ocular tuberculosis


Summary: Tuberculous infection of the eye, primarily the iris, ciliary body, and choroid.

Top Publications

  1. Demirci H, Shields C, Shields J, Eagle R. Ocular tuberculosis masquerading as ocular tumors. Surv Ophthalmol. 2004;49:78-89 pubmed
    ..We present five patients with ocular tuberculosis who were referred with the suspicion of ocular malignancy...
  2. Mehta S, Gilada I. Ocular tuberculosis in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2005;13:87-9 pubmed
    To determine the prevalence and clinical features of ocular tuberculosis in patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).
  3. Babu R, Sudharshan S, Kumarasamy N, Therese L, Biswas J. Ocular tuberculosis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol. 2006;142:413-8 pubmed
    To present the clinical, histopathological, and molecular biologic findings in fifteen cases of ocular tuberculosis (TB) in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).
  4. Mehta S. The treatment of ocular tuberculosis: a survey of published literature. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2006;54:278-80 pubmed
    With an expanding awareness of ocular tuberculosis, ophthalmologists are increasingly required to participate in the care of these patients...
  5. Gupta V, Gupta A, Rao N. Intraocular tuberculosis--an update. Surv Ophthalmol. 2007;52:561-87 pubmed
    ..chest, and molecular diagnostic procedures have provided a new approach to establishing the diagnosis of ocular tuberculosis. The current review focuses on the diagnostic modalities used for the clinical management of intraocular ..
  6. Albini T, Karakousis P, Rao N. Interferon-gamma release assays in the diagnosis of tuberculous uveitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2008;146:486-8 pubmed publisher
  7. Thompson M, Albert D. Ocular tuberculosis. Arch Ophthalmol. 2005;123:844-9 pubmed
  8. Rathinam S, Lalitha P. Paradoxical worsening of ocular tuberculosis in HIV patients after antiretroviral therapy. Eye (Lond). 2007;21:667-8 pubmed
  9. Bansal R, Gupta A, Gupta V, Dogra M, Bambery P, Arora S. Role of anti-tubercular therapy in uveitis with latent/manifest tuberculosis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2008;146:772-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the role of anti-tubercular therapy in uveitis with latent/manifest tuberculosis (TB)...

More Information


  1. Mackensen F, Becker M, Wiehler U, Max R, Dalpke A, Zimmermann S. QuantiFERON TB-Gold--a new test strengthening long-suspected tuberculous involvement in serpiginous-like choroiditis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2008;146:761-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To obtain a diagnosis of tuberculosis in patients with a specific subset of uveitis, serpiginous-like choroiditis. This subset has been suspicious for tuberculous etiology in single case reports and old textbooks...
  2. Suzuki J, Oh i K, Kezuka T, Sakai J, Goto H. Comparison of patients with ocular tuberculosis in the 1990s and the 2000s. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2010;54:19-23 pubmed publisher
    To compare clinical findings in patients with ocular tuberculosis experienced during two different decades.
  3. Rao N, Albini T, Kumaradas M, Pinn M, Fraig M, Karakousis P. Experimental ocular tuberculosis in guinea pigs. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009;127:1162-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To develop an animal model of intraocular tuberculosis (TB) with features of pulmonary TB and extrapulmonary dissemination to the eye...
  4. Bodaghi B, LeHoang P. Ocular tuberculosis. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2000;11:443-8 pubmed
    ..molecular tools, such as polymerase chain reaction, for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, ocular tuberculosis remains a subject of controversy. The diagnosis is often presumptive in the absence of ocular biopsies...
