hidradenitis suppurativa

Summary

Summary: A chronic suppurative and cicatricial disease of the apocrine glands occurring chiefly in the axillae in women and in the groin and anal regions in men. It is characterized by poral occlusion with secondary bacterial infection, evolving into abscesses which eventually rupture. As the disease becomes chronic, ulcers appear, sinus tracts enlarge, fistulas develop, and fibrosis and scarring become evident.

Top Publications

  1. Tanaka A, Hatoko M, Tada H, Kuwahara M, Mashiba K, Yurugi S. Experience with surgical treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa. Ann Plast Surg. 2001;47:636-42 pubmed
    The authors report their experience with 23 sites of hidradenitis suppurativa, including cases with musculocutaneous flap repair, and discuss the surgical methods applied...
  2. Wortsman X, Jemec G. Real-time compound imaging ultrasound of hidradenitis suppurativa. Dermatol Surg. 2007;33:1340-2 pubmed
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a difficult disease to treat. Surgery may be curative, but just like cancer surgery, it must be complete to effect a cure. Preoperative imaging of hidradenitis lesions is therefore of interest...
  3. Sartorius K, Killasli H, Oprica C, Sullivan A, Lapins J. Bacteriology of hidradenitis suppurativa exacerbations and deep tissue cultures obtained during carbon dioxide laser treatment. Br J Dermatol. 2012;166:879-83 pubmed publisher
    Previous studies have shown different bacteria in hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) lesions, but the literature regarding bacteria in acute exacerbation of HS is sparse...
  4. Lam J, Krakowski A, Friedlander S. Hidradenitis suppurativa (acne inversa): management of a recalcitrant disease. Pediatr Dermatol. 2007;24:465-73 pubmed
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic relapsing disorder of follicular occlusion that is often recalcitrant to therapy...
  5. Yazdanyar S, Boer J, Ingvarsson G, Szepietowski J, Jemec G. Dapsone therapy for hidradenitis suppurativa: a series of 24 patients. Dermatology. 2011;222:342-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is an inflammatory skin disease with a chronic intermittent course. HS is difficult to treat, and the evidence for the effect of most treatments consists of smaller open studies...
  6. Hsiao J, Antaya R, Berger T, Maurer T, Shinkai K, Leslie K. Hidradenitis suppurativa and concomitant pyoderma gangrenosum: a case series and literature review. Arch Dermatol. 2010;146:1265-70 pubmed publisher
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) and pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) are both rare inflammatory skin conditions that are associated with systemic inflammatory diseases...
  7. Matusiak L, Bieniek A, Szepietowski J. Increased serum tumour necrosis factor-alpha in hidradenitis suppurativa patients: is there a basis for treatment with anti-tumour necrosis factor-alpha agents?. Acta Derm Venereol. 2009;89:601-3 pubmed publisher
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a recurrent, debilitating suppurative skin disease. Nowadays the major challenge is the choice of optimal treatment...
  8. Adams D, Yankura J, Fogelberg A, Anderson B. Treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa with etanercept injection. Arch Dermatol. 2010;146:501-4 pubmed publisher
    ..In light of our negative results, as well as those of previous studies, we suggest that future studies focus on other agents for the treatment of HS. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00949546. ..
  9. Hofmann S, Saborowski V, Lange S, Kern W, Bruckner Tuderman L, Rieg S. Expression of innate defense antimicrobial peptides in hidradenitis suppurativa. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2012;66:966-74 pubmed publisher
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of apocrine gland-bearing skin. It is associated with alterations in innate immunity and frequent bacterial infections...

More Information

Publications99

  1. Unal C, Yirmibesoglu O, Ozdemir J, Hasdemir M. Superior and inferior gluteal artery perforator flaps in reconstruction of gluteal and perianal/perineal hidradenitis suppurativa lesions. Microsurgery. 2011;31:539-44 pubmed publisher
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa is a debilitating disease with a tendency to form abscesses, sinus tracts, and scar formation...
  2. Mahmoud B, Tierney E, Hexsel C, Pui J, Ozog D, Hamzavi I. Prospective controlled clinical and histopathologic study of hidradenitis suppurativa treated with the long-pulsed neodymium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet laser. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010;62:637-45 pubmed publisher
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic inflammatory disease involving the intertriginous areas...
