central nervous system bacterial infections


Summary: Bacterial infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges, including infections involving the perimeningeal spaces.

Top Publications

  1. Rumboldt Z, Thurnher M, Gupta R. Central nervous system infections. Semin Roentgenol. 2007;42:62-91 pubmed
  2. Hesseling A, Marais B, Cotton M. A child with neurobrucellosis. Ann Trop Paediatr. 2003;23:145-8 pubmed
    ..Nerve conduction studies confirmed a proximal radiculopathy. Awareness of the condition and performance of the appropriate tests will differentiate neurobrucellosis from other chronic central nervous system infections...
  3. Anslow P. Cranial bacterial infection. Eur Radiol. 2004;14 Suppl 3:E145-54 pubmed
    ..A series of cases is presented to illustrate the role of imaging in infective disease and to draw attention to diagnostic and management points of which radiologists should be aware...
  4. Panegyres P, Edis R, Beaman M, Fallon M. Primary Whipple's disease of the brain: characterization of the clinical syndrome and molecular diagnosis. QJM. 2006;99:609-23 pubmed
    ..Whipple's disease (WD) of the brain without evidence of systemic involvement is a rare illness that is difficult to recognize and potentially life-threatening...
  5. Keihani Douste Z, Daneshjou K, Ghasemi M. A quadriplegic child with multiple brain abscesses: case report of neurobrucellosis. Med Sci Monit. 2006;12:CS119-122 pubmed
    ..This report presents a child with spinal cord lesion with concomitant multiple brain abscesses caused by brucellosis...
  6. Fernandez L, Dominguez J, Callejón A, Lopez S, Pérez Avila A, Martin V. [Intracranial epidural abscess in a newborn secondary to skin catheter]. Neurocirugia (Astur). 2001;12:338-41 pubmed
    ..When present, a scalp vein catheter, in absence of others predisponing factors, must be considered as an etiologic agent for an intracranial epidural abscess in this age-group. ..
  7. Oliver J, Llabrés Díaz F, Gould D, Powell R. Central nervous system infection with Staphylococcus intermedius secondary to retrobulbar abscessation in a dog. Vet Ophthalmol. 2009;12:333-7 pubmed publisher
  8. Mihai C, Jubelt B. Infectious myelitis. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2012;12:633-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This article will review the most recently published literature regarding the infectious agents causing myelitis with an emphasis on diagnosis and treatment...
  9. Brouwer M, Coutinho J, van de Beek D. Clinical characteristics and outcome of brain abscess: systematic review and meta-analysis. Neurology. 2014;82:806-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The prognosis of patients with brain abscesses has gradually improved over the past 60 years. Important changes over time were the modality of cranial imaging, neurosurgical technique, and antimicrobial regimen. ..

More Information

Publications107 found, 100 shown here

  1. Kishida S, Ajisawa A. Probable cerebral Mycobacterium avium complex-related immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in an HIV-infected patient. Intern Med. 2008;47:1349-54 pubmed
    ..This case appears to represent the first precise clinicopathological description of severe ventriculo-encephalitis in CNS MAC-related IRIS. ..
  2. Karsen H, Tekin Koruk S, Duygu F, Yapici K, Kati M. Review of 17 cases of neurobrucellosis: clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management. Arch Iran Med. 2012;15:491-4 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to prevent overlooking this diagnosis, Coombs' test should be performed in both CSF and serum. ..
  3. Kaufmann A, Lye T, Redekop G, Brevner A, Hamilton M, Kozey M, et al. Infection rates in standard vs. hydrogel coated ventricular catheters. Can J Neurol Sci. 2004;31:506-10 pubmed
    ..Infection remains a common hazard in the use of EVD, and we found no reduction of infection using the hydrogel-coated catheters when presoaked in low concentration bacitracin solution. ..
  4. Gerner Smidt P, Ethelberg S, Schiellerup P, Christensen J, Engberg J, Fussing V, et al. Invasive listeriosis in Denmark 1994-2003: a review of 299 cases with special emphasis on risk factors for mortality. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2005;11:618-24 pubmed
    ..The underlying conditions associated most strongly with mortality in the younger age group were non-haematological malignancies. ..
