trachoma

Summary

Summary: A chronic infection of the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA caused by CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.

Top Publications

  1. Edwards T, Cumberland P, Hailu G, Todd J. Impact of health education on active trachoma in hyperendemic rural communities in Ethiopia. Ophthalmology. 2006;113:548-55 pubmed
    b>Trachoma is one of the leading preventable causes of blindness worldwide. We evaluate the impact of a health education program on the prevalence of active trachoma in children 3 to 9 years old. Community randomized intervention study...
  2. Brady M, Hooper P, Ottesen E. Projected benefits from integrating NTD programs in sub-Saharan Africa. Trends Parasitol. 2006;22:285-91 pubmed
    ..data available for five NTDs (lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, intestinal helminthiasis, schistosomiasis and trachoma) can be used to define eligible target populations, the probable overlap of at-risk populations, and the cost per ..
  3. Dorkenoo A, Bronzan R, Ayena K, Anthony G, Agbo Y, Sognikin K, et al. Nationwide integrated mapping of three neglected tropical diseases in Togo: countrywide implementation of a novel approach. Trop Med Int Health. 2012;17:896-903 pubmed publisher
    ..in every peripheral health unit in endemic districts: 29 districts for schistosomiasis and STH, 15 of them for trachoma. In each village, 15 children aged 6-9 years at a randomly selected school were tested...
  4. Wright H, Taylor H. Clinical examination and laboratory tests for estimation of trachoma prevalence in a remote setting: what are they really telling us?. Lancet Infect Dis. 2005;5:313-20 pubmed
    Worldwide, an estimated 84 million people have active trachoma and 7.6 million people have trachomatous trichiasis...
  5. Burton M, Bowman R, Faal H, Aryee E, Ikumapayi U, Alexander N, et al. The long-term natural history of trachomatous trichiasis in the Gambia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:847-52 pubmed
    b>Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness. However, there are few data on the natural history of trachomatous trichiasis to guide program planning or that investigate its pathogenesis.
  6. Harding Esch E, Holland M, Schémann J, Molina S, Sarr I, Andreasen A, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of a prototype point-of-care test for ocular Chlamydia trachomatis under field conditions in The Gambia and Senegal. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1234 pubmed publisher
    The clinical signs of active trachoma are often present in the absence of ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection in low prevalence and mass treated settings...
  7. Burton M, Ramadhani A, Weiss H, Hu V, Massae P, Burr S, et al. Active trachoma is associated with increased conjunctival expression of IL17A and profibrotic cytokines. Infect Immun. 2011;79:4977-83 pubmed publisher
    The immunological basis of scarring trachoma is not well understood. It is unclear whether it is driven primarily through cell-mediated adaptive or epithelial-cell-derived innate responses...
  8. Pelletreau S, Nyaku M, Dembele M, Sarr B, Budge P, Ross R, et al. The field-testing of a novel integrated mapping protocol for neglected tropical diseases. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1380 pubmed publisher
    ..integrated NTD mapping protocol (Integrated Threshold Mapping (ITM) Methodology) for lymphatic filariasis (LF), trachoma, schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths (STH)...
  9. Merbs S, West S, West E. Pattern of recurrence of trachomatous trichiasis after surgery surgical technique as an explanation. Ophthalmology. 2005;112:705-9 pubmed
    To evaluate the pattern of recurrence of trachomatous trichiasis (TT) after bilamellar tarsal rotation surgery for trachoma.

More Information

Publications113 found, 100 shown here

  1. Solomon A, Bowman R, Yorston D, Massae P, Safari S, Savage B, et al. Operational evaluation of the use of photographs for grading active trachoma. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006;74:505-8 pubmed
    We evaluated the reliability of photographs to verify field diagnoses of active trachoma. We examined 956 residents of a trachoma-endemic village for signs of trachoma using the World Health Organization simplified grading system...
  2. Yang J, Hong K, Schachter J, Moncada J, Lekew T, House J, et al. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis ocular infection in trachoma-endemic communities by rRNA amplification. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:90-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Trachoma remains the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends mass antibiotic distributions in its strategy to eliminate blinding trachoma...
  3. Harding Esch E, Edwards T, Sillah A, Sarr I, Roberts C, Snell P, et al. Active trachoma and ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection in two Gambian regions: on course for elimination by 2020?. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2009;3:e573 pubmed publisher
    b>Trachoma has been endemic in The Gambia for decades. National trachoma control activities have been in place since the mid-1980's, but with no mass antibiotic treatment campaign...