  3. van der Zee H, Prens E, Boer J. Deroofing: a tissue-saving surgical technique for the treatment of mild to moderate hidradenitis suppurativa lesions. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010;63:475-80 pubmed publisher
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, often refractory to treatment. Patients with HS and dermatologists are in need of an effective, fast surgical intervention technique...
  4. Balik E, Eren T, Bulut T, Buyukuncu Y, Bugra D, Yamaner S. Surgical approach to extensive hidradenitis suppurativa in the perineal/perianal and gluteal regions. World J Surg. 2009;33:481-7 pubmed publisher
    Verneuil's disease, or hidradenitis suppurativa, is a chronic suppurative disease with a tendency to sinus formation, fibrosis, and sclerosis...
  5. Altunay I, Gokdemir G, Kurt A, Kayaoglu S. Hidradenitis suppurativa and squamous cell carcinoma. Dermatol Surg. 2002;28:88-90 pubmed
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa is a recurrent, chronic inflammatory disease with complications such as abscesses and sinus tract formations, fistulization, and scarring. Squamous cell carcinoma is rare, and is the most serious complication...
  6. Bohn J, Svensson H. Surgical treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg. 2001;35:305-9 pubmed
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa is a skin disease involving the apocrine sweat glands which often becomes chronic...
  7. Lavogiez C, Delaporte E, Darras Vercambre S, Martin De Lassalle E, Castillo C, Mirabel X, et al. Clinicopathological study of 13 cases of squamous cell carcinoma complicating hidradenitis suppurativa. Dermatology. 2010;220:147-53 pubmed publisher
    To the best of our knowledge, only 52 cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) complicating hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) have been reported since 1958. We describe 13 new cases. We propose a clinical and histological analysis of our cases...
  8. Blanco R, Martínez Taboada V, Villa I, González Vela M, Fernández Llaca H, Agudo M, et al. Long-term successful adalimumab therapy in severe hidradenitis suppurativa. Arch Dermatol. 2009;145:580-4 pubmed publisher
    Several studies report the use of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) inhibitors in refractory hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), particularly infliximab and etanercept...
  9. Smith H, Chao J, Teitelbaum J. Painful hidradenitis suppurativa. Clin J Pain. 2010;26:435-44 pubmed publisher
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronically relapsing skin disorder characterized by recurring inflammatory lesion in hair and apocrine gland-bearing skin creases in the axilla; groin or perineum, buttocks, and/or breast...
  10. van der Zee H, de Ruiter L, Boer J, van den Broecke D, Den Hollander J, Laman J, et al. Alterations in leucocyte subsets and histomorphology in normal-appearing perilesional skin and early and chronic hidradenitis suppurativa lesions. Br J Dermatol. 2012;166:98-106 pubmed publisher
    Current insight into the histopathological course of events during disease progression in hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is fragmentary...
  11. Lee R, Yoon A, Kist J. Hidradenitis suppurativa: an update. Adv Dermatol. 2007;23:289-306 pubmed
    ..Often a multidisciplinary approach involving dermatology, plastic surgery, gynecology, and urology may be necessary to diagnose and treat the disease. Both medical and surgical options should be explored before embarking on therapy. ..
  12. Buimer M, Ankersmit M, Wobbes T, Klinkenbijl J. Surgical treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa with gentamicin sulfate: a prospective randomized study. Dermatol Surg. 2008;34:224-7 pubmed
    ..and discusses a prospective randomized study with gentamicin sulfate in the surgical treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether enclosure of antibiotics after primary excision and ..
  13. Gao M, Wang P, Cui Y, Yang S, Zhang Y, Lin D, et al. Inversa acne (hidradenitis suppurativa): a case report and identification of the locus at chromosome 1p21.1-1q25.3. J Invest Dermatol. 2006;126:1302-6 pubmed
    Acne inversa (hidradenitis suppurativa) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disease characterized by recurrent draining sinuses and abscesses, predominantly in skin folds that carry terminal hairs and apocrine glands...
  14. Wolkenstein P, Loundou A, Barrau K, Auquier P, Revuz J. Quality of life impairment in hidradenitis suppurativa: a study of 61 cases. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007;56:621-3 pubmed
    We sought to determine quality of life impairment in hidradenitis suppurativa. Questionnaires were administered to 61 patients. Quality of life impact in hidradenitis was much greater than that of several other dermatologic conditions...