  5. Michael B, Sidhu M, Stoeter D, Roberts M, Beeching N, Bonington A, et al. Acute central nervous system infections in adults--a retrospective cohort study in the NHS North West region. QJM. 2010;103:749-58 pubmed publisher
    ..002]. Encephalitis was as common as purulent meningitis, and HSV as common as Streptococcus pneumoniae. However, the management of patients with encephalitis was worse than meningitis. National encephalitis guidelines are needed. ..
  6. Jho D, Spiliopoulos K, Stein T, Williams Z. Concomitant presentation of a glioblastoma multiforme with superimposed abscess. World Neurosurg. 2011;75:126-31; discussion 50-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The patient died 2 years after the initial diagnosis. There are insufficient guidelines on the treatment of a primary brain tumor with intratumoral abscess. In this report we present our therapeutic decisions in this rare case. ..
  7. Kranick S, Nath A. Neurologic complications of HIV-1 infection and its treatment in the era of antiretroviral therapy. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 2012;18:1319-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, as successful virologic control has extended the life span of patients with HIV infection, neurologists are called upon to manage long-term complications, such as neurocognitive disorders and peripheral neuropathy...
  8. Hanson E, Niemeyer D, Folio L, Agan B, Rowley R. Potential use of microarray technology for rapid identification of central nervous system pathogens. Mil Med. 2004;169:594-9 pubmed
    ..In the near future, microarray diagnostics and future derivations of these technologies will change the paradigm used for outbreak investigations and will improve health care for all. ..
  9. Jaggi R, Husain M, Chawla S, Gupta A, Gupta R. Diagnosis of bacterial cerebellitis: diffusion imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Pediatr Neurol. 2005;32:72-4 pubmed
    ..The child made a complete clinical and imaging recovery on conservative management. ..
  10. Yousif B, Nelson J. Neurobrucellosis--a rare complication of renal transplantation. Am J Nephrol. 2001;21:66-8 pubmed
    ..Treatment with doxycycline and rifampin led to a clinical cure as well as to marked improvement in the Brucella titer. ..
  11. Bagley B, Kluka E. A severe headache. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2004;43:301-2 pubmed
  12. Schwaiger K, Stierstorfer B, Schmahl W, Lehmann S, Gallien P, Bauer J. [The incidence of bacterial CNS infections in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) in Bavaria]. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2005;118:45-51 pubmed
  13. Yu Y, Li H. Diagnostic and prognostic value of procalcitonin for early intracranial infection after craniotomy. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2017;50:e6021 pubmed publisher
    ..Since CSF PCT levels have higher sensitivity and specificity, dynamic changes in this parameter could be used for early detection of intracranial infection after craniotomy, combined with other biochemical indicators. ..
  14. Lyu R, Chen C, Tang L, Chen S. Spinal epidural abscess successfully treated with percutaneous, computed tomography-guided, needle aspiration and parenteral antibiotic therapy: case report and review of the literature. Neurosurgery. 2002;51:509-12; discussion 512 pubmed
    ..We describe a case of a posterior spinal epidural abscess that was successfully treated with percutaneous, computed tomography-guided, needle aspiration and parenteral antibiotic therapy...
  15. Işıkay S, Yilmaz K, Olmez A. Neurobrucellosis developing unilateral oculomotor nerve paralysis. Am J Emerg Med. 2012;30:2085.e5-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our article emphasizes that neurobrucellosis should be considered among the distinguishing diagnoses in every case that is admitted for nerve paralysis in regions where Brucella infection is endemic. ..
  16. Dasic D, Hanna S, Bojanic S, Kerr R. External ventricular drain infection: the effect of a strict protocol on infection rates and a review of the literature. Br J Neurosurg. 2006;20:296-300 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates that adherence to an evidence-based protocol for their insertion and management is associated with a significant reduction in the infection rate. ..
  17. Chiaretti A, Antonelli A, Piastra M, Genovese O, Polidori G, Aloe L. Expression of neurotrophic factors in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of children with viral and bacterial meningoencephalitis. Acta Paediatr. 2004;93:1178-84 pubmed
    ..The expression of these factors is likely to play a neuro-immunomodulatory or neurosurvival role in ME infections. ..
  18. Pappas G, Akritidis N, Christou L. Treatment of neurobrucellosis: what is known and what remains to be answered. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2007;5:983-90 pubmed
    ..Treatment duration should be individualized in the absence of an adequate cut-off index. ..
