ophthalmia neonatorum

Summary

Summary: Acute conjunctival inflammation in the newborn, usually caused by maternal gonococcal infection. The causative agent is NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE. The baby's eyes are contaminated during passage through the birth canal.

Top Publications

  1. Fermepin M, Entrocassi A, Sauka D, Vaulet M, Corominas A. Chlamydia trachomatis serovars in Buenos Aires, Argentina: predominance of serovar E in ophthalmia neonatorum. Sex Transm Dis. 2007;34:1041 pubmed
  2. Zuppa A, D Andrea V, Catenazzi P, Scorrano A, Romagnoli C. Ophthalmia neonatorum: what kind of prophylaxis?. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2011;24:769-73 pubmed publisher
    Conjunctivitis during neonatal period occurs in 1-12% of all babies. Ophthalmia neonatorum is an acute muco-purulent conjunctivitis occurring in the first month of birth. It is essentially an infection acquired during vaginal delivery...
  3. Olatunji F. A case control study of ophthalmia Neonatorum in Kaduna II: causative agents and their antibiotic sensitivity. West Afr J Med. 2004;23:215-20 pubmed
    To identify the causative agents of ophthalmia neonatorum and their antibiotic sensitivity in the hospitals of study.
  4. Sergiwa A, Pratt B, Eren E, Sunona T, Hart C. Ophthalmia neonatorum in Bangkok: the significance of Chlamydia trachomatis. Ann Trop Paediatr. 1993;13:233-6 pubmed
    ..In order to prevent the long-term morbidity of C. trachomatis infection in both mother and child, specific aetiological diagnosis using immunodiagnostic or cultural procedures is required...
  5. Datta P, Frost E, Peeling R, Masinde S, Deslandes S, Echelu C, et al. Ophthalmia neonatorum in a trachoma endemic area. Sex Transm Dis. 1994;21:1-4 pubmed
    ..Whether distinct epidemiologic forces among human populations or biologic characteristics of the organism are responsible for the different routes of transmission is uncertain...
  6. Richter R, Below H, Kadow I, Kramer A, Müller C, Fusch C. Effect of topical 1.25% povidone-iodine eyedrops used for prophylaxis of ophthalmia neonatorum on renal iodine excretion and thyroid-stimulating hormone level. J Pediatr. 2006;148:401-3 pubmed
    ..It is not known whether the alternative topical agent, 1.25% povidone-iodine, can influence thyroid function. In this study, no influence of povidone-iodine on thyroid function was observed...
  7. Bourbeau P, Holla V, Piemontese S. Ophthalmia neonatorum caused by Neisseria cinerea. J Clin Microbiol. 1990;28:1640-1 pubmed
    Neisseria cinerea is an organism that has only recently been implicated as a human pathogen. In this case, N. cinerea was identified as the cause of ophthalmia neonatorum (conjunctivitis) in a 2-day-old girl.
  8. Isenberg S, Apt L, Del Signore M, Gichuhi S, Berman N. A double application approach to ophthalmia neonatorum prophylaxis. Br J Ophthalmol. 2003;87:1449-52 pubmed
    To investigate if a second drop of 2.5% povidone-iodine ophthalmic solution placed within the first postnatal day would achieve better prophylaxis against ophthalmia neonatorum than a single drop applied at birth.
  9. Wallace D, Steinkuller P. Ocular medications in children. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 1998;37:645-52 pubmed
    ..antibiotics are commonly prescribed for bacterial conjunctivitis, nasolacrimal duct obstructions, and ophthalmia neonatorum. Many new antiallergy eye drops are now available for the treatment of seasonal (hay fever) conjunctivitis...

More Information

Publications93

  1. Ibhanesebhor S, Otobo E. In vitro activity of human milk against the causative organisms of ophthalmia neonatorum in Benin City, Nigeria. J Trop Pediatr. 1996;42:327-9 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of term human milk on the organisms of Ophthalmia neonatorum and was a prospective study of consecutive neonates with the organism...