  15. Schmitt J, Bombonatto G, Martin M, Miot H. Risk factors for hidradenitis suppurativa: a pilot study. An Bras Dermatol. 2012;87:936-8 pubmed
    The hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic debilitating inflammatory disease whose etiology is not fully understood...
  16. von der Werth J, Williams H. The natural history of hidradenitis suppurativa. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2000;14:389-92 pubmed
    To investigate aspects of the natural history of hidradenitis. The natural history of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is not well known...
  17. van der Zee H, Laman J, de Ruiter L, Dik W, Prens E. Adalimumab (antitumour necrosis factor-?) treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa ameliorates skin inflammation: an in situ and ex vivo study. Br J Dermatol. 2012;166:298-305 pubmed publisher
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a difficult-to-manage disease. Randomized controlled trials with antitumour necrosis factor (TNF)-? biologics have been conducted and in most studies disease activity was reduced...
  18. Madan V, Hindle E, Hussain W, August P. Outcomes of treatment of nine cases of recalcitrant severe hidradenitis suppurativa with carbon dioxide laser. Br J Dermatol. 2008;159:1309-14 pubmed publisher
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic and often a recalcitrant inflammatory skin condition...
  19. Randhawa H, Hamilton J, Pope E. Finasteride for the treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa in children and adolescents. JAMA Dermatol. 2013;149:732-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic debilitating cutaneous disease for which there is no universally effective treatment...
  20. Lapins J, Sartorius K, Emtestam L. Scanner-assisted carbon dioxide laser surgery: a retrospective follow-up study of patients with hidradenitis suppurativa. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2002;47:280-5 pubmed
    The chronic fistulating lesions of hidradenitis suppurativa spread by contiguous growth, and all affected tissue needs to be surgically removed...
  21. Wollina U, Tilp M, Meseg A, Schönlebe J, Heinig B, Nowak A. Management of severe anogenital acne inversa (hidradenitis suppurativa). Dermatol Surg. 2012;38:110-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We analyzed the records of patients with anogenital AI from 2000 to 2010. Assessment was done using the Hidradenitis Suppurativa Lesion, Area, and Severity Index (HS-LASI), pain visual analogue scale, physician global assessment (PhGA)..
  22. Gulliver W, Jemec G, Baker K. Experience with ustekinumab for the treatment of moderate to severe hidradenitis suppurativa. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2012;26:911-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a severe chronic inflammatory follicular disease characterized by nodules and abscesses affecting apocrine gland-bearing regions...
  23. Lee R, Dommasch E, Treat J, Sciacca Kirby J, Chachkin S, Williams J, et al. A prospective clinical trial of open-label etanercept for the treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2009;60:565-73 pubmed publisher
    Medical therapies for hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) are often ineffective. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors may be a potential treatment for patients with moderate to severe HS...
  24. Danby F, Margesson L. Hidradenitis suppurativa. Dermatol Clin. 2010;28:779-93 pubmed publisher
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic, inflammatory, scarring condition involving the intertriginous skin of the axillary, inguinal, inframammary, genital, and perineal areas of the body...
  25. Kagan R, Yakuboff K, Warner P, Warden G. Surgical treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa: a 10-year experience. Surgery. 2005;138:734-40; discussion 740-1 pubmed
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a disease of the apocrine sweat glands resulting in chronic wounds with abscesses, sinuses, and fibrosis...
  26. Paradela S, Rodríguez Lojo R, Fernández Torres R, Arévalo P, Fonseca E. Long-term efficacy of infliximab in hidradenitis suppurativa. J Dermatolog Treat. 2012;23:278-83 pubmed publisher
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic disease with painful, inflamed lesions in the apocrine gland-bearing areas of the body and unsatisfactory treatment...
  27. Esmann S, Dufour D, Jemec G. Questionnaire-based diagnosis of hidradenitis suppurativa: specificity, sensitivity and positive predictive value of specific diagnostic questions. Br J Dermatol. 2010;163:102-6 pubmed publisher
    Estimates of the prevalence of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) range from 0.33% to 4%. Further epidemiological data are therefore needed...