  4. Smith J, Sturrock H, Olives C, Solomon A, Brooker S. Comparing the performance of cluster random sampling and integrated threshold mapping for targeting trachoma control, using computer simulation. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2389 pubmed publisher
    Implementation of trachoma control strategies requires reliable district-level estimates of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF), generally collected using the recommended gold-standard cluster randomized surveys (CRS)...
  5. Mpyet C, Ogoshi C, Goyol M. Prevalence of trachoma in Yobe State, north-eastern Nigeria. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2008;15:303-7 pubmed publisher
    To determine the prevalence and types of trachoma in all persons resident in Yobe state, Nigeria and establish baseline data for monitoring and evaluation of trachoma control programmes...
  6. Khandekar R, Nga N, Mai P. Blinding trachoma in the northern provinces of Vietnam--a cross sectional survey. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2006;13:183-9 pubmed
    A prevalence study was conducted in 2001 as part of the SAFE Trachoma Control initiatives in twelve districts of eight northern provinces of Vietnam...
  7. Clements A, Kur L, Gatpan G, Ngondi J, Emerson P, Lado M, et al. Targeting trachoma control through risk mapping: the example of Southern Sudan. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4:e799 pubmed publisher
    b>Trachoma is a major cause of blindness in Southern Sudan. Its distribution has only been partially established and many communities in need of intervention have therefore not been identified or targeted...
  8. Solomon A, Mohammed Z, Massae P, Shao J, Foster A, Mabey D, et al. Impact of mass distribution of azithromycin on the antibiotic susceptibilities of ocular Chlamydia trachomatis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005;49:4804-6 pubmed
    In a community of Tanzania where trachoma is endemic, we cultured conjunctival swabs from all residents who had active trachoma and were PCR positive for ocular Chlamydia trachomatis, both before (43 isolates) and 2 months after (9 ..
  9. Goldschmidt P, Afghani T, Nadeem M, Ali Khan W, Chaumeil C, de Barbeyrac B. Clinical and microbiological diagnosis of trachoma in children living in rural areas in the district of Attock, Punjab, Pakistan. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2006;13:335-42 pubmed
    b>Trachoma is a sight-threatening process triggered by infection of the conjunctiva with Chlamydiae...
  10. Cajas Monson L, Mkocha H, Munoz B, Quinn T, Gaydos C, West S. Risk factors for ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in children 6 months following mass treatment in Tanzania. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e978 pubmed publisher
    b>Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness in the world, and for endemic communities, mass treatment with azithromycin reduces the pool of infection...
  11. Edwards T, Smith J, Sturrock H, Kur L, Sabasio A, Finn T, et al. Prevalence of trachoma in unity state, South Sudan: results from a large-scale population-based survey and potential implications for further surveys. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1585 pubmed publisher
    Large parts of South Sudan are thought to be trachoma-endemic but baseline data are limited...
  12. Michel C, Solomon A, Magbanua J, Massae P, Huang L, Mosha J, et al. Field evaluation of a rapid point-of-care assay for targeting antibiotic treatment for trachoma control: a comparative study. Lancet. 2006;367:1585-90 pubmed
    b>Trachoma results from repeated episodes of conjunctival infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and is the leading infectious cause of blindness...
  13. Schemann J, Guinot C, Traore L, Zefack G, Dembele M, Diallo I, et al. Longitudinal evaluation of three azithromycin distribution strategies for treatment of trachoma in a sub-Saharan African country, Mali. Acta Trop. 2007;101:40-53 pubmed
    b>Trachoma, caused by repeated ocular infections with Chlamydia trachomatis is an important cause of blindness. Mass azithromycin distribution is part of current recommended strategies for controlling trachoma...
  14. Ngondi J, Matthews F, Reacher M, Onsarigo A, Matende I, Baba S, et al. Prevalence of risk factors and severity of active trachoma in southern Sudan: an ordinal analysis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;77:126-32 pubmed
    We aimed to investigate prevalence of potential risk factors, and associations between risk factors and active trachoma in southern Sudan. Surveys were undertaken in ten sites and children aged 1-9 years examined for trachoma...
  15. Mariotti S, Pascolini D, Rose Nussbaumer J. Trachoma: global magnitude of a preventable cause of blindness. Br J Ophthalmol. 2009;93:563-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Trachoma is the leading cause of infectious blindness worldwide. It is known to be highly correlated with poverty, limited access to healthcare services and water...
  16. Yayemain D, King J, Debrah O, Emerson P, Aboe A, Ahorsu F, et al. Achieving trachoma control in Ghana after implementing the SAFE strategy. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2009;103:993-1000 pubmed publisher
    The Ghana Health Service plans to eliminate blinding trachoma by 2010 and has implemented the SAFE strategy since 2001. The programme impact was assessed in all endemic districts...
