor. However, analysis of a marked vapG deletion mutant determined the gene to be dispensable for growth in macrophages and in vivo in mice...
  21. Bolton T, Kuskie K, Halbert N, Chaffin K, Healy M, Lawhon S, et al. Detection of strain variation in isolates of Rhodococcus equi from an affected foal using repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2010;22:611-5 pubmed
    ..The automated system used in the current study provided a rapid, reproducible, and discriminating method for typing R. equi isolates...
  22. Ribeiro M, Takai S, Guazzelli A, Lara G, da Silva A, Fernandes M, et al. Virulence genes and plasmid profiles in Rhodococcus equi isolates from domestic pigs and wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Brazil. Res Vet Sci. 2011;91:478-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate a high occurrence of plasmid type 8 in isolates from pigs and wild boars, and the similarity of plasmid types in the domestic pigs, wild boars and human isolates in Brazil...
  23. Aepinus C, Adolph E, von Eiff C, Podbielski A, Petzsch M. Kytococcus schroeteri: a probably underdiagnosed pathogen involved in prosthetic valve endocarditis. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2008;120:46-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Since the first description of K. schroeteri in 2002, four cases of endocarditis have been published, suggesting antecedent and continuing underdiagnosis...
  24. Gabriels P, Joosen H, Put E, Verhaegen J, Magerman K, Cartuyvels R. Recurrent Rhodococcus equi infection with fatal outcome in an immunocompetent patient. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2006;25:46-8 pubmed
    ..Reported here is a case of R. equi infection in a seemingly healthy patient with a very complicated course. Despite neurosurgery and prolonged antibiotic therapy the patient deceased...
  25. Venner M, Rödiger A, Laemmer M, Giguere S. Failure of antimicrobial therapy to accelerate spontaneous healing of subclinical pulmonary abscesses on a farm with endemic infections caused by Rhodococcus equi. Vet J. 2012;192:293-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The study showed that many foals with pulmonary abscesses recover without antimicrobial therapy. Moreover, treatment of sub-clinically affected foals with antimicrobial agents did not significantly hasten recovery...
  26. El Karoui K, Guillet C, Sekkal N, Lanternier F, Mechai F, Hue K, et al. Synergistic effect of carbapenem-teicoplanin combination during severe Rhodococcus equi pneumonia in a kidney transplant recipient. Transpl Infect Dis. 2009;11:359-62 pubmed publisher
    ..This combination was shown to be synergistic. It has minimal side effects in transplant recipients and appears to be an effective initial treatment for this severe infection...
  27. von Bargen K, Haas A. Molecular and infection biology of the horse pathogen Rhodococcus equi. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2009;33:870-91 pubmed publisher
    ..equi biology, the trafficking of R. equi-containing vacuoles inside host cells, factors involved in virulence and host resistance and on host-pathogen interaction on organismal and cellular levels...
  28. Roda R, Young M, Timpone J, Rosen J. Rhodococcus equi pulmonary-central nervous system syndrome: brain abscess in a patient on high-dose steroids--a case report and review of the literature. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2009;63:96-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We report the 1st case of R. equi brain abscess in a patient receiving corticosteroid monotherapy and review the literature for risk factors and sites of infection...
  29. Therriault B, Daniels L, Carter Y, Raasch R. Severe sepsis caused by Arcanobacterium haemolyticum: a case report and review of the literature. Ann Pharmacother. 2008;42:1697-702 pubmed publisher
    ..To describe a case of severe sepsis, cavitary pneumonia, and pyomyositis caused by Arcanobacterium haemolyticum...
  30. Bank S, Jensen A, Hansen T, Søby K, Prag J. Actinobaculum schaalii, a common uropathogen in elderly patients, Denmark. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:76-80 pubmed publisher
    ..schaalii may be a more common pathogen than previously thought, especially in patients with unexplained chronic urinary tract infections, who are often treated with trimethoprim or ciprofloxacin, to which A. schaalii is resistant...