  28. Egemen O, Ozkaya O, Bingöl D, Orman Ç, Akan M. Islanded perforator flaps in the reconstruction of hidradenitis suppurativa defects. J Reconstr Microsurg. 2013;29:297-302 pubmed publisher
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa is a recurrent, chronic, and suppurative cutaneous disease of unknown etiology...
  29. Giamarellos Bourboulis E, Pelekanou E, Antonopoulou A, Petropoulou H, Baziaka F, Karagianni V, et al. An open-label phase II study of the safety and efficacy of etanercept for the therapy of hidradenitis suppurativa. Br J Dermatol. 2008;158:567-72 pubmed
    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of etanercept for the management of hidradenitis suppurativa. In a prospective open-label phase II study, etanercept was administered subcutaneously in a dose of 50 mg once weekly for 12 weeks in 10 ..
  30. Rehman N, Kannan R, Hassan S, Hart N. Thoracodorsal artery perforator (TAP) type I V-Y advancement flap in axillary hidradenitis suppurativa. Br J Plast Surg. 2005;58:441-4 pubmed
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic debilitating disease. Surgical removal of all apocrine glands in the affected region is the definitive treatment. The resulting wound may either be left to heal secondarily or closed primarily...
  31. Haslund P, Lee R, Jemec G. Treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa with tumour necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors. Acta Derm Venereol. 2009;89:595-600 pubmed publisher
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a common inflammatory skin disease. Medical treatment is often disappointing and in severe disease surgery remains the therapy of choice. Extensive surgery may be effective but also mutilating...
  32. Savva A, Kanni T, Damoraki G, Kotsaki A, Giatrakou S, Grech I, et al. Impact of Toll-like receptor-4 and tumour necrosis factor gene polymorphisms in patients with hidradenitis suppurativa. Br J Dermatol. 2013;168:311-7 pubmed publisher
    Recent evidence has suggested that deranged immune responses play a role in the pathogenesis of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS)...
  33. Liron Ruiz R, Torralba Martinez J, Pellicer Franco E, Morales Cuenca G, Martín Lorenzo J, Miguel Perello J, et al. Treatment of long-standing extensive perianal hidradenitis suppurativa using double rotation plasty, V-Y plasty and free grafts. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2004;19:73-8 pubmed
    Perianal hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic recurrent inflammatory, suppurating, and fistulizing disease of apocrine glands, adjacent anal canal skin, and soft tissues...
  34. Pironi D, Caruso F, Panarese A, Vendettuoli M, Mascagni D, Moraldi L, et al. Chronic hidradenitis suppurativa in the inguinal, perineal and scrotal regions. A case report and review of the literature. Ann Ital Chir. 2010;81:465-70 pubmed
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic, recurrent, debilitating disease that presents with inflamed lesions in the apocrine glands of the body. The most common locations are the axillary, inguinal and anogenital areas...
  35. von Laffert M, Stadie V, Wohlrab J, Marsch W. Hidradenitis suppurativa/acne inversa: bilocated epithelial hyperplasia with very different sequelae. Br J Dermatol. 2011;164:367-71 pubmed publisher
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa/acne inversa is a chronic, inflammatory, scarring disease in the terminal hair follicle and apocrine gland-bearing areas (skin folds)...
  36. Slade D, Powell B, Mortimer P. Hidradenitis suppurativa: pathogenesis and management. Br J Plast Surg. 2003;56:451-61 pubmed
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic disease manifested by recurrent abscesses, sinus tracts and scarring. It arises most commonly, however, not exclusive from apocrine gland bearing skin...
  37. Menderes A, Sunay O, Vayvada H, Yilmaz M. Surgical management of hidradenitis suppurativa. Int J Med Sci. 2010;7:240-7 pubmed
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic, relapsing inflammatory disease of skin, characterized by recurrent draining sinuses and abscesses, predominantly in skin folds carrying terminal hairs and apocrine glands...
  38. Geh J, Niranjan N. Perforator-based fasciocutaneous island flaps for the reconstruction of axillary defects following excision of hidradenitis suppurativa. Br J Plast Surg. 2002;55:124-8 pubmed
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic socially debilitating disorder of unknown aetiology. Treatments include simple incision and drainage, excision and healing by secondary intention, spilt-skin grafting, and local-flap reconstructions...