  2. Coulaud J. [Sexually transmitted diseases and mother-infant transmission (epidemiology and prevention)]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 1991;84:436-40 pubmed
    Gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum may be severe with a high risk of blindness; therefore prophylaxis is mandatory. Chlamydial ophthalmia is less severe and prevention remains less effective...
  3. Howes D. The red eye. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 1988;6:43-56 pubmed
    ..Corticosteroid eye drops are rarely indicated and should be used only at the direction of an ophthalmologist. When the diagnosis is uncertain, treatment is best withheld, as "shotgun" therapy is seldom beneficial. ..
  4. Seiga K, Shoji T, Sugiyama Y. [Chemoprophylaxis of ophthalmia neonatorum through vertical infection. Evaluation of Crede's method using ofloxacin and gentamicin]. Jpn J Antibiot. 1990;43:105-10 pubmed
    ..of ofloxacin (OFLX) and gentamicin (GM) to show the clinical significance of chemoprophylaxis against ophthalmia neonatorum occurring through vertical infection. The obtained results are summarized as follows. 1...
  5. Ng S, Au E, Thirumoorthy T. Ophthalmia neonatorum--the Middle Road Hospital perspective. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 1987;16:645-7 pubmed
    In a retrospective study of ophthalmia neonatorum seen in Middle Road Hospital between 1983 and 1986, 68% were caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae. 40% of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates were PPNG strains...
  6. Ayena K, Amedome K, Diallo J, Dzidzinyo K, Azoumah K, Aboubakari A, et al. [What remains today of neonatal conjunctivitis in prefecture of Kozah in Togo?]. J Fr Ophtalmol. 2012;35:432-6 pubmed publisher
  7. Hammerschlag M, Cummings C, Roblin P, Williams T, Delke I. Efficacy of neonatal ocular prophylaxis for the prevention of chlamydial and gonococcal conjunctivitis. N Engl J Med. 1989;320:769-72 pubmed
    ..We also conclude that there is a small but appreciable incidence of neonatal gonococcal ophthalmia that could be prevented by better prenatal screening and treatment of maternal gonococcal infection. ..
  8. Butt U, Elshaer A, Snyder L, Al Kinani A, Le Gresley A, Alany R. Fatty Acid Based Microemulsions to Combat Ophthalmia Neonatorum Caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Staphylococcus aureus. Nanomaterials (Basel). 2018;8: pubmed publisher
    ..aureus) are amongst the main microorganisms that cause ophthalmia neonatorum. The current treatment involves the use of various antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin, cephalosporin, ..
  9. Gururaj A, Ariffin W, Vijayakumari S, Reddy T. Changing trends in the epidemiology and management of gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum. Singapore Med J. 1992;33:279-81 pubmed
    Between June 1985 and December 1988, 58 cases of gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum were admitted to the neonatal unit at the University Hospital (USM). Of these, 15 (25...
  10. Coulaud J. [Epidemiology and prevention of the neonatal transmission of gonococcus and Chlamydia]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 1991;84:597-602 pubmed
    Gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum may be severe with a high risk of blindness, therefore prophylaxis is mandatory. Antibiotic eye drops and ointments are less effective to prevent chlamydial ophthalmia, usually less severe...
  11. Fischer P, Reta B. Prevention of neonatal conjunctivitis in Zaire. Ann Trop Paediatr. 1988;8:85-6 pubmed
    ..The use of silver nitrate still provides adequate prophylaxis in Zaire. Potential changes in the prophylactic regimen would need to take the perceptions of health care workers into account. ..
  12. Winceslaus J, Goh B, Dunlop E, Mantell J, Woodland R, Forsey T, et al. Diagnosis of ophthalmia neonatorum. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1987;295:1377-9 pubmed
    ..Of the 86 babies with ophthalmia neonatorum, Neisseria gonorrhoeae was isolated from eight, Chlamydia trachomatis from 44, other bacteria alone from ..
  13. Mabey D, Hanlon P, Hanlon L, Marsh V, Forsey T. Chlamydial and gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum in The Gambia. Ann Trop Paediatr. 1987;7:177-80 pubmed
    Swabs were taken for isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae from 112 infants with ophthalmia neonatorum attending a hospital in The Gambia. C. trachomatis was isolated from 37 (33%) and N...