  19. Imberti R, Cusato M, Accetta G, Marinò V, Procaccio F, Del Gaudio A, et al. Pharmacokinetics of colistin in cerebrospinal fluid after intraventricular administration of colistin methanesulfonate. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012;56:4416-21 pubmed publisher
  20. Sriram S, Moses H, Stratton C. CNS infection with C. pneumoniae complicated by multiple strokes. J Neurol. 2003;250:1127; author reply 1128 pubmed
  21. Kinsner A, Boveri M, Hareng L, Brown G, Coecke S, Hartung T, et al. Highly purified lipoteichoic acid induced pro-inflammatory signalling in primary culture of rat microglia through Toll-like receptor 2: selective potentiation of nitric oxide production by muramyl dipeptide. J Neurochem. 2006;99:596-607 pubmed
    ..The observed pro-inflammatory response induced by lipoteichoic acid-activated microglia could play a major role in the inflammatory response of CNS induced by Gram-positive bacteria. ..
  22. Limmathurotsakul D, Chaowagul W, Wongsrikaew P, Narmwong A, Day N, Peacock S. Variable presentation of neurological melioidosis in Northeast Thailand. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;77:118-20 pubmed
    ..The appropriate duration and choice of parenteral and oral antimicrobial therapy for neurologic melioidosis are also discussed. ..
  23. TESSIER J, Scheld W. Principles of antimicrobial therapy. Handb Clin Neurol. 2010;96:17-29 pubmed publisher
    ..g., improved symptoms, lack of new neurological findings) and radiographic changes (e.g., reduction in cavity size). ..
  24. Safavi Abbasi S, Maurer A, Rabb C. Minimally invasive treatment of multilevel spinal epidural abscess. J Neurosurg Spine. 2013;18:32-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors conclude that multilevel spinal epidural abscesses can be safely and effectively managed using microsurgery via a minimally invasive tubular retractor system...
  25. Gonzalez Garcia J, Gelabert M, Bandín J, Villa J, Pravos A. [Cervical epidural abscess as a cause of tetraparesis]. Rev Neurol. 1999;29:727-30 pubmed
    ..Prompt diagnosis and satisfactory surgical decompression are essential to avoid irreversible neurological sequelae. ..
  26. Yu C, Jiang A, Yu Y. Serial imaging changes of cerebral Whipple's disease: from onset to the end. J Neuroimaging. 2007;17:81-3 pubmed
    ..A case with multiple cerebral Whipple disease is reported. The neuroradiological evolution from multiple macrophagic encephalitis to diffuse cerebral infarct in this case is described. ..
  27. de Andrade D, Nogueira R, Lucato L, Marchiori P, Machado L, Teixeira M, et al. Isolated CNS Whipple disease with a variant of oculofacial-skeletal myorhythmia (OFSM). Neurology. 2007;69:E12 pubmed
  28. Talati N, Rouphael N, Kuppalli K, Franco Paredes C. Spectrum of CNS disease caused by rapidly growing mycobacteria. Lancet Infect Dis. 2008;8:390-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment requires a long course of two or more antibiotics that have the ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier, and possibly of steroids as immunomodulatory agents, such as those used in tuberculous meningitis. ..
  29. Kurup A, Tee W, Loo L, Lin R. Infection of central nervous system by motile Enterococcus: first case report. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:820-2 pubmed
    ..This is probably the first case report of motile Enterococcus infection of the central nervous system. ..
  30. Bashir K, Kaslow R. Chlamydia pneumoniae and multiple sclerosis: the latest etiologic candidate. Epidemiology. 2003;14:133-4 pubmed
  31. Tuncer Ertem G, Tulek N, Yetkin M. [Case report: subdural hemorrhage in neurobrucellosis]. Mikrobiyol Bul. 2004;38:253-6 pubmed
    ..The case deserved presentation and discussion since it presented with subdural hemorrhage which is a rare complication of neurobrucellosis. ..
  32. Nelson J, White M, Zhang Y, Moritani T. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and diffusion-weighted imaging of central nervous system whipple disease. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2005;29:320-2 pubmed
    ..Diffusion-weighted MRI and MRS offer noninvasive methods to help evaluate in vivo physiologic changes of CNS involvement in Whipple disease. ..