  39. Arenbergerova M, Gkalpakiotis S, Arenberger P. Effective long-term control of refractory hidradenitis suppurativa with adalimumab after failure of conventional therapy. Int J Dermatol. 2010;49:1445-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic suppurative condition featuring inflammatory nodules, fistulas and scars. It occurs predominantly in the axillae and groin...
  40. Altmann S, Fansa H, Schneider W. Axillary hidradenitis suppurativa: a further option for surgical treatment. J Cutan Med Surg. 2004;8:6-10 pubmed
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic inflammatory disease of the cutis with furuncles, fistulas, and abscesses. The disease is mostly located in groin and axilla...
  41. Buyukasik O, Hasdemir A, Kahramansoy N, Col C, Erkol H. Surgical approach to extensive hidradenitis suppurativa. Dermatol Surg. 2011;37:835-42 pubmed publisher
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic suppurative disease of skin with high recurrence. To determine factors affecting complications and recurrence of HS in patients who underwent surgery...
  42. Constantinou C, Widom K, Desantis J, Obmann M. Hidradenitis suppurativa complicated by squamous cell carcinoma. Am Surg. 2008;74:1177-81 pubmed
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the apocrine glands of the axilla, groin, and perianal region. Although it is a common condition, it is rarely associated with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)...
  43. Schlapbach C, Hänni T, Yawalkar N, Hunger R. Expression of the IL-23/Th17 pathway in lesions of hidradenitis suppurativa. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011;65:790-798 pubmed publisher
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa is a debilitating chronic disease primarily affecting intertriginous skin of the axillae, perineum, and inframammary regions. The pathogenesis of this inflammatory disease is still poorly understood...
  44. Moul D, Korman N. The cutting edge. Severe hidradenitis suppurativa treated with adalimumab. Arch Dermatol. 2006;142:1110-2 pubmed
  45. Maalouf E, Faye O, Poli F, Cosnes A, Revuz J. [Fatal epidermoid carcinoma in hidradenitis suppurativa following treatment with infliximab]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2006;133:473-4 pubmed
  46. Faye O, Petit F, Poli F, Petit T, Wechsler J, Gabison G, et al. [Lymphedema as a complication of hidradenitis suppurativa in three patients]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2007;134:567-9 pubmed
    We report three patients (respectively 36, 52 and 52 years old) with a long history of hidradenitis suppurativa associated with pubic lymph oedema...
  47. Cusack C, Buckley C. Etanercept: effective in the management of hidradenitis suppurativa. Br J Dermatol. 2006;154:726-9 pubmed
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic suppurative condition which is poorly responsive to treatment and is characterized by significant morbidity...
  48. Kishi K, Nakajima H, Imanishi N, Nakajima T. Extended split superior gluteus maximus musculocutaneous flap and reconstruction after resection of perianal and lower gluteal hidradenitis suppurativa. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2009;62:1081-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these anatomical data, reconstruction after total skin resection of perianal and lower gluteal hidradenitis suppurativa was performed with an extended split superior gluteal maximus musculocutaneous flap...
  49. Prasad P, Kaviarasan P, Joseph J, Madhuri S, Viswanathan P. Familial acne inversa with acne conglobata in three generations. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2008;74:283-5 pubmed
  50. Bocchini S, Habr Gama A, Kiss D, Imperiale A, Araujo S. Gluteal and perianal hidradenitis suppurativa: surgical treatment by wide excision. Dis Colon Rectum. 2003;46:944-9 pubmed
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic inflammatory disease of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Extensive gluteal and perianal disease represents a challenge presentation...
  51. Busnardo F, Coltro P, Olivan M, Busnardo A, Ferreira M. The thoracodorsal artery perforator flap in the treatment of axillary hidradenitis suppurativa: effect on preservation of arm abduction. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2011;128:949-53 pubmed publisher
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic, recurrent inflammatory disease of the skin characterized by abscesses and scars. The axillary region is predominantly affected, leading to limited mobility of the arm due to scar retraction...
  52. Kishi K, Nakajima H, Imanishi N. Reconstruction of skin defects after resection of severe gluteal hidradenitis suppurativa with fasciocutaneous flaps. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2009;62:800-5 pubmed publisher
    Although skin grafting after resection of the hidradenitis suppurativa is frequently used, the contour after skin grafting is unsatisfactory...