  5. Levecq L, De Potter P. Solitary choroidal tuberculoma in an immunocompetent patient. Arch Ophthalmol. 2005;123:864-6 pubmed
  6. O Hearn T, Fawzi A, Esmaili D, Javaheri M, Rao N, Lim J. Presumed ocular tuberculosis presenting as a branch retinal vein occlusion in the absence of retinal vasculitis or uveitis. Br J Ophthalmol. 2007;91:981-2 pubmed
  7. Jablenska L, Lo S, Uddin J, Toma A. Nasolacrimal tuberculosis: case report highlighting the need for imaging in identifying and managing it effectively. Orbit. 2010;29:126-8 pubmed publisher
  8. Rodrigues J, Abílio A, Serracarbassa P. [Uveal effusion associated with presumed tuberculosis: case report]. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2008;71:734-9 pubmed
    The authors report a rare association of uveal effusion with presumed ocular tuberculosis in a male patient who presented clinical improvement with the systemic use of prednisone 40 mg/d and rifampicin 600 mg/d...
  9. Bajaj D, Srivastava A, Kushwaha R, Joshi A, Pandey M, Mishra P, et al. Two cases of eyelid tuberculosis - An uncommon presentation of ocular tuberculosis. Indian J Tuberc. 2017;64:47-49 pubmed publisher
    ..of pulmonary tuberculosis is also notorious to cause tuberculosis at various sites in the human body and ocular tuberculosis is one of the extra pulmonary manifestations of this organism...
  10. Agarwal M, Shrivastav A, Waris A. Tubercular retinal vasculitis mimicking frosted branch angiitis: a case report. J Ophthalmic Inflamm Infect. 2018;8:3 pubmed publisher
    Tubercular vasculitis is an important manifestation of ocular tuberculosis and this report highlights the mimicking nature of the disease with frosted branch angiitis...
  11. Sharma P, Singh R, Kumar A, Prakash G, Mathur M, Malik P. Choroidal tuberculoma in miliary tuberculosis. Retina. 2003;23:101-4 pubmed
  12. Domingues M, Palmares J, Reis J, Figueiredo P, Rosas V, Castro Correia J, et al. Presumed bilateral multifocal tuberculous choroiditis in an HIV-negative patient with disseminated tuberculosis. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2005;49:334-6 pubmed
  13. Aleksandrova T. [Current aspects of tuberculosis uveitis]. Vestn Oftalmol. 2004;120:47-9 pubmed
  14. Moon S, Son J, Chang W. A case of oculomotor nerve palsy and choroidal tuberculous granuloma associated with tuberculous meningoencephalitis. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2008;22:201-4 pubmed publisher
  15. Tulvatana W, Sansopha L, Pisarnkorskul P. Primary conjunctival tuberculoma: a case report. J Med Assoc Thai. 2001;84 Suppl 1:S127-30 pubmed
    ..The remaining lesions disappeared within the first few months of treatment. Conjunctival tuberculoma should always be considered in cases of conjunctival nodules. ..
  16. Gupta A, Bansal R, Gupta V, Sharma A, Bambery P. Ocular signs predictive of tubercular uveitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2010;149:562-70 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine ocular signs predictive of tubercular uveitis...
  17. Amazouzi A, Dafrallah L, Kabbaj A, Tachfouti S, Cherkaoui O, Ibrahimy W, et al. [Eales disease and tuberculous allergy]. J Fr Ophtalmol. 2004;27:924-6 pubmed
    ..The biological exam showed a positive PPD and the BK was isolated. Antibiotic and corticosteroid drugs were used in the treatment. The clinical, immunopathological and therapeutic aspects of this disease are discussed. ..
  18. Hughes E, Petrushkin H, Sibtain N, Stanford M, Plant G, Graham E. Tuberculous orbital apex syndromes. Br J Ophthalmol. 2008;92:1511-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The condition is difficult to diagnose, but the combination of high-dose corticosteroids and anti-TB medication was rapidly effective and achieved a good outcome in all cases. ..
  19. Mehta S, Suratkal L. Ophthalmoscopy in the early diagnosis of opportunistic tuberculosis following renal transplant. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2007;55:389-91 pubmed
    ..Fundoscopy in this group of patients may help in the diagnosis of opportunistic tuberculosis, its earlier treatment and the consequent reduction of morbidity and mortality. ..