  17. Hotez P, Molyneux D, Fenwick A, Kumaresan J, Sachs S, Sachs J, et al. Control of neglected tropical diseases. N Engl J Med. 2007;357:1018-27 pubmed
  18. Bialasiewicz A, Wali U, Shenoy R, Thakral A, Al Fadhil N, Syed G. [Ipsilateral autorotational keratoplasty and cataract extraction in patients with trachoma and trauma in Oman. Report on visual rehabilitation]. Ophthalmologe. 2009;106:340-5 pubmed publisher
    ..of visual rehabilitation by ipsilateral rotational keratoplasty (IRK) and cataract extraction in 17 patients with trachoma and with trachoma and trauma in Oman over 3 years...
  19. Chidambaram J, Lee D, Porco T, Lietman T. Mass antibiotics for trachoma and the Allee effect. Lancet Infect Dis. 2005;5:194-6 pubmed
  20. Ngondi J, Matthews F, Reacher M, Baba S, Brayne C, Emerson P. Associations between active trachoma and community intervention with Antibiotics, Facial cleanliness, and Environmental improvement (A,F,E). PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2008;2:e229 pubmed publisher
    ..Facial cleanliness and Environmental improvement (SAFE) are advocated by the World Health Organization (WHO) for trachoma control...
  21. Stare D, Harding Esch E, Munoz B, Bailey R, Mabey D, Holland M, et al. Design and baseline data of a randomized trial to evaluate coverage and frequency of mass treatment with azithromycin: the Partnership for Rapid Elimination of Trachoma (PRET) in Tanzania and The Gambia. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2011;18:20-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Trachoma is the principal cause of infectious blindness. As part of its strategy to eliminate trachoma, the World Health Organization recommends annual mass antibiotic treatment for at least 3 years with an 80% population coverage target...
  22. Coles C, Levens J, Seidman J, Mkocha H, Munoz B, West S. Mass distribution of azithromycin for trachoma control is associated with short-term reduction in risk of acute lower respiratory infection in young children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2012;31:341-6 pubmed publisher
    We evaluated the effect of a single mass distribution of azithromycin for trachoma on the risk of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) during a 6-month period among young children living in 8 communities in rural Tanzania...
  23. Rajak S, Habtamu E, Weiss H, Kello A, Gebre T, Genet A, et al. Absorbable versus silk sutures for surgical treatment of trachomatous trichiasis in Ethiopia: a randomised controlled trial. PLoS Med. 2011;8:e1001137 pubmed publisher
    b>Trachoma causes blindness through an anatomical abnormality called trichiasis (lashes touching the eye). Trichiasis can recur after corrective surgery...
  24. Amza A, Kadri B, Nassirou B, Stoller N, Yu S, Zhou Z, et al. Community risk factors for ocular Chlamydia infection in Niger: pre-treatment results from a cluster-randomized trachoma trial. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1586 pubmed publisher
    b>Trachoma control programs utilize mass azithromycin distributions to treat ocular Chlamydia trachomatis as part of an effort to eliminate this disease world-wide...
  25. Wright H, Turner A, Taylor H. Trachoma. Lancet. 2008;371:1945-54 pubmed publisher
    b>Trachoma is a keratoconjunctivitis caused by ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. Repeated or persistent episodes lead to increasingly severe inflammation that can progress to scarring of the upper tarsal conjunctiva...
  26. Porco T, Gebre T, Ayele B, House J, Keenan J, Zhou Z, et al. Effect of mass distribution of azithromycin for trachoma control on overall mortality in Ethiopian children: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2009;302:962-8 pubmed publisher
    Mass oral azithromycin distribution to affected communities is a cornerstone of the World Health Organization's trachoma elimination program...
  27. Ferreira I, Bernardes T, Bonfioli A. Trichiasis. Semin Ophthalmol. 2010;25:66-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Definitive trichiasis treatments include bipolar electrolysis, radiofrequency ablation, cryotherapy and laser ablation, and surgical procedures. The techniques are described in detail along with possible complications and outcome. ..
  28. Myatt M, Mai N, Quynh N, Nga N, Tai H, Long N, et al. Using lot quality-assurance sampling and area sampling to identify priority areas for trachoma control: Viet Nam. Bull World Health Organ. 2005;83:756-63 pubmed
    ..LQAS) surveys undertaken within an area-sampling framework to identify priority areas for intervention with trachoma control activities in Viet Nam...
  29. Khandekar R, Ton T, Do Thi P. Impact of face washing and environmental improvement on reduction of active trachoma in Vietnam-a public health intervention study. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2006;13:43-52 pubmed
    ..and 2005 to assess the impact of improved water and sanitation facilities and increased awareness about active trachoma in the community. In My Thon village (MT), all four components of the SAFE strategy were implemented...