  53. Obadia D, Daxbacher E, Jeunon T, Gripp A. [Hidradenitis suppurativa treated with infliximab]. An Bras Dermatol. 2009;84:695-7 pubmed
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa is an inflammatory disease with difficult treatment. Currently, the anti-TNF alfa therapy, with monoclonal antibodies ('biological therapy'), has been shown as a new alternative...
  54. Mekkes J, Bos J. Long-term efficacy of a single course of infliximab in hidradenitis suppurativa. Br J Dermatol. 2008;158:370-4 pubmed
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by abscess formation, predominantly in the axillae and groins. The disease is difficult to treat and has a severe impact on quality of life...
  55. Chuang C, Lee C, Chen T, Wang H, Chen S. Use of a versatile transpositional flap in the surgical treatment of axillary hidradenitis suppurativa. J Formos Med Assoc. 2004;103:644-7 pubmed
    Axillary hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic recurrent disorder characterized by abscessing inflammation, fistulating sinus tracts, and scarring...
  56. Varkarakis G, Daniels J, Coker K, Oswald T, Akdemir O, Lineaweaver W. Treatment of axillary hidradenitis with transposition flaps: a 6-year experience. Ann Plast Surg. 2010;64:592-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Twenty flaps (95%) healed without axillary contracture. One failed flap required skin graft coverage. Transposition flap coverage in these patients was a reliable, single-stage reconstruction allowing prompt arm movement. ..
  57. Sartorius K, Lapins J, Emtestam L, Jemec G. Suggestions for uniform outcome variables when reporting treatment effects in hidradenitis suppurativa. Br J Dermatol. 2003;149:211-3 pubmed
  58. Matusiak L, Bieniek A, Szepietowski J. Psychophysical aspects of hidradenitis suppurativa. Acta Derm Venereol. 2010;90:264-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa is a recurrent, debilitating suppurative skin disease. The symptoms are much more than just physical, but studies of its impact on patients' psychological state and related quality of life are very limited...
  59. Ather S, Chan D, Leaper D, Harding K. Surgical treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa: case series and review of the literature. Int Wound J. 2006;3:159-69 pubmed
    The chronic and relapsing nature of hidradenitis suppurativa leads to physical and psychological damage. The absence of a proven cure further worsens the scenario...
  60. Yazdanyar S, Jemec G. Hidradenitis suppurativa: a review of cause and treatment. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2011;24:118-23 pubmed publisher
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic or relapsing inflammatory cutaneous disorder manifested by recurrent formation of abscesses, fistulating sinus and scarring in the apocrine-gland-bearing skin...
  61. Konig A, Lehmann C, Rompel R, Happle R. Cigarette smoking as a triggering factor of hidradenitis suppurativa. Dermatology. 1999;198:261-4 pubmed
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic inflammatory skin disease involving the axillary, inguinal and anogenital regions and sometimes, in addition, the submammary or sacral areas. The etiology of this condition is unknown...
  62. Chen E, Friedman H. Management of regional hidradenitis suppurativa with vacuum-assisted closure and split thickness skin grafts. Ann Plast Surg. 2011;67:397-401 pubmed publisher
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa can be a debilitating chronic illness...
  63. Mitchell K, Beck D. Hidradenitis suppurativa. Surg Clin North Am. 2002;82:1187-97 pubmed
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic, debilitating disease of apocrine gland-bearing skin. Its management must be individualized according to the site and extent of the disease...
  64. Greenbaum A. Modified abdominoplasty as a functional reconstruction for recurrent hydradenitis suppurativa of the lower abdomen and groin. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007;119:764-6 pubmed
  65. Kraft J, Searles G. Hidradenitis suppurativa in 64 female patients: retrospective study comparing oral antibiotics and antiandrogen therapy. J Cutan Med Surg. 2007;11:125-31 pubmed
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a recurrent disease confined to apocrine gland-bearing areas causing painful, deep-seated lesions and draining sinus tracts. Uniformly effective therapy is lacking...