  20. Zaborowski A, Gundry B, Masenya M, Visser L. Primary tuberculous keratoconjunctivitis. Eye (Lond). 2006;20:978-9 pubmed
  21. Shen J, Han W, To C, Wang J. Choroidal tuberculoma in pregnancy. Retina. 2007;27:106-9 pubmed
  22. Kaushik S, Singh R, Arora A, Joshi G, Sharma K, Tigari B. Acute Angle Closure Secondary to Tubercular Choroidal Granuloma. J Glaucoma. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..This presentation of ocular tuberculosis has not been reported previously.
  23. Shahidatul Adha M, Zunaina E, Liza Sharmini A, Wan Hazabbah W, Shatriah I, Mohtar I, et al. Ocular tuberculosis in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia - A case series. Ann Med Surg (Lond). 2017;24:25-30 pubmed publisher
    b>Ocular tuberculosis (TB) encompasses a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations affecting different structures of the eye...
  24. Salman A, Parmar P, Rajamohan M, Vanila C, Thomas P, Jesudasan C. Optical coherence tomography in choroidal tuberculosis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2006;142:170-2 pubmed
    ..OCT can be useful in the differentiating choroidal tuberculous granulomas from noninflammatory lesions with a similar clinical appearance. ..
  25. Chong Y, Kodati S, Kosmin A. Ocular tuberculosis. Ann Ophthalmol (Skokie). 2007;39:243-5 pubmed
    ..Discussions also include the manifestations, relevant investigations and management of ocular tuberculosis. Clinicians should be aware of these findings when treating such patients.
  26. Figueira L, Fonseca S, Ladeira I, Duarte R. Ocular tuberculosis: Position paper on diagnosis and treatment management. Rev Port Pneumol (2006). 2017;23:31-38 pubmed publisher
    Delay in diagnosis or treatment of ocular tuberculosis can result in loss of vision. However, due to the fact that early diagnosis is rarely achieved, there are still a broad variety of diagnostic and treatment approaches...
  27. Grosse V, Bange F, Tischendorf J, Schmidt R, Manns M. A mass in the eye. Lancet. 2002;360:922 pubmed
  28. Slingerland A, van Aalderen W, de Jongh S, Verbraak F, de Smet M, Hoekstra M. [Two children with extrapulmonary symptoms due to tuberculosis]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2001;145:113-5 pubmed
    ..As treatment exists and adequate treatment can diminish the reservoir of tuberculosis bacteria, early diagnosis can prevent the morbidity, spread and mortality of tuberculosis. ..
  29. Rathinam S, Rao N. Tuberculous intraocular infection presenting with pigmented hypopyon: a clinicopathological case report. Br J Ophthalmol. 2004;88:721-2 pubmed
  30. Sardana K, Koranne R, Langan U, Sharma R, Bhatnagar S. Ocular scrofuloderma with unilateral proptosis. J Dermatol. 2002;29:232-4 pubmed
    ..Subsequent ultrasound examinations of the orbit revealed regression in the size of the abscess from 10.7 mm to 5.0 mm and then complete disappearance of the abscess obviating surgical intervention. ..
  31. Zhang C. A case of choroidal tubercles. Yan Ke Xue Bao. 2004;20:23-4, 29 pubmed
    ..The choroidal lesions regressed after using anti-tuberculosis drugs for 8 months. Pigment changes remained. Tuberculosis may present as a posterior segment inflammation. In miliary tuberculosis, choroid is also a target tissue. ..