  14. Krasny J, Tomasova Borovanska J, Hruba D. The Relationship between chlamydia trachomatis and chlamydia pneumoniae as the cause of neonatal conjunctivitis (ophthalmia neonatorum). Ophthalmologica. 2005;219:232-6 pubmed
    ..Clarithromycin in syrup at a dose of 15 mg/kg/per day for 14 days ensured effective treatment of both chlamydial infections. Control scrapings were always negative and simultaneously the pathological conjunctival finding disappeared. ..
  15. Hahn B, Giunta Y. Images in emergency medicine. Chlamydia conjunctivitis. Ann Emerg Med. 2007;49:823, 831 pubmed
  16. Marchant C. Spectrum of disease due to Branhamella catarrhalis in children with particular reference to acute otitis media. Am J Med. 1990;88:15S-19S pubmed
    ..It is an unusual cause of ophthalmia neonatorum, but can be confused with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Whether or not B...
  17. Ward M, Olson D, Taggart M, Grace S. Morganella as a cause of ophthalmia neonatorum. J AAPOS. 2018;22:81-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The patient was treated with topical tobramycin four times daily for 7 days, resulting in resolution of her conjunctivitis. ..
  18. Simon J. Povidone-iodine prophylaxis of ophthalmia neonatorum. Br J Ophthalmol. 2003;87:1437 pubmed
  19. Bogdanici C, Neamţu N, Rusu C. [Ocular signs in Rubinstein-Taybi's syndrome]. Oftalmologia. 2001;53:26-30 pubmed
    ..Most frequently reported eye anomalies are: antimongoloid slant of the palpebral fissures, strabismus, congenital obstruction of the lacrimal excretory system, colobomas of the iris and of the optic nerve head, ametropia. ..
  20. Dannevig L, Straume B, Melby K. Ophthalmia neonatorum in northern Norway. I: Epidemiology and risk factors. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh). 1992;70:14-8 pubmed
    ..in the county of Troms in Northern Norway were followed until 6 weeks of age, regarding the development of ophthalmia neonatorum. Conjunctivitis was found in 364 cases (189 per 1000 neonates), including mild and self-limiting cases...
  21. Lehman S. An uncommon cause of ophthalmia neonatorum: Neisseria meningitidis. J AAPOS. 1999;3:316 pubmed
    b>Ophthalmia neonatorum is defined as conjunctivitis appearing during the first month of life...
  22. Ng E, Golledge C. The management of common ocular infections. Aust Fam Physician. 1996;25:1831-9 pubmed
    ..This article focuses on the clinical presentation of common infections of the lids, conjunctiva and cornea, with a discussion of relevant therapeutic regimens for each condition...
  23. Isenberg S, Apt L, Wood M. The influence of perinatal infective factors on ophthalmia neonatorum. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 1996;33:185-8 pubmed
    b>Ophthalmia neonatorum still blinds approximately 10,000 babies annually worldwide. Identification of contributory maternal perinatal factors could possibly predict which babies are at greater risk for this disease...
  24. Guala A, Guarino R, Zaffaroni M, Martano C, Fabris C, Pastore G, et al. The impact of national and international guidelines on newborn care in the nurseries of Piedmont and Aosta Valley, Italy. BMC Pediatr. 2005;5:45 pubmed
    ..in charge to the all 33 nurseries of the region asking the methods used during 2000 as prevention of ophthalmia neonatorum, early and late hemorrhagic disease of newborn, umbilical cord care and recommendations of vitamin D ..
  25. Gao Y. [Bacteria condition of low genital tract of pregnant women and neonatal infection]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi. 1993;28:717-9, 759 pubmed
    ..Sixty seven percent of bacteria from the infected neonates were similar to the bacteria detected in low genital tract and placentae. Vertical transmission may play an important role in neonatal infection. ..
  26. Laga M, Plummer F, Piot P, Datta P, Namaara W, Ndinya Achola J, et al. Prophylaxis of gonococcal and chlamydial ophthalmia neonatorum. A comparison of silver nitrate and tetracycline. N Engl J Med. 1988;318:653-7 pubmed
    We evaluated the use of silver nitrate drops and tetracycline ointment for the prophylaxis of ophthalmia neonatorum in a controlled trial involving 2732 newborns in Nairobi, Kenya...