  30. O Loughlin R, Fentie G, Flannery B, Emerson P. Follow-up of a low cost latrine promotion programme in one district of Amhara, Ethiopia: characteristics of early adopters and non-adopters. Trop Med Int Health. 2006;11:1406-15 pubmed
    To verify reported construction of 22 385 household latrines in 2004, after community mobilization, as part of a trachoma control programme in one district of Amhara, Ethiopia, and to explore characteristics of early latrine adopters and ..
  31. Woreta T, Munoz B, Gower E, Alemayehu W, West S. Effect of trichiasis surgery on visual acuity outcomes in Ethiopia. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009;127:1505-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Surgery to correct trichiasis appears to provide significant visual acuity improvement as well as a decrease in subjective concerns in patients with trachomatous trichiasis. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00347776. ..
  32. Burton M, Adegbola R, Kinteh F, Ikumapayi U, Foster A, Mabey D, et al. Bacterial infection and trachoma in the gambia: a case control study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:4440-4 pubmed
    b>Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide. Conjunctival scarring is initiated by recurrent Chlamydia trachomatis infection...
  33. Huguet P, Bella L, Einterz E, Goldschmidt P, Bensaid P. Mass treatment of trachoma with azithromycin 1.5% eye drops in the Republic of Cameroon: feasibility, tolerance and effectiveness. Br J Ophthalmol. 2010;94:157-60 pubmed publisher
    An epidemiological study carried out in 2006 indicated a high prevalence of blinding trachoma in the Kolofata Health District, Far North Region, Republic of Cameroon...
  34. Golovaty I, Jones L, Gelaye B, Tilahun M, Belete H, Kumie A, et al. Access to water source, latrine facilities and other risk factors of active trachoma in Ankober, Ethiopia. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6702 pubmed publisher
    This study aims to determine the prevalence and correlates of active trachoma in Ankober, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted during July 2007...
  35. Rabiu M, Alhassan M, Ejere H, Evans J. Environmental sanitary interventions for preventing active trachoma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;:CD004003 pubmed publisher
    b>Trachoma is a major cause of avoidable blindness. It is responsible for about six million blind people worldwide, mostly in the poor communities of developing countries...
  36. Ngondi J, Reacher M, Matthews F, Brayne C, Emerson P. Trachoma survey methods: a literature review. Bull World Health Organ. 2009;87:143-51 pubmed
    Reliable population-based prevalence data are essential for planning, monitoring and evaluating trachoma control programmes and understanding the scale of the problem, yet they are not currently available for 22 out of 56 trachoma-endemic ..
  37. Roper K, Taylor H. Comparison of clinical and photographic assessment of trachoma. Br J Ophthalmol. 2009;93:811-4 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the study was to determine the rates of trachoma in Aboriginal communities and to compare clinical assessment with photographic assessment for the presence of signs of trachoma...
  38. Blake I, Burton M, Bailey R, Solomon A, West S, Munoz B, et al. Estimating household and community transmission of ocular Chlamydia trachomatis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2009;3:e401 pubmed publisher
    ..of antibiotics is one arm of a four-pronged strategy in the global initiative to eliminate blindness due to trachoma. The potential impact of more efficient, targeted treatment of infected households depends on the relative ..
  39. Gower E, Merbs S, Munoz B, Kello A, Alemayehu W, Imeru A, et al. Rates and risk factors for unfavorable outcomes 6 weeks after trichiasis surgery. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:2704-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was conducted to evaluate risk factors for early trichiasis recurrence and other unfavorable short-term outcomes...
  40. Yohannan J, Munoz B, Mkocha H, Gaydos C, Bailey R, Lietman T, et al. Can we stop mass drug administration prior to 3 annual rounds in communities with low prevalence of trachoma?: PRET Ziada trial results. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2013;131:431-6 pubmed publisher
    ..at least 3 annual mass drug administrations (MDAs) of azithromycin in places where the prevalence of follicular trachoma (FT) is greater than 10%...
  41. Natividad A, Hanchard N, Holland M, Mahdi O, Diakite M, Rockett K, et al. Genetic variation at the TNF locus and the risk of severe sequelae of ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Gambians. Genes Immun. 2007;8:288-95 pubmed
    ..Multivariate analysis provided evidence for the presence of additional risk-associated variants near the TNF locus. ..