  32. Burton B, Breen R, Janossy G, Acheson J, Lipman M. Use of pulmonary interferon {gamma} responses to mycobacterial antigen to distinguish sarcoid associated optic neuropathy from tuberculosis. Br J Ophthalmol. 2006;90:802-3 pubmed
  33. Psathakis K, Mermigkis C, Vlachaki E, Pavlopoulos G, Skagias L, Skiadas V, et al. Tuberculous conjunctivitis in a doctor. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2008;12:228 pubmed
  34. Yang J, Kim Y. A case of primary lid tuberculosis after upper lid blepharoplasty. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2004;18:190-5 pubmed
  35. Semlali S, El Quassar A, Atmane M, Benkirane N, Chakir N, El Hassani M, et al. [Pseudotumoral form of sclerochoroidal tuberculosis: a case report]. J Radiol. 2004;85:131-4 pubmed
    ..The evolution was favorable with antituberculous treatment. Ocular tuberculosis is rare, especially the pseudotumoral form. It can simulate a choroidal tumor...
  36. Bramante C, Talbot E, Rathinam S, Stevens R, Zegans M. Diagnosis of ocular tuberculosis: a role for new testing modalities?. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2007;47:45-62 pubmed
  37. Woo K, Kim Y. Presumed localized tuberculous inflammation after periocular procedures. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008;24:468-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can prevent the sequelae of tuberculosis infection. ..
  38. Mo J, Streilein J. Analysis of immune privilege in eyes with Mycobacteria tuberculosa adjuvant-induced uveitis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2005;13:139-47 pubmed
    ..To examine the effects of intravitreal Mycobacteria tuberculosa adjuvant (MTA) on ocular immune privilege...
  39. Kaur A, Agrawal A. Orbital tuberculosis - an interesting case report. Int Ophthalmol. 2005;26:107-9 pubmed
    ..This case highlights the need for keeping a high index of suspicion for tuberculosis, especially in patients on immunosuppressive therapy. ..
  40. Vasconcelos Santos D, Rao P, Davies J, Sohn E, Rao N. Clinical features of tuberculous serpiginouslike choroiditis in contrast to classic serpiginous choroiditis. Arch Ophthalmol. 2010;128:853-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare distinctive clinical features of presumed tuberculous serpiginouslike choroiditis (Tb-SLC) with classic serpiginous choroiditis (SC) in patients living in a region that is nonendemic for tuberculosis...
  41. Maza A, Morel F, Pommier S, Vedy S, Lightburn E, Roux L, et al. [Tubercular fibrosing conjunctivitis associated with facial cutaneous tuberculosis]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2008;135:679-81 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a case of hemifacial cutaneous tuberculosis, diagnosed as atypical lupus vulgaris, associated with homolateral fibrosing tuberculous conjunctivitis...
  42. Raina U, Tuli D, Arora R, Mehta D, Taneja M. Tubercular endophthalmitis simulating retinoblastoma. Am J Ophthalmol. 2000;130:843-5 pubmed
    ..To report a case of tubercular endophthalmitis simulating retinoblastoma...
  43. Ang M, Htoon H, Chee S. Diagnosis of tuberculous uveitis: clinical application of an interferon-gamma release assay. Ophthalmology. 2009;116:1391-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the role of the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) (Cellestis Inc., Carnegie, Australia) assay in the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) uveitis...
  44. Wakabayashi T, Morimura Y, Miyamoto Y, Okada A. Changing patterns of intraocular inflammatory disease in Japan. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2003;11:277-86 pubmed
    ..We investigated the frequencies and clinical characteristics of Japanese patients with uveitis...
  45. Kawano M, Yamada K, Kakuchi Y, Ito K, Hamano R, Fujii H, et al. A case of immunoglobulin G4-related chronic sclerosing sialadenitis and dacryoadenitis associated with tuberculosis. Mod Rheumatol. 2009;19:87-90 pubmed publisher
    ..This case suggests that an abnormal immunological reaction to tuberculosis may be one of the etiological candidates for IgG4-related disease...
  46. Bonfioli A, de Miranda S, Campos W, Orefice F. Tuberculosis. Semin Ophthalmol. 2005;20:169-75 pubmed
    ..Alternative regimens are necessary in the presence of drug resistance...