  33. Deininger M, Berlis A, Buttler J. Cerebral vasospasm in shunt infection. Neurocrit Care. 2007;7:27-30 pubmed
    ..This case shows that severe cerebral vasospasms are a serious complication in patients with bacterial shunt infection that should be considered in patients, that don't improve following adequate antibiotic treatment. ..
  34. Garcia Monco J, Benach J. A disconnect between the neurospirochetoses in humans and rodent models of disease. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003288 pubmed publisher
  35. Yesilirmak D, Kumral A, Baskin H, Ergur B, Aykan S, Genc S, et al. Activated protein C reduces endotoxin-induced white matter injury in the developing rat brain. Brain Res. 2007;1164:14-23 pubmed
    ..Moreover, our results suggest that the possible use of APC in treatment of preterm infants and pregnant women with maternal or placental infection may minimize the risk of PVL and cerebral palsy. ..
  36. Sethi P, Khandelwal D, Sethi N, Torgovnick J, Arsura E. Neuroimage: disseminated nocardiosis. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2008;110:98-100 pubmed
  37. Delbue S, Tremolada S, Ferrante P. Application of molecular tools for the diagnosis of central nervous system infections. Neurol Sci. 2008;29 Suppl 2:S283-5 pubmed publisher
  38. Maiwald M, von Herbay A, Fredricks D, Ouverney C, Kosek J, Relman D. Cultivation of Tropheryma whipplei from cerebrospinal fluid. J Infect Dis. 2003;188:801-8 pubmed
    ..This first isolation of T. whipplei from CSF provides clear evidence of viable bacteria in the central nervous system in individuals with WD, even after prolonged antibiotic therapy. ..
  39. Salamano R, Braselli A, Hoppe A, Monteghirfo R, Silva T. [Neurolisteriosis in adults: report of six clinical cases]. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2005;63:1063-9 pubmed
    ..It should also be taken into account in young healthy adults living in regions under poor sanitary conditions where there is no adequate control of food manufacturing. ..
  40. Baker R. The price of cost savings. Clin J Pain. 2008;24:381-3 pubmed publisher
  41. Derfuss T, Hohlfeld R, Meinl E. [Multiple sclerosis. Chlamydia hypothesis in debate]. Nervenarzt. 2001;72:820-3 pubmed
    ..pneumoniae is part of a polyspecific immune response. Thus, it is not likely that C. pneumoniae is causally linked to the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis...
  42. Huang D, DuPont H. Problem pathogens: extra-intestinal complications of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi infection. Lancet Infect Dis. 2005;5:341-8 pubmed
    ..We describe the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, and treatment of extra-intestinal S typhi infections...
  43. Ho E. Infectious etiologies of myelopathy. Semin Neurol. 2012;32:154-60 pubmed publisher
    ..This review of infectious causes of myelopathy focuses on pathogens that are most relevant to clinicians in North America...
  44. Kesav P, Vishnu V, Khurana D. Fatal disseminated neurobrucellosis. QJM. 2014;107:321-2 pubmed publisher
  45. Yorke R, Rouah E. Nocardiosis with brain abscess due to an unusual species, Nocardia transvalensis. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2003;127:224-6 pubmed
    ..Familiarity with the epidemiology, pathologic findings, and clinical significance of this and other unusual Nocardia species may increase early identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing in cases of nocardial infection...
  46. Singh G, Prabhakar S. The effects of antimicrobial and antiepileptic treatment on the outcome of epilepsy associated with central nervous system (CNS) infections. Epilepsia. 2008;49 Suppl 6:42-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) needs to be optimally defined in the case of epilepsy associated with neurological infectious disorders...
  47. Ceran N, Turkoglu R, Erdem I, Inan A, Engin D, Tireli H, et al. Neurobrucellosis: clinical, diagnostic, therapeutic features and outcome. Unusual clinical presentations in an endemic region. Braz J Infect Dis. 2011;15:52-9 pubmed
    ..In inhabitants or visitors of endemic areas, neurobrucellosis should be kept in mind in cases that have unusual neurological manifestations...
  48. Bektas O, Ozdemir H, Yılmaz A, Fitoz S, Ciftci E, Ince E, et al. An unusual case of neurobrucellosis presenting as demyelination disorder. Turk J Pediatr. 2013;55:210-3 pubmed
    ..Additionally, this case is the first in terms of involvement of the corpus callosum in neurobrucellosis. In this article, we present an unusual case of neurobrucellosis. ..