  42. Bamani S, Dembele M, Sankara D, Coulibaly F, Kamissoko Y, Ting J, et al. Evaluation of the prevalence of trachoma 12 years after baseline surveys in Kidal Region, Mali. Trop Med Int Health. 2010;15:306-11 pubmed publisher
    After prevalence surveys in all eight regions, Mali started a national programme to control trachoma in 1998. In the sparsely populated desert region of Kidal, where active trachoma prevalence was 46...
  43. Carlson J, Porcella S, McClarty G, Caldwell H. Comparative genomic analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis oculotropic and genitotropic strains. Infect Immun. 2005;73:6407-18 pubmed
    ..To test this hypothesis, the genome of an oculotropic trachoma isolate (A/HAR-13) was sequenced and compared to the genome of a genitotropic (D/UW-3) isolate...
  44. Ray K, Porco T, Hong K, Lee D, Alemayehu W, Melese M, et al. A rationale for continuing mass antibiotic distributions for trachoma. BMC Infect Dis. 2007;7:91 pubmed
    ..recommends periodic mass antibiotic distributions to reduce the ocular strains of chlamydia that cause trachoma, the world's leading cause of infectious blindness...
  45. Burton M. Trachoma: an overview. Br Med Bull. 2007;84:99-116 pubmed publisher
    b>Trachoma is the most common infectious cause of blindness worldwide. It afflicts some of the poorest regions of the globe, predominantly in Africa and Asia...
  46. Zhang H, Kandel R, Atakari H, Dean D. Impact of oral azithromycin on recurrence of trachomatous trichiasis in Nepal over 1 year. Br J Ophthalmol. 2006;90:943-8 pubmed
    ..The current study evaluated whether azithromycin treatment at the time of surgery could reduce recurrence...
  47. Gill D, Lakew T, Alemayehu W, Melese M, Zhou Z, House J, et al. Complete elimination is a difficult goal for trachoma programs in severely affected communities. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46:564-6 pubmed publisher
    ..has distributed millions of doses of azithromycin to control the ocular chlamydial infection that causes trachoma. Theoretically, a loftier goal of elimination is feasible...
  48. Cumberland P, Edwards T, Hailu G, Harding Esch E, Andreasen A, Mabey D, et al. The impact of community level treatment and preventative interventions on trachoma prevalence in rural Ethiopia. Int J Epidemiol. 2008;37:549-58 pubmed publisher
    The International Trachoma Initiative (ITI) trachoma control programme based on the SAFE strategy (Surgery, Antibiotics, Facial cleanliness and Environmental improvement) was implemented in 2002 in two rural Ethiopian zones, with mass ..
  49. Natividad A, Hull J, Luoni G, Holland M, Rockett K, Joof H, et al. Innate immunity in ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection: contribution of IL8 and CSF2 gene variants to risk of trachomatous scarring in Gambians. BMC Med Genet. 2009;10:138 pubmed publisher
    b>Trachoma, a chronic keratoconjunctivitis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, is the world's commonest infectious cause of blindness...
  50. Coulibaly Y, Dicko I, Keita M, Keita M, Doumbia M, Daou A, et al. A cluster randomized study of the safety of integrated treatment of trachoma and lymphatic filariasis in children and adults in Sikasso, Mali. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2221 pubmed publisher
    ..Currently lymphatic filariasis (albendazole/ivermectin) and trachoma (azithromycin) are treated separately...
  51. Ngondi J, Onsarigo A, Matthews F, Reacher M, Brayne C, Baba S, et al. Effect of 3 years of SAFE (surgery, antibiotics, facial cleanliness, and environmental change) strategy for trachoma control in southern Sudan: a cross-sectional study. Lancet. 2006;368:589-95 pubmed
    A trachoma control programme was started in southern Sudan in 2001...
  52. Taye A, Alemayehu W, Melese M, Geyid A, Mekonnen Y, Tilahun D, et al. Seasonal and altitudinal variations in fly density and their association with the occurrence of trachoma, in the Gurage zone of central Ethiopia. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2007;101:441-8 pubmed
    In the Gurage zone of central Ethiopia, the association between fly density and the occurrence of trachoma has been investigated across varying altitudes. The seasonal pattern of fly density in the area was also explored...
  53. Wright H, Keeffe J, Taylor H. Barriers to the implementation of the SAFE strategy to combat hyperendemic trachoma in Australia. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2010;17:349-59 pubmed publisher
    Australia is the only developed country in the world that still has endemic levels of blinding trachoma. The SAFE (Surgery, Antibiotics, Facial cleanliness, Environmental improvement) strategy is an effective public health intervention ..