  47. Ohta K, Yamamoto Y, Arai J, Komurasaki Y, Yoshimura N. Solitary choroidal tuberculoma in a patient with chest wall tuberculosis. Br J Ophthalmol. 2003;87:795 pubmed
  48. Kaur A, Kant S, Bhasker S. Periorbital tuberculosis. Orbit. 2007;26:39-42 pubmed
    ..Follow-up at the end of one year showed clinical recovery. The authors stress the need for a high index of suspicion in cases of non-healing lesions and atypical inflammatory presentation in the periorbital region...
  49. Hassane S, lalla Malika M, Asma N, Abdelkader L, Mohamed K, Iman M, et al. [Choroidal tuberculoma and retinal vasculitis secondary to peritoneal tuberculosis]. Can J Ophthalmol. 2004;39:795-7 pubmed
  50. Varma D, Anand S, Reddy A, Das A, Watson J, Currie D, et al. Tuberculosis: an under-diagnosed aetiological agent in uveitis with an effective treatment. Eye (Lond). 2006;20:1068-73 pubmed
    ..To highlight the diversity of clinical presentations with tubercular uveitis in a nonendemic setting, and discuss the diagnostic approach and an effective treatment...
  51. Feuermannova A, Rencova E. [Specific chorioretinitis--a case report]. Cesk Slov Oftalmol. 2005;61:253-9 pubmed
    ..A prompt healing of cutaneous lesions occurred and retinal finding stabilized under the specific therapy. The authors emphasize that this infectious etiology should not be omitted in differential diagnostic considerations of uveitis...
  52. Leng T, Schefler A, Murray T. Retinal vascular tumor and peripheral retinal vasculitis in the setting of systemic tuberculosis. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging. 2009;40:409-12 pubmed
    ..Ophthalmologists should consider performing a purified protein derivative test and a chest x-ray for any patient with a history suspicious for tuberculosis who presents with a vascular tumor...
  53. Sharma S, Juneja M, Saran R, Kochhar A. Bilateral ocular scrofuloderma with orbital tuberculosis. Indian J Pediatr. 2006;73:361-3 pubmed
    ..The patient showed marked improvement of his lesions on anti-tubercular treatment...
  54. Torres R, Calonge M. Macular edema as the only ocular finding of tuberculosis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2004;138:1048-9 pubmed
    To describe an infrequent presentation of ocular tuberculosis.
  55. Dar N, Raza N, Zafar O, Awan S. Papulonecrotic tuberculids associated with uveitis. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2008;18:236-8 pubmed publisher
    ..There was an excellent response to anti-tuberculosis treatment. The association of immune mediated uveitis with papulonecrotic tuberculids has not been described before...
  56. Sheu S, Shyu J, Chen L, Chen Y, Chirn S, Wang J. Ocular manifestations of tuberculosis. Ophthalmology. 2001;108:1580-5 pubmed
    ..To present the clinical and histopathologic findings in five cases of tuberculosis (TB) with various ocular manifestations...
  57. Babu K, Satish V, Satish S, Subbakrishna D, Abraham M, Murthy K. Utility of QuantiFERON TB gold test in a south Indian patient population of ocular inflammation. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2009;57:427-30 pubmed publisher
    ..To study the utility of interferon-g release assays (QuantiFERON TB gold test) in a south Indian patient population of intraocular inflammation...
  58. Shome D, Honavar S, Vemuganti G, Joseph J. Orbital tuberculosis manifesting with enophthalmos and causing a diagnostic dilemma. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2006;22:219-21 pubmed
  59. Bansal R, Malhotra C, Bhatia R, Chhabra S, Sood S. Tubercular dacryoadenitis--a case report and review of literature. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2006;49:385-7 pubmed
    ..Tubercular dacryoadenitis is uncommon, with the diagnosis usually made on histological examination of the lacrimal gland. Other cases of tubercular dacryoadenitis reported in literature are also reviewed...
  60. Gupta A, Gupta V, Pandav S, Gupta A. Posterior scleritis associated with systemic tuberculosis. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2003;51:347-9 pubmed
    ..The patient responded well to a combination of oral corticosteroids with antituberculosis therapy...