  27. Malik A, Mafwiri M, Gilbert C. Integrating primary eye care into global child health policies. Arch Dis Child. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Almost half of blindness and low vision in LICs is due to avoidable causes such as corneal scarring from measles infection, vitamin A deficiency disorders, use of harmful traditional eye remedies, ophthalmia neonatorum and cataract.
  28. Muthiah S, Radhakrishnan N. Management of Extraocular Infections. Indian J Pediatr. 2017;84:945-952 pubmed publisher
    ..therapy and referral to an eye care personnel may result in blindness; sometimes bilateral, due to severe ophthalmia neonatorum. This review is mainly aimed at offering basic, brief information about common extraocular infections ..
  29. Lund R, Kibel M, Knight G, van der Elst C. Prophylaxis against gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum. A prospective study. S Afr Med J. 1987;72:620-2 pubmed
    The incidence of gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum (GON) in the area served by the Peninsula Maternity and Neonatal Services in Cape Town is 273/100,000 live births. Two prophylactic agents, 1% silver nitrate ophthalmic solution and 0...
  30. Abreu Caligaris L, Medina N, Durkin S, Haro Muñoz E, Chinen N. Assessment of the current ocular health practices within neonatal units in the City of São Paulo, Brazil. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2010;17:333-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Data were collected on Credè’s method of ophthalmia neonatorum prophylaxis, red reflex testing, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) screening and treatment, and ophthalmic ..
  31. Tribolet S, Gillard P, Lefèvre A, Rigo V. [Gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum: Clinical illustration, prevention, and future prospects]. Arch Pediatr. 2016;23:297-300 pubmed publisher
    ..and their respective advantages and disadvantages are reviewed. There is no clear consensus on the most effective solution. Additionally, universal prophylaxis is challenged in several countries, where it is no longer recommended. ..
  32. Seiga K, Shoji T. [Chemoprophylaxis of ophthalmia neonatorum through vertical infection. Evaluation of Crede's method using norfloxacin and gentamicin]. Jpn J Antibiot. 1993;46:331-6 pubmed
    ..using norfloxacin (NFLX) and gentamicin (GM) to show the clinical significance of chemoprophylaxis against ophthalmia neonatorum occurring through vertical infections. The obtained results are summarized as follows. 1...
  33. Nathawad R, Mendez H, Ahmad A, Laungani S, Hoa B, Garlick J, et al. Severe ocular reactions after neonatal ocular prophylaxis with gentamicin ophthalmic ointment. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30:175-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In light of this experience, gentamicin ophthalmic ointment should not be used as an alternative for neonatal ocular prophylaxis...
  34. Maurin J, Cornand G. Corneal blindnesses in tropical environment. Rev Int Trach Pathol Ocul Trop Subtrop Sante Publique. 1990;67:23-138 pubmed
  35. Sahu D, Thomson S, Salam A, Morton G, Hodgkins P. Neonatal methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus conjunctivitis. Br J Ophthalmol. 2006;90:794-5 pubmed
  36. Khan F, Hussain M, Khan Niazi S, Haq Z, Akhtar N. Efficacy of 2.5% and 1.25% Povidone-Iodine Solution for Prophylaxis of Ophthalmia Neonatorum. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2016;26:121-4 pubmed publisher
    To determine the efficacy of 2.5% and 1.25% Povidone-Iodine solution for Ophthalmia neonatorum prophylaxis.
  37. Mabey D, Ndowa F, Latif A. What have we learned from sexually transmitted infection research in sub-Saharan Africa?. Sex Transm Infect. 2010;86:488-92 pubmed publisher
    ..population, and in clinical, microbiological and epidemiological studies on syphilis, chancroid and ophthalmia neonatorum. This review summarises the major achievements of STI researchers in Africa in the past 30 years, and ..