  31. Mnif B, Boujelbène I, Mahjoubi F, Gdoura R, Trabelsi I, Moalla S, et al. Endocarditis due to Kytococcus schroeteri: case report and review of the literature. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:1187-9 pubmed
    ..Three cases of K. schroeteri endocarditis described within a short period of time might indicate a specific pathogenicity of this new species. The isolation of kytococci from normally sterile sites should not be overlooked...
  32. Lagier J, Lepidi H, Raoult D, Fenollar F. Systemic Tropheryma whipplei: clinical presentation of 142 patients with infections diagnosed or confirmed in a reference center. Medicine (Baltimore). 2010;89:337-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients with inflammatory rheumatoid disease must be systematically interviewed to determine the efficacy of previous immunosuppressive and antibiotic therapies...
  33. Schoniger Hekele M, Petermann D, Weber B, Muller C. Tropheryma whipplei in the environment: survey of sewage plant influxes and sewage plant workers. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:2033-5 pubmed
    ..T. whipplei was found in sewage water, in stool of healthy individuals, and significantly more often in stool of workers exposed to sewage water...
  34. Phumoonna T, Barton M, Vanniasinkam T, Heuzenroeder M. Chimeric vapA/groEL2 DNA vaccines enhance clearance of Rhodococcus equi in aerosol challenged C3H/He mice. Vaccine. 2008;26:2457-65 pubmed publisher
    ..equi infection...
  35. Lopez A, Townsend H, Allen A, Hondalus M. Safety and immunogenicity of a live-attenuated auxotrophic candidate vaccine against the intracellular pathogen Rhodococcus equi. Vaccine. 2008;26:998-1009 pubmed
    ..equi-specific immune responses. A preliminary immunization strategy did not afford protection against virulent R. equi challenge and therefore, optimization of the vaccine formulation and or vaccination protocol will be necessary...
  36. Stanley T, Crothers L, McCalmont M, Xu J, Millar B, Goldsmith C, et al. The potential misidentification of Tsukamurella pulmonis as an atypical Mycobacterium species: a cautionary tale. J Med Microbiol. 2006;55:475-8 pubmed
  37. Pei Y, Dupont C, Sydor T, Haas A, Prescott J. Cholesterol oxidase (ChoE) is not important in the virulence of Rhodococcus equi. Vet Microbiol. 2006;118:240-6 pubmed
    ..12) difference in lung:body weight ratio of the choE mutant versus virulent parent infected foals (mean 2.67+/-0.25% compared to 4.58+/-0.96%). We conclude that the cholesterol oxidase is not important for the virulence of R. equi...
  38. Jost B, Billington S. Arcanobacterium pyogenes: molecular pathogenesis of an animal opportunist. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2005;88:87-102 pubmed
    ..pyogenes virulence. A. pyogenes is a versatile pathogen, with an arsenal of virulence determinants. However, most aspects of the pathogenesis of infection caused by this important opportunistic pathogen remain poorly characterized...
  39. Lopez A, Hines M, Palmer G, Knowles D, Alperin D, Hines S. Analysis of anamnestic immune responses in adult horses and priming in neonates induced by a DNA vaccine expressing the vapA gene of Rhodococcus equi. Vaccine. 2003;21:3815-25 pubmed
    ..The results in foals suggest that the DNA vaccine also primed a subset of immunized neonates. These data support further development and modification to produce a DNA vaccine to more effectively prime neonatal foals. ..
  40. Altuntas F, Yildiz O, Eser B, Gundogan K, Sumerkan B, Cetin M. Catheter-related bacteremia due to Kocuria rosea in a patient undergoing peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. BMC Infect Dis. 2004;4:62 pubmed
    ..In addition, strains identified as Micrococcus spp. have been reported recently in infections associated with indwelling intravenous lines, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis fluids, ventricular shunts and prosthetic valves...