  49. Gout O, Besson G, Croize J. [A rapidly deteriorating gait disorder in a 68-year-old man]. Rev Neurol (Paris). 2004;160:1096-101 pubmed
  50. Katragkou A, Roilides E. Successful treatment of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii central nervous system infections with colistin. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:4916-7 pubmed
  51. Naesens R, Ronsyn M, Druwé P, Denis O, Ieven M, Jeurissen A. Central nervous system invasion by community-acquired meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Med Microbiol. 2009;58:1247-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Although, in our review of the literature patients treated with linezolid had a better outcome compared to patients treated with vancomycin, the latter is still the mainstay of therapy for CNS infections associated with MRSA...
  52. Camacho E, Boszczowski I, Basso M, Jeng B, Freire M, Guimaraes T, et al. Infection rate and risk factors associated with infections related to external ventricular drain. Infection. 2011;39:47-51 pubmed publisher
    ..To describe incidence rates and risk factors associated with external ventricular drain (EVD)-related infections at a tertiary Brazilian teaching hospital...
  53. Kullar R, Chin J, Edwards D, Parker D, Coplin W, Rybak M. Pharmacokinetics of single-dose daptomycin in patients with suspected or confirmed neurological infections. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011;55:3505-9 pubmed publisher
    ..5%. Additional pharmacokinetic studies evaluating multiple and/or higher dosages of daptomycin are necessary in human subjects to better characterize the CSF penetration of daptomycin in neurosurgical patients...
  54. Blomstedt P, Bjartmarz H. Intracerebral infections as a complication of deep brain stimulation. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2012;90:92-6 pubmed publisher
    ..A review of 20 publications of 3,818 patients focusing on complications of DBS did not reveal one single case. For that reason, we decided to present our own experience of 4 patients with this complication...
  55. Walder G, Schönherr H, Hotzel H, Speth C, Oehme A, Dierich M, et al. Presence of Chlamydophila psittaci DNA in the central nervous system of a patient with status epilepticus. Scand J Infect Dis. 2003;35:71-3 pubmed
    ..Direct invasion of the central nervous system by Chlamydophila psittaci was confirmed by the demonstration of specific DNA in the patient's cerebrospinal fluid. The patient recovered slowly under administration of doxycycline...
  56. Adekambi T, Foucault C, La Scola B, Drancourt M. Report of two fatal cases of Mycobacterium mucogenicum central nervous system infection in immunocompetent patients. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:837-40 pubmed
    ..mucogenicum, an RGM frequently isolated from tap water or from respiratory specimens and mostly without clinical significance, can even be encountered in the central nervous system of immunocompetent patients...
  57. Chedid M, Chedid M, Porto N, Severo C, Severo L. Nocardial infections: report of 22 cases. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2007;49:239-46 pubmed
    ..We propose that the delay in diagnosis should be examined in larger series to document its influence in the prognosis of the disease...
  58. Pytel P, Alexander J. Pathogenesis of septic encephalopathy. Curr Opin Neurol. 2009;22:283-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of septic encephalopathy, from molecular mechanisms to behavioral alterations, from diagnostic tools to potential therapeutic agents...
  59. Dlouhy B, Reddy A, Dahdaleh N, Greenlee J. Antibiotic impregnated catheter coverage of deep brain stimulation leads facilitates lead preservation after hardware infection. J Clin Neurosci. 2012;19:1369-75 pubmed publisher
    ..It may improve the preservation of DBS leads when hardware infection occurs, is inexpensive, and confers no additional risks to patients...
  60. Akgoz A, Mukundan S, Lee T. Imaging of rickettsial, spirochetal, and parasitic infections. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2012;22:633-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Being familiar with clinical presentation and imaging findings of these infections is crucial for early diagnosis and treatment especially in patients who live in or have a travel history to endemic regions or are immunocompromised...
  61. Mahapatra A, Pawar S, Sharma R. Intracranial Salmonella infections: meningitis, subdural collections and brain abscess. A series of six surgically managed cases with follow-up results. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2002;36:8-13 pubmed
    ..This study suggests that a high index of suspicion, early diagnosis and quick evacuation lead to success; this point is highlighted with the help of a review of the literature...