  61. Jacob M, Kodjikian L, Ponceau B, Grange J. [Can optic perineuritis be triggered by Mycobacterium tuberculosis?]. J Fr Ophtalmol. 2006;29:e7 pubmed
  62. Dietrich U, Arnold P, Guscetti F, Pfyffer G, Spiess B. Ocular manifestation of disseminated Mycobacterium simiae infection in a cat. J Small Anim Pract. 2003;44:121-5 pubmed
    ..Combination treatment with rifampicin, enrofloxacin and clarithromycin resulted in complete clinical remission within six months, with no side effects. No recurrence was observed in a 22-month follow-up period...
  63. Jennings A, Bilous M, Asimakis P, Maloof A. Mycobacterium tuberculosis presenting as chronic red eye. Cornea. 2006;25:1118-20 pubmed
    ..To report a case of tuberculosis of the conjunctiva...
  64. Dewan T, Sangal K, Premsagar I, Vashishth S. Orbital tuberculoma extending into the cranium. Ophthalmologica. 2006;220:137-9 pubmed
    ..Histopathology of the excised lesion confirmed tuberculosis. The case is reported to highlight both the rare presentation as well as remarkable visual recovery in a patient with orbital tuberculosis...
  65. Owoeye J, Salami A, Ogundimu K, Buhari M. Intraorbital tuberculosis: a case report. Niger Postgrad Med J. 2004;11:68-70 pubmed
    ..She responded well to anti-tuberculosis therapy, with regression of the lid swelling and proptosis. The importance of including intraorbital tuberculosis as a differential of orbital swelling in the environment is emphasised...
  66. Mehta S. Risk factors for the development of ocular tuberculosis in patients with disseminated tuberculosis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2009;17:319-21 pubmed publisher
    To identify risk factors for the development of ocular tuberculosis in patients with disseminated tuberculosis.
  67. Ness T, Virchow J. [Posterior uveitis: sarcoidosis or tuberculosis]. Ophthalmologe. 2001;98:207-11 pubmed
    ..To demonstrate the difficulties of the differential diagnosis between tuberculosis and sarcoidosis as the cause of posterior uveitis...
  68. Salman A, Parmar P, Rajamohan M, Thomas P, Jesudasan N. Subretinal fluid analysis in the diagnosis of choroidal tuberculosis. Retina. 2003;23:796-9 pubmed
    ..We report two cases in which a choroidal granuloma with exudative retinal detachment was diagnosed as tuberculosis by the detection of acid-fast bacilli in subretinal fluid...
  69. Kumar A, Pal N, Sharma Y, Gupta R, Jain V, Sharma R. Bronchial carcinoid tumour with choroidal metastasis masquerading as ocular tuberculosis. Eye (Lond). 2006;20:1101-3 pubmed
  70. Kepa B, Grałek M, Kanigowska K, Chipczynska B. [Ocular changes in course of Mycohacterium tuberculosis infection--own observations]. Klin Oczna. 2008;110:265-8 pubmed
    b>Ocular tuberculosis occurs rarely and causes many diagnostic difficulties. The aim of this paper is to provide an analysis of diagnostic problems of ocular changes as a consequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children...
  71. Yasaratne B, Madegedara D, Senanayake N, Senaratne T. A case series of symptomatic ocular tuberculosis and the response to anti-tubercular therapy. Ceylon Med J. 2010;55:16-9 pubmed
    To identify the clinical pattern of symptomatic ocular tuberculosis (OTB) and the outcome following antitubercular therapy (ATT) in an endemic setting.
  72. de Popa D, Smochină S. [Therapeutical difficulties in a patient with TB panuveitis and open angle glaucoma]. Oftalmologia. 2002;54:23-6 pubmed
    ..There are also underlined the difficulties of maintaining the IOP between normal ranges under combined therapy for glaucoma...