  41. Pajkrt D, Simoons Smit A, Savelkoul P, van den Hoek J, Hack W, van Furth A. Pyelonephritis caused by Actinobaculum schaalii in a child with pyeloureteral junction obstruction. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2003;22:438-40 pubmed
    ..Pyelonephritis or any other urinary tract infection caused by Actinobaculum schaalii has not been described in children before. The patient responded well to pyeloplasty in combination with antibiotic treatment...
  42. Prescott J, Patterson M, Nicholson V, Morein B, Yager J. Assessment of the immunogenic potential of Rhodococcus equi virulence associated protein (VapA) in mice. Vet Microbiol. 1997;56:213-25 pubmed
    ..The virulence plasmid, and by implication VapA, was thus shown to be critical in determining a highly effective protection to live organisms. ..
  43. Raoult D, Ogata H, Audic S, Robert C, Suhre K, Drancourt M, et al. Tropheryma whipplei Twist: a human pathogenic Actinobacteria with a reduced genome. Genome Res. 2003;13:1800-9 pubmed
    ..The analysis of the genome sequence of this previously largely unknown human pathogen is now guiding the development of molecular diagnostic tools and more convenient culture conditions. ..
  44. Giguere S, Prescott J. Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Rhodococcus equi infections in foals. Vet Microbiol. 1997;56:313-34 pubmed
    ..equi infections have essentially remained unchanged. This article reviews the various clinical manifestations and summarizes recent advances in diagnosis, treatment and prevention of R. equi infections in foals. ..
  45. Albrecht H. Redefining AIDS: towards a modification of the current AIDS case definition. Clin Infect Dis. 1997;24:64-74 pubmed
    ..Examples of opportunistic infections and tumors that could be considered in future modifications of the AIDS case definition are discussed in detail...
  46. Giguere S, Gaskin J, Miller C, Bowman J. Evaluation of a commercially available hyperimmune plasma product for prevention of naturally acquired pneumonia caused by Rhodococcus equi in foals. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2002;220:59-63 pubmed
    ..However, within this limited foal population, the difference in incidence of pneumonia caused by R equi observed between foals that received plasma and control foals was not significant. ..
  47. Le Brun C, Bouet J, Gautier P, Avril J, Gaillot O. Kytococcus schroeteri endocarditis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:179-80 pubmed
  48. Halbert N, Reitzel R, Martens R, Cohen N. Evaluation of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay for simultaneous detection of Rhodococcus equi and the vapA gene. Am J Vet Res. 2005;66:1380-5 pubmed
  49. Raoult D, La Scola B, Lecocq P, Lepidi H, Fournier P. Culture and immunological detection of Tropheryma whippelii from the duodenum of a patient with Whipple disease. JAMA. 2001;285:1039-43 pubmed
    ..Molecular-based diagnostic techniques, although highly sensitive, may be less specific. New diagnostic tools involving isolation of bacteria from contaminated intestinal biopsies and immunohistological detection need to be developed...
  50. Ashour J, Hondalus M. Phenotypic mutants of the intracellular actinomycete Rhodococcus equi created by in vivo Himar1 transposon mutagenesis. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:2644-52 pubmed
    ..The mutagenesis methodology we have developed will allow the characterization of R. equi virulence mechanisms and the creation of other attenuated strains with vaccine potential...
  51. Butler W, Floyd M, Brown J, Toney S, Daneshvar M, Cooksey R, et al. Novel mycolic acid-containing bacteria in the family Segniliparaceae fam. nov., including the genus Segniliparus gen. nov., with descriptions of Segniliparus rotundus sp. nov. and Segniliparus rugosus sp. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2005;55:1615-24 pubmed
    ..nov. and Segniliparus rugosus sp. nov., with the respective type strains CDC 1076(T) (=ATCC BAA-972(T)=CIP 108378(T)) and CDC 945(T) (=ATCC BAA-974(T)=CIP 108380(T))...
  52. Alcaide M, Espinoza L, Abbo L. Cavitary pneumonia secondary to Tsukamurella in an AIDS patient. First case and a review of the literature. J Infect. 2004;49:17-9 pubmed
    ..We also propose a successful oral antibiotic regimen with fluoroquinolone and rifampin to treat infections secondary to this uncommon micro-organism...