  62. Corti M, Villafañe Fioti M. Nocardiosis: a review. Int J Infect Dis. 2003;7:243-50 pubmed
    ..The treatment of nocardiosis also requires expertise. This report reviews the epidemiology, physiopathology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of this aerobic bacterial disease...
  63. Halperin J. Central nervous system Lyme disease. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2005;5:446-52 pubmed
    ..Several well-performed studies have clearly shown that prolonged antimicrobial treatment of "post-Lyme disease" is ineffective. Diagnosis and treatment of Lyme disease continue to improve...
  64. Crow Y, Livingston J. Aicardi-Goutières syndrome: an important Mendelian mimic of congenital infection. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2008;50:410-6 pubmed publisher
  65. Singh G, Prabhakar S, Modi M. Central nervous system infections and epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2008;49 Suppl 6:1 pubmed publisher
  66. Be N, Klinkenberg L, Bishai W, Karakousis P, Jain S. Strain-dependent CNS dissemination in guinea pigs after Mycobacterium tuberculosis aerosol challenge. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2011;91:386-9 pubmed publisher
    ..No CNS lesions were observed throughout the study, with only a modest cytokine response. These data suggest that M. tuberculosis may have virulence factors that promote CNS dissemination, distinct from those required for pulmonary TB...
  67. Branton W, Ellestad K, Maingat F, Wheatley B, Rud E, Warren R, et al. Brain microbial populations in HIV/AIDS: ?-proteobacteria predominate independent of host immune status. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e54673 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, ?-proteobacteria represented the major bacterial component of the primate brain's microbiome regardless of underlying immune status, which could be transferred into naïve hosts leading to microbial persistence in the brain...
  68. Hoefnagel D, Dammers R, Ter Laak Poort M, Avezaat C. Risk factors for infections related to external ventricular drainage. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2008;150:209-14; discussion 214 pubmed publisher
    ..The major complication of this procedure is an EVD-related infection, i.e., meningitis or ventriculitis. The purpose of the present retrospective single centre study is to assess the possible causes of these infections...
  69. Ichikawa K, Gakumazawa M, Inaba A, Shiga K, Takeshita S, Mori M, et al. Acute encephalopathy of Bacillus cereus mimicking Reye syndrome. Brain Dev. 2010;32:688-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The patient was considered as having an acute encephalopathy mimicking Reye syndrome due to food poisoning caused by cereulide produced by B. cereus...
  70. Jabbour R, Tabbarah Z. Neurobrucellosis presenting with hearing loss, gait disturbances and diffuse white matter disease on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). J Med Liban. 2011;59:105-8 pubmed
    ..To report an unusual case of neurobrucellosis...
  71. Di Carlo P, Casuccio A, Romano A, Spicola D, Titone L, Caccamo N, et al. Lymphocyte apoptosis in children with central nervous system tuberculosis: a case control study. BMC Pediatr. 2011;11:108 pubmed publisher
  72. Akbayram S, Dogan M, Peker E, Bektas M, Caksen H, Karahocagil M. Evaluation of children with neurobrucellosis. Bratisl Lek Listy. 2012;113:424-30 pubmed
    ..Brucellosis is an endemic disease in many areas throughout the world. Central nervous system involvement is a serious complication of brucellosis with a ratio of 4-11% of all patients...
  73. Zhang B, Huang X, Fan H, Zeng X, Mei D, Fu Q. Pharmacokinetics of intravenous moxifloxacin in the cerebrospinal fluid of a patient with central nervous system shunt infection. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2016;84:249-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The ratio of the area under the concentration-time curve over 24h (AUC) in cerebrospinal fluid to the AUC in serum was 0.7 in this patient. ..
  74. Burkova A, Bolodin N, Degtiarev D, Medvedev M, Rogatkin S. [A draft of novel classification for the consequences of perinatal nervous system lesions in infants under 1 year of age]. Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2004;104:74-7 pubmed
  75. Suzuki N, Suzuki M, Araki S, Sato H. A case of multiple cranial nerve palsy due to sphenoid sinusitis complicated by cerebral aneurysm. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2005;32:415-9 pubmed
    ..After endovascular coil placement, his right visual disturbance partially recovered...