  73. Oficjalska Młyńczak J, Muzyka Woźniak M, Turno Krecicka A, Jamrozy Witkowska A. [Vitrectomy in treatment of ocular tuberculosis--case report]. Klin Oczna. 2004;106:530-1 pubmed
    The authors present a case of ocular tuberculosis in otherwise healthy young men, diagnosed with positive tuberculin test and positive PCR for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in conjunctiva and vitreous samples...
  74. Gupta A, Gupta V, Arora S, Dogra M, Bambery P. PCR-positive tubercular retinal vasculitis: clinical characteristics and management. Retina. 2001;21:435-44 pubmed
  75. Pommier S, Chazalon E, Morand J, Meyer F. Chronic cicatrising conjunctivitis in a patient with hemifacial cutaneous tuberculosis. Br J Ophthalmol. 2008;92:616, 712-3 pubmed publisher
  76. Gupta A, Gupta V. Tubercular posterior uveitis. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2005;45:71-88 pubmed
  77. Madhavan H, Therese K, Gunisha P, Jayanthi U, Biswas J. Polymerase chain reaction for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in epiretinal membrane in Eales' disease. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000;41:822-5 pubmed
    ..Therefore, a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR), which detects MPB64 gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on the archival specimens of ERM of well-documented Eales' and non-Eales' patients, was applied and the results compared...
  78. Saricaoğlu M, Sengun A, Guven D, Karakurt A. Ocular tuberculosis with angle granuloma. Eye (Lond). 2004;18:219-20; discussion 220-1 pubmed
  79. Babu K, Gundannavar P, Satish V, Prabhakaran V. Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome in a patient with tubercular panuveitis. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2010;58:78-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Excision biopsy showed granulomatous inflammation involving the lymphatics. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of histiocytes around the lymphatics...
  80. Samimi S, Renaud Rougier M, Delyfer M, Korobelnik J. [In vitro measurement of whole blood gamma interferon as a diagnostic tool in primary ocular tuberculosis]. J Fr Ophtalmol. 2009;32:411-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The diagnosis of primary ocular tuberculosis is troublesome because of the low sensitivity and poor specifity of routine diagnostic methods and the ..
  81. Mehta S. Ocular lesions in acute disseminated tuberculosis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2004;12:311-5 pubmed
    ..To determine the prevalence of ocular involvement in patients with acute disseminated tuberculosis and to assess the findings associated with ocular involvement...
  82. Tabbara K. Ocular tuberculosis: anterior segment. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2005;45:57-69 pubmed
  83. Tosun F, Tozkoparan E, Erdurman C, Ors F, Deniz O. Primary nasolacrymal tuberculosis diagnosed after dacryocytorhinostomy. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2007;34:233-5 pubmed
    ..Primary tuberculosis is a rare granulomatous disease of the nasolacrimal system, which should be considered in the differential diagnosis to plan the effective treatment...
  84. Fernandes M, Vemuganti G, Pasricha G, Bansal A, Sangwan V. Unilateral tuberculous conjunctivitis with tarsal necrosis. Arch Ophthalmol. 2003;121:1475-8 pubmed
  85. Gopal L, Rao S, Biswas J, Madhavan H, Agarwal S. Tuberculous granuloma managed by full thickness eye wall resection. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003;135:93-4 pubmed
    ..To report the use of eye wall resection in the management of tuberculous granuloma...
  86. Haddon R. An airman with tuberculous uveitis: case study. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2000;71:1254-5 pubmed
    ..Promptly treated, tuberculosis should not interfere with the resumption of a career in aviation, and does not generally require special follow up...
  87. Rani A, Pushker N, Kulkarni A, Rajpal -, Balasubramanya R, Bajaj M. Simultaneous ocular and systemic cysticercosis and tuberculosis. Infection. 2006;34:169-72 pubmed
    ..We would like to present the co-existence of these infections in a 20-year-old female. She was a known case of pulmonary and ocular tuberculosis and she acquired cysticercosis of the eye and brain.