  66. Kurzen H, Kurokawa I, Jemec G, Emtestam L, Sellheyer K, Giamarellos Bourboulis E, et al. What causes hidradenitis suppurativa?. Exp Dermatol. 2008;17:455-6; discussion 457-72 pubmed publisher
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS)--a rather common, very chronic and debilitating inflammatory skin appendage disorder with a notoriously underestimated burden of disease--has long been a playground for the high priests of nomenclature: Ask a ..
  67. Gener G, Canoui Poitrine F, Revuz J, Faye O, Poli F, Gabison G, et al. Combination therapy with clindamycin and rifampicin for hidradenitis suppurativa: a series of 116 consecutive patients. Dermatology. 2009;219:148-54 pubmed publisher
    Antibiotics are frequently used to treat hidradenitis suppurativa (HS); however, few data on their efficacy are available...
  68. Rhode J, Burke W, Cederna P, Haefner H. Outcomes of surgical management of stage III vulvar hidradenitis suppurativa. J Reprod Med. 2008;53:420-8 pubmed
    To review prior experiences and outcomes of patients treated for stage III vulvar hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) and determine postoperative patient satisfaction...
  69. Rieger U, Erba P, Pierer G, Kalbermatten D. Hidradenitis suppurativa of the groin treated by radical excision and defect closure by medial thigh lift: aesthetic surgery meets reconstructive surgery. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2009;62:1355-60 pubmed publisher
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa of the groin is a chronic, relapsing inflammatory disease of the skin and subcutaneous tissues. Radical surgical excision is the treatment of choice...
  70. Xu L, Wright D, Mahmoud B, Ozog D, Mehregan D, Hamzavi I. Histopathologic study of hidradenitis suppurativa following long-pulsed 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser treatment. Arch Dermatol. 2011;147:21-8 pubmed publisher
    ..assess clinical and histopathologic changes occurring after long-pulsed 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS). Prospective, controlled clinical and histologic study of patients with Hurley stage II HS disease...
  71. Rosenzweig L, Brett A, Lefaivre J, Vandersteenhoven J. Hidradenitis suppurativa complicated by squamous cell carcinoma and paraneoplastic neuropathy. Am J Med Sci. 2005;329:150-2 pubmed
    Squamous cell carcinoma is a rare complication of chronic, severe, hidradenitis suppurativa. We describe a patient with a 20-year history of extensive perineal hidradenitis suppurativa who presented with subacute muscle weakness and ..
  72. Sartorius K, Emtestam L, Jemec G, Lapins J. Objective scoring of hidradenitis suppurativa reflecting the role of tobacco smoking and obesity. Br J Dermatol. 2009;161:831-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a long-standing disease with abscess and often fistula formation, predominantly in the axillae and groins. The disease is difficult to treat and has a severe impact on quality of life...
  73. Revuz J. Hidradenitis suppurativa. Presse Med. 2010;39:1254-64 pubmed publisher
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa, or Verneuil's disease, is somewhat common, especially in women, but it often unrecognized...
  74. von Laffert M, Helmbold P, Wohlrab J, Fiedler E, Stadie V, Marsch W. Hidradenitis suppurativa (acne inversa): early inflammatory events at terminal follicles and at interfollicular epidermis. Exp Dermatol. 2010;19:533-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa (acne inversa) is a chronic suppurative and scarring inflammatory disease with predilection in the apocrine gland-bearing areas...
  75. Alikhan A, Lynch P, Eisen D. Hidradenitis suppurativa: a comprehensive review. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2009;60:539-61; quiz 562-3 pubmed publisher
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa, also known as acne inversa, is a chronic, often debilitating disease primarily affecting the axillae, perineum, and inframammary regions. Prevalence rates of up to 4% have been estimated...
  76. Rees L, Moses M, Clibbon J. The anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap in reconstruction following radical excision of groin and vulval hidradenitis suppurativa. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2007;60:1363-5 pubmed
  77. Jemec G, Hansen U. Histology of hidradenitis suppurativa. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1996;34:994-9 pubmed
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa is traditionally classified as a disease of the apocrine gland. However, different histologic descriptions exist. Our purpose was to describe prospectively the histopathologic characteristics of hidradenitis...