  76. Kim K. Microbial translocation of the blood-brain barrier. Int J Parasitol. 2006;36:607-14 pubmed
    ..This review summarises our current understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms involved in translocation of the BBB by meningitis-causing bacteria, fungi and parasites...
  77. Cadavid D, Sondey M, Garcia E, Lawson C. Residual brain infection in relapsing-fever borreliosis. J Infect Dis. 2006;193:1451-8 pubmed
    ..Less understood is the persistence of RF borreliae in the brain after they are cleared from the blood, referred to as residual brain infection (RBI). Our goal was to investigate the phenomenon of RBI in RF...
  78. Fujikawa A, Tsuchiya K, Honya K, Nitatori T. Comparison of MRI sequences to detect ventriculitis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2006;187:1048-53 pubmed
    ..The ability of different MRI sequences to depict characteristic findings suggestive of ventriculitis was compared...
  79. Akhaddar A, Elouennass M, Baallal H, Boucetta M. Focal intracranial infections due to Actinomyces species in immunocompetent patients: diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. World Neurosurg. 2010;74:346-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We try to determine the optimal management of these problematic intracranial infectious diseases in neurosurgical practice...
  80. Diza E, Papa A, Vezyri E, Tsounis S, Milonas I, Antoniadis A. Borrelia valaisiana in cerebrospinal fluid. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10:1692-3 pubmed
  81. Lo C, Spelman D, Bailey M, Cooper D, Rosenfeld J, Brecknell J. External ventricular drain infections are independent of drain duration: an argument against elective revision. J Neurosurg. 2007;106:378-83 pubmed
  82. Zimmerer S, Conen A, Müller A, Sailer M, Taub E, Fluckiger U, et al. Spinal epidural abscess: aetiology, predisponent factors and clinical outcomes in a 4-year prospective study. Eur Spine J. 2011;20:2228-34 pubmed publisher
  83. Piacentino M, Pilleri M, Bartolomei L. Hardware-related infections after deep brain stimulation surgery: review of incidence, severity and management in 212 single-center procedures in the first year after implantation. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2011;153:2337-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This retrospective review aimed to evaluate the incidence, severity and management of device-related infections in 212 DBS procedures performed in our institute...
  84. Demiroglu Y, Turunc T, Karaca S, Arlier Z, Aliskan H, Colakoglu S, et al. [Neurological involvement in brucellosis; clinical classification, treatment and results]. Mikrobiyol Bul. 2011;45:401-10 pubmed
    ..In addition, a current classification of neurobrucellosis, related to involved location of nervous system, clinical picture and pathogenesis, is needed...
  85. Löhr M, Stenzel W, Plum G, Gross W, Deckert M, Klug N. Whipple disease confined to the central nervous system presenting as a solitary frontal tumor. Case report. J Neurosurg. 2004;101:336-9 pubmed
    ..A review of diagnostic and therapeutic options in suspected cases is presented...
  86. Overturf G. Defining bacterial meningitis and other infections of the central nervous system. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2005;6:S14-8 pubmed
    ..To define central nervous system infections of infants and children that occur as co-morbid or predisposing conditions of sepsis...
  87. Ng J, Gosbell I, Kelly J, Boyle M, Ferguson J. Cure of multiresistant Acinetobacter baumannii central nervous system infections with intraventricular or intrathecal colistin: case series and literature review. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2006;58:1078-81 pubmed
    ..Colistin remains one of the few remaining treatment options for MRAB but has poor CNS penetration. We describe our experience with intraventricular or intrathecal colistin for this infection...
  88. Schengrund C. Glycoconjugates: roles in neural diseases caused by exogenous pathogens. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2006;5:381-9 pubmed
  89. Wong G, Ip M, Poon W, Mak C, Ng R. Antibiotics-impregnated ventricular catheter versus systemic antibiotics for prevention of nosocomial CSF and non-CSF infections: a prospective randomised clinical trial. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2010;81:1064-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aims to compare antibiotic impregnated catheters with conventional catheters coupled with systemic antibiotics...
  90. Munckhof W, Jennison A, Bates J, Gassiep I. First report of probable neurobrucellosis in Australia. Med J Aust. 2013;199:423-5 pubmed
    ..Treatment with intravenous ceftriaxone and oral rifampicin, doxycycline and trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole resulted in a good clinical response...
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