  54. Dize L, West S, Williams J, Van Der Pol B, Quinn T, Gaydos C. Comparison of the Abbott m2000 RealTime CT assay and the Cepheid GeneXpert CT/NG assay to the Roche Amplicor CT assay for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in ocular samples from Tanzania. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51:1611-3 pubmed publisher
    ..46% (95% CI, 95.2% to 99.2%); GeneXpert sensitivity was 100% (95% CI, 90% to 100%), and specificity was 100% (95% CI, 98.1% to 100%). The m2000 and GeneXpert assays appear to perform as well as the Amplicor assay...
  55. Lietman T, Gaynor B, Porco T. Single-dose azithromycin for trachoma. N Engl J Med. 2005;352:414-5; author reply 414-5 pubmed
  56. Durkin S, Casson R, Newland H, Selva D. Prevalence of trachoma and diabetes-related eye disease among a cohort of adult Aboriginal patients screened over the period 1999-2004 in remote South Australia. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2006;34:329-34 pubmed
    To determine the prevalence of trachoma and diabetes-related eye disease within the adult Aboriginal population screened by the South Australian Eye Health Program between 1999 and 2004 inclusive.
  57. Karimurio J, Ilako F, Gichangi M. Trachoma control using the who adopted "safe with azithromycin". East Afr Med J. 2007;84:127-35 pubmed
    ..University of Nairobi (UON) and the Ministry of Health (MOH) during implementation of a three year Shompole trachoma control pilot study using azithromycin...
  58. Ngondi J, Reacher M, Matthews F, Ole Sempele F, Onsarigo A, Matende I, et al. The epidemiology of low vision and blindness associated with trichiasis in southern Sudan. BMC Ophthalmol. 2007;7:12 pubmed
    ..status associated with trachomatous trichiasis (TT) and explored age-sex patterns of low vision and blindness associated with trichiasis in Mankien district of southern Sudan where trachoma prevention and trichiasis surgery were absent.
  59. Cochereau I, Goldschmidt P, Goepogui A, Afghani T, Delval L, Pouliquen P, et al. Efficacy and safety of short duration azithromycin eye drops versus azithromycin single oral dose for the treatment of trachoma in children: a randomised, controlled, double-masked clinical trial. Br J Ophthalmol. 2007;91:667-72 pubmed
    Efficacy and safety of a short-duration treatment of azithromycin 1.5% eye drops versus oral azithromycin to treat active trachoma.
  60. Wolle M, Munoz B, Mkocha H, West S. Constant ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis predicts risk of scarring in children in Tanzania. Ophthalmology. 2009;116:243-7 pubmed publisher
    Clinically, constant severe trachoma predicts an increased risk of scarring in children. There are no data on the risk of scarring associated with constant infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, regardless of clinical manifestation...
  61. Holland M, Jeffries D, Pattison M, Korr G, Gall A, Joof H, et al. Pathway-focused arrays reveal increased matrix metalloproteinase-7 (matrilysin) transcription in trachomatous trichiasis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:3893-902 pubmed publisher
    ..The control of the MMP7 response and its activity appears significant in the fibrotic changes observed in TT. ..
  62. Abdou A, Munoz B, Nassirou B, Kadri B, Moussa F, Baarè I, et al. How much is not enough? A community randomized trial of a Water and Health Education programme for Trachoma and Ocular C. trachomatis infection in Niger. Trop Med Int Health. 2010;15:98-104 pubmed publisher
    To determine the impact after 2 years of a water and health education (W/HE) programme on ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection and trachoma.
  63. Al Khatib T, Hamid A, Al Kuhlany A, Al Jabal M, Raja a Y. Rapid assessment of trachoma in 9 governorates and Socotra Island in Yemen. East Mediterr Health J. 2006;12:566-72 pubmed
    This study described the pattern of trichiasis, active trachoma and trachoma risk factors in 9 governorates of Yemen plus Socotra Island, using a rapid assessment during October and February 2004...
  64. Habte D, Gebre T, Zerihun M, Assefa Y. Determinants of uptake of surgical treatment for trachomatous trichiasis in North Ethiopia. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2008;15:328-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Surgery for trachomatous trichiasis prevents blindness. However people still decline surgery despite the availability of services in nearby health facilities...
  65. Atik B, Skwor T, Kandel R, Sharma B, Adhikari H, Steiner L, et al. Identification of novel single nucleotide polymorphisms in inflammatory genes as risk factors associated with trachomatous trichiasis. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3600 pubmed publisher
    b>Trachoma is the leading preventable cause of global blindness. A balanced Th1/Th2/Th3 immune response is critical for resolving Chlamydia trachomatis infection, the primary cause of trachoma...