  78. Hynes P, Earley M, Lawlor D. Split-thickness skin grafts and negative-pressure dressings in the treatment of axillary hidradenitis suppurativa. Br J Plast Surg. 2002;55:507-9 pubmed
    ..with negative-pressure dressings for the management of defects following wide surgical excision of severe hidradenitis suppurativa. This technique ensures complete skin-graft take whilst allowing full shoulder mobility, thereby ..
  79. Sims S, McLean F, Davis J, Morgan L, Wilkinson E. Vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum: a report of 3 cases, 2 associated with vulvar carcinoma and 1 with hidradenitis suppurativa. J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2010;14:234-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment options include observation, surgical excision, laser ablation, or sclerosing therapy. We report 3 cases, 2 associated with vulvar squamous cell carcinoma and 1 with hidradenitis suppurativa.
  80. Revuz J. Hidradenitis suppurativa. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2009;23:985-98 pubmed publisher
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic disease characterized by recurrent, painful, deep-seated, rounded nodules and abscesses of apocrine gland-bearing skin...
  81. Nassar D, Hugot J, Wolkenstein P, Revuz J. Lack of association between CARD15 gene polymorphisms and hidradenitis suppurativa: a pilot study. Dermatology. 2007;215:359 pubmed
  82. Wolk K, Warszawska K, Hoeflich C, Witte E, Schneider Burrus S, Witte K, et al. Deficiency of IL-22 contributes to a chronic inflammatory disease: pathogenetic mechanisms in acne inversa. J Immunol. 2011;186:1228-39 pubmed publisher
    ..As demonstrated in this study, acne inversa (AI; also designated as Hidradenitis suppurativa) lesions show a relative deficiency of IL-22 and IL-20, but not of IL-17A, IL-26, IFN-?, IL-24, or IL-1?...
  83. Sellheyer K, Krahl D. What causes acne inversa (or hidradenitis suppurativa)?--the debate continues. J Cutan Pathol. 2008;35:701-3 pubmed publisher
  84. Highton L, Chan W, Khwaja N, Laitung J. Treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa with intense pulsed light: a prospective study. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2011;128:459-65 pubmed publisher
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic skin condition characterized by recurrent inflammation and infection of skin in intertriginous areas containing apocrine glands. Intense pulsed light uses high-energy broad-spectrum light...
  85. Sehgal V, Verma P, Sawant S, Paul M. Contemporary surgical treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) with a focus on the use of the diode hair laser in a case. J Cosmet Laser Ther. 2011;13:180-90 pubmed publisher
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa, a chronic recurrent disorder, characterized by painful, deep-seated nodules and abscesses commonly affecting the pilosebaceous-apocrine unit of the axillary, inguinal and mammary region in females, while the ..
  86. Harde V, Mrowietz U. Treatment of severe recalcitrant hidradenitis suppurativa with adalimumab. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2009;7:139-41 pubmed publisher
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic inflammatory skin disease featuring inflammatory nodules, fistulas and discharge of secretions in the intertriginous regions. Without therapy the disease is chronic and progressive...
  87. Matusiak Ł, Bieniek A, Szepietowski J. Soluble interleukin-2 receptor serum level is a useful marker of hidradenitis suppurativa clinical staging. Biomarkers. 2009;14:432-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a recurrent, debilitating suppurative skin disease. The major challenge is the choice of optimal treatment...
  88. Emelianov V, Bechara F, Glaser R, Langan E, Taungjaruwinai W, Schroder J, et al. Immunohistological pointers to a possible role for excessive cathelicidin (LL-37) expression by apocrine sweat glands in the pathogenesis of hidradenitis suppurativa/acne inversa. Br J Dermatol. 2012;166:1023-34 pubmed publisher
    The cause of follicular occlusion, a key early event in the pathogenesis of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), also known as acne inversa, remains unknown.
  89. Revuz J, Canoui Poitrine F, Wolkenstein P, Viallette C, Gabison G, Pouget F, et al. Prevalence and factors associated with hidradenitis suppurativa: results from two case-control studies. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2008;59:596-601 pubmed publisher
    Conflicting opinions have been reported regarding the epidemiology of hidradenitis suppurativa. We sought to evaluate the prevalence of hidradenitis suppurativa and to identify associated factors...
  90. Elwood E, Bolitho D. Negative-pressure dressings in the treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa. Ann Plast Surg. 2001;46:49-51 pubmed
    ..b>Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic infection of the apocrine sweat glands...