  53. Alexander S, Grayson T, Chambers E, Cooper L, Barker G, Gilpin M. Variation in the spacer regions separating tRNA genes in Renibacterium salmoninarum distinguishes recent clinical isolates from the same location. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:119-28 pubmed
    ..Our method enabled us to make divisions between closely related clinical isolates of R. salmoninarum that have identical exact tandem repeat (ETR-A) loci, rRNA intergenic spacer sequences, and IS994 profiles...
  54. Fendukly F, Osterman B. Isolation of Actinobaculum schaalii and Actinobaculum urinale from a patient with chronic renal failure. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:3567-9 pubmed
    ..The two isolates were distinct with regard to their morphological and biochemical characteristics. Subsequent 16S rRNA gene sequencing classified the two species as Actinobaculum schaalii and A. urinale...
  55. Mosser D, Hondalus M. Rhodococcus equi: an emerging opportunistic pathogen. Trends Microbiol. 1996;4:29-33 pubmed
    ..Like mycobacteria, R. equi is phagocytosed by alveolar macrophages and replicates within them. Recent work is beginning to elucidate the cell and molecular biology of this opportunistic pathogen and the host immune response to it...
  56. Takai S. Epidemiology of Rhodococcus equi infections: a review. Vet Microbiol. 1997;56:167-76 pubmed
    ..equi, so regular examination of foals and their environment by virulence markers might be the most practical approach to control R. equi infection on endemic farms...
  57. Wall D, Duffy P, Dupont C, Prescott J, Meijer W. Isocitrate lyase activity is required for virulence of the intracellular pathogen Rhodococcus equi. Infect Immun. 2005;73:6736-41 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the aceA gene was shown to be essential for virulence of R. equi, suggesting that membrane lipids may be an important source of carbon for phagocytosed R. equi...
  58. Hondalus M. Pathogenesis and virulence of Rhodococcus equi. Vet Microbiol. 1997;56:257-68 pubmed
    ..equi is able to produce clinical disease, and certainly experimental infection in mice has confirmed that an intact cellular immune response is necessary for clearance of the organism...
  59. Weinstock D, Brown A. Rhodococcus equi: an emerging pathogen. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;34:1379-85 pubmed
    ..Treatment is often prolonged, and relapses at distant sites are common. This article summarizes the history, diagnosis, clinical features, and treatment of infection with this emerging pathogen...
  60. Renesto P, Crapoulet N, Ogata H, La Scola B, Vestris G, Claverie J, et al. Genome-based design of a cell-free culture medium for Tropheryma whipplei. Lancet. 2003;362:447-9 pubmed
    ..Genomic information can, therefore, provide sufficient clues for designing axenic media for fastidious and uncultured pathogens...
  61. Benoit S, Benachour A, Taouji S, Auffray Y, Hartke A. Induction of vap genes encoded by the virulence plasmid of Rhodococcus equi during acid tolerance response. Res Microbiol. 2001;152:439-49 pubmed
    ..Our combined results suggest that these genes may play an important role in the pathogenicity of R. equi...
  62. Hines S, Stone D, Hines M, Alperin D, Knowles D, Norton L, et al. Clearance of virulent but not avirulent Rhodococcus equi from the lungs of adult horses is associated with intracytoplasmic gamma interferon production by CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2003;10:208-15 pubmed
  63. Hooper McGrevy K, Giguere S, Wilkie B, Prescott J. Evaluation of equine immunoglobulin specific for Rhodococcus equi virulence-associated proteins A and C for use in protecting foals against Rhodococcus equi-induced pneumonia. Am J Vet Res. 2001;62:1307-13 pubmed
    ..To determine whether purified equine immunoglobulin specific for Rhodococcus equi virulence-associated proteins A and C (VapA and VapC) can confer passive protection against R. equi-induced pneumonia in foals...