  66. Hu V, Holland M, Burton M. Trachoma: protective and pathogenic ocular immune responses to Chlamydia trachomatis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2020 pubmed publisher
    b>Trachoma, caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct), is the leading infectious blinding disease worldwide. Chronic conjunctival inflammation develops in childhood and leads to eyelid scarring and blindness in adulthood...
  67. Wright H, Keeffe J, Taylor H. Trachoma and the need for a coordinated community-wide response: a case-based study. PLoS Med. 2006;3:e41; quiz e155 pubmed
  68. Al Fawaz A, Wagoner M. Penetrating keratoplasty for trachomatous corneal scarring. Cornea. 2008;27:129-32 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate graft survival and visual outcome after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) for trachomatous corneal scarring...
  69. Hu V, Weiss H, Ramadhani A, Tolbert S, Massae P, Mabey D, et al. Innate immune responses and modified extracellular matrix regulation characterize bacterial infection and cellular/connective tissue changes in scarring trachoma. Infect Immun. 2012;80:121-30 pubmed publisher
    b>Trachoma is the most common infectious cause of blindness and a major public health problem in many developing countries...
  70. Coles C, Mabula K, Seidman J, Levens J, Mkocha H, Munoz B, et al. Mass distribution of azithromycin for trachoma control is associated with increased risk of azithromycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage in young children 6 months after treatment. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;56:1519-26 pubmed publisher
    Emerging evidence suggests that the mass distribution of azithromycin for trachoma control (MDA) may increase circulation of macrolide resistance in bacteria associated with severe pediatric infections in treated communities.
  71. Harding Esch E, Sillah A, Edwards T, Burr S, Hart J, Joof H, et al. Mass treatment with azithromycin for trachoma: when is one round enough? Results from the PRET Trial in the Gambia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2115 pubmed publisher
    ..three rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) with antibiotics in districts where the prevalence of follicular trachoma (TF) is ?10% in children aged 1-9 years, with treatment coverage of at least 80%...
  72. Cromwell E, Amza A, Kadri B, Beidou N, King J, Sankara D, et al. Trachoma prevalence in Niger: results of 31 district-level surveys. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2014;108:42-8 pubmed publisher
    The leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide is trachoma, a condition caused by an infection of the inner eyelid...
  73. Polack S, Kuper H, Solomon A, Massae P, Abuelo C, Cameron E, et al. The relationship between prevalence of active trachoma, water availability and its use in a Tanzanian village. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2006;100:1075-83 pubmed
    This study aimed to establish the relationship between the prevalence of active trachoma in children, water availability and household water use in a village in Tanzania...
  74. Biebesheimer J, House J, Hong K, Lakew T, Alemayehu W, Zhou Z, et al. Complete local elimination of infectious trachoma from severely affected communities after six biannual mass azithromycin distributions. Ophthalmology. 2009;116:2047-50 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether infectious trachoma can be completely eliminated from severely affected villages.
  75. Lansingh V, Mukesh B, Keeffe J, Taylor H. Trachoma control in two Central Australian Aboriginal communities: a case study. Int Ophthalmol. 2010;30:367-75 pubmed publisher
    ..case study assessed the additional impact of environmental changes (E) within the SAFE strategy in controlling trachoma in two Aboriginal communities (populations 315 and 385) in Central Australia...
  76. Bamani S, King J, Dembele M, Coulibaly F, Sankara D, Kamissoko Y, et al. Where do we go from here? Prevalence of trachoma three years after stopping mass distribution of antibiotics in the regions of Kayes and Koulikoro, Mali. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4:e734 pubmed publisher
    A national survey in 1997 demonstrated that trachoma was endemic in Mali. Interventions to control trachoma including mass drug administration (MDA) with azithromycin were launched in the regions of Kayes and Koulikoro in 2003...
  77. Keenan J, Ayele B, Gebre T, Moncada J, Stoller N, Zhou Z, et al. Ribosomal RNA evidence of ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection following 3 annual mass azithromycin distributions in communities with highly prevalent trachoma. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;54:253-6 pubmed publisher
    Twelve trachoma-hyperendemic communities were treated with 3 annual mass azithromycin distributions. Children aged 0-9 years were monitored 1 year following the third treatment...
  78. Ssemanda E, Levens J, Mkocha H, Munoz B, West S. Azithromycin mass treatment for trachoma control: risk factors for non-participation of children in two treatment rounds. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1576 pubmed publisher
    Persistent non-participation of children in mass drug administration (MDAs) for trachoma may reduce program impact...
  79. Derrick T, Roberts C, Rajasekhar M, Burr S, Joof H, Makalo P, et al. Conjunctival MicroRNA expression in inflammatory trachomatous scarring. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2117 pubmed publisher
    b>Trachoma is a fibrotic disease of the conjunctiva initiated by Chlamydia trachomatis infection. This blinding disease affects over 40 million people worldwide yet the mechanisms underlying its pathogenesis remain poorly understood...
  80. Last A, Roberts C, Cassama E, Nabicassa M, Molina Gonzalez S, Burr S, et al. Plasmid copy number and disease severity in naturally occurring ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection. J Clin Microbiol. 2014;52:324-7 pubmed publisher
    ..trachomatis load and disease severity were assessed in a treatment-naive population where trachoma is hyperendemic. By using droplet digital PCR, plasmid copy number was found to be stable (median, 5...
  81. Mathenge W, Kuper H, Limburg H, Polack S, Onyango O, Nyaga G, et al. Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness in Nakuru district, Kenya. Ophthalmology. 2007;114:599-605 pubmed
    ..To estimate the prevalence of avoidable blindness in > or =50-year-olds in Nakuru district, Kenya, and to evaluate the Rapid Assessment for Avoidable Blindness (RAAB), a new methodology to measure the magnitude and causes of blindness...
  82. Lansingh V, Carter M. Trachoma surveys 2000-2005: results, recent advances in methodology, and factors affecting the determination of prevalence. Surv Ophthalmol. 2007;52:535-46 pubmed
    ..inaugurated by the World Health Organization, it is timely to provide an update of the methodology employed in trachoma surveys, given that a significant number of individuals in many undeveloped and developing countries still suffer ..
  83. Reddy M, Gill S, Kalkar S, Wu W, Anderson P, Rochon P. Oral drug therapy for multiple neglected tropical diseases: a systematic review. JAMA. 2007;298:1911-24 pubmed
    ..Seven of the most prevalent diseases have existing oral drug treatments. Identifying treatments that are effective against more than 1 disease could facilitate efficient and inexpensive treatment...
  84. Lansingh V, Carter M. Acceptance sampling rapid trachoma assessment (ASTRA). Surv Ophthalmol. 2008;53:90 pubmed publisher
  85. Ray K, Lietman T, Porco T, Keenan J, Bailey R, Solomon A, et al. When can antibiotic treatments for trachoma be discontinued? Graduating communities in three African countries. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2009;3:e458 pubmed publisher
    Repeated mass azithromycin distributions are effective in controlling the ocular strains of chlamydia that cause trachoma. However, it is unclear when treatments can be discontinued...
  86. Ayele B, Gebre T, House J, Zhou Z, McCulloch C, Porco T, et al. Adverse events after mass azithromycin treatments for trachoma in Ethiopia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011;85:291-4 pubmed publisher
    During a cluster-randomized clinical trial for trachoma in Ethiopia, two rounds of adverse event surveillance were performed in a random sample of communities after community-wide mass azithromycin treatment...
  87. Hu V, Weiss H, Massae P, Courtright P, Makupa W, Mabey D, et al. In vivo confocal microscopy in scarring trachoma. Ophthalmology. 2011;118:2138-46 pubmed publisher
    ..To characterize the tissue and cellular changes found in trachomatous scarring (TS) and inflammation using in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM)...
  88. Campbell J, Mkocha H, Munoz B, West S. Two-day dosing versus one-day dosing of azithromycin in children with severe trachoma in Tanzania. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2012;19:38-42 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether 2-day dosing of azithromycin may improve the efficacy of azithromycin dosing in children with severe trachoma.
  89. Simms V, Makalo P, Bailey R, Emerson P. Sustainability and acceptability of latrine provision in The Gambia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2005;99:631-7 pubmed
    All households in 32 villages were provided with improved pit latrines as part of a trachoma control programme in a rural part of The Gambia...
  90. Emerson P, Simms V, Makalo P, Bailey R. Household pit latrines as a potential source of the fly Musca sorbens--a one year longitudinal study from The Gambia. Trop Med Int Health. 2005;10:706-9 pubmed
    To assess whether the trachoma vector Musca sorbens was breeding in household latrines in a trachoma-endemic part of The Gambia.
  91. Kumaresan J. Can blinding trachoma be eliminated by 20/20?. Eye (Lond). 2005;19:1067-73 pubmed
    b>Trachoma is the leading cause of preventable blindness in the world today. Long ago eliminated in North America and Europe, the disease is almost unknown, and indeed forgotten, in the West...
  92. Atik B, Thanh T, Luong V, Lagree S, Dean D. Impact of annual targeted treatment on infectious trachoma and susceptibility to reinfection. JAMA. 2006;296:1488-97 pubmed
    ..for Chlamydia trachomatis infection; Facial cleanliness; and Environmental improvement) to eliminate blinding trachoma globally by the year 2020...