  38. Graf H, Retzke U, Schilling C, Schmidt M. [Reaction of the anterior eye segment to preventive Credé treatment]. Zentralbl Gynakol. 1994;116:639-42 pubmed
  39. Gul S, Jamal M, Khan N. Ophthalmia neonatorum. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2010;20:595-8 pubmed publisher
    To measure the frequency of ophthalmia neonatorum among all babies born in MCH Center, PIMS (Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences), Islamabad, in one month's time and to determine their causative organisms.
  40. MacDonald N, Mailman T, Desai S. Gonococcal infections in newborns and in adolescents. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2008;609:108-30 pubmed publisher
    ..As noted in the 2001 Institute of Medicine Report, learning about sex, sexuality and prevention of STI is a basic human right of adolescents (DiClemente and Crosby 2006)...
  41. Vedantham V. Prophylaxis of ophthalmia neonatorum. Br J Ophthalmol. 2004;88:1352; author reply 1352 pubmed
  42. Matejcek A, Goldman R. Treatment and prevention of ophthalmia neonatorum. Can Fam Physician. 2013;59:1187-90 pubmed
    ..What are the current recommendations for ocular prophylaxis at birth? Do topical antibiotics alone provide adequate treatment of neonatal conjunctivitis? When is systemic therapy indicated?..
  43. David M, Rumelt S, Weintraub Z. Efficacy comparison between povidone iodine 2.5% and tetracycline 1% in prevention of ophthalmia neonatorum. Ophthalmology. 2011;118:1454-8 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the efficacy of povidone iodine solution 2.5% and tetracycline ointment 1% in prevention of ophthalmia neonatorum (ON).
  44. Zanoni D, Isenberg S, Apt L. A comparison of silver nitrate with erythromycin for prophylaxis against ophthalmia neonatorum. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 1992;31:295-8 pubmed
    Although prophylactic eyedrops to treat ophthalmia neonatorum is mandated nationwide, states and hospitals are free to choose specific drugs...
  45. Lepage P, Bogaerts J, Kestelyn P, Meheus A. Single-dose cefotaxime intramuscularly cures gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum. Br J Ophthalmol. 1988;72:518-20 pubmed
    Nine neonates with culture proved gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum were treated with a single intramuscular injection of 100 mg/kg of cefotaxime without topical antibiotic therapy...
  46. Mohile M, Deorari A, Satpathy G, Sharma A, Singh M. Microbiological study of neonatal conjunctivitis with special reference to Chlamydia trachomatis. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2002;50:295-9 pubmed
    ..To study the microbial agents, chiefly Chlamydia trachomatis and other bacteria, in neonatal conjunctivitis...
  47. Medves J. Three infant care interventions: reconsidering the evidence. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2002;31:563-9 pubmed
    ..In this article, obtaining blood samples from heel sticks and administering vitamin K and prophylaxis for ophthalmia neonatorum are presented as practices that require scrutiny by nurses to promote evidence-based care of newborns in ..
  48. Datta P, Laga M, Plummer F, Ndinya Achola J, Piot P, Maitha G, et al. Infection and disease after perinatal exposure to Chlamydia trachomatis in Nairobi, Kenya. J Infect Dis. 1988;158:524-8 pubmed
    ..trachomatis was not isolated from any of the nonexposed infants. Eighteen (37%) exposed infants developed ophthalmia neonatorum (n = 12) or infant conjunctivitis (n = 7), compared with six (15%) of the nonexposed infants (P = .04)...
  49. Desenclos J, Garrity D, Scaggs M, Wroten J. Gonococcal infection of the newborn in Florida, 1984-1989. Sex Transm Dis. 1992;19:105-10 pubmed
    ..Those 68 cases included 55 (81%) cases of gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum, 4 genital infections, 1 nasal infection, 1 ear infection, 1 skin infection, and 1 scalp infection...
  50. Bishop P, Tullo A, Killough R, Richmond S. An immune dot-blot test for the diagnosis of ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. Eye (Lond). 1991;5 ( Pt 3):305-8 pubmed
  51. Reimer K, Fleischer W, Brögmann B, Schreier H, Burkhard P, Lanzendörfer A, et al. Povidone-iodine liposomes--an overview. Dermatology. 1997;195 Suppl 2:93-9 pubmed
    ..antisepsis, but also for the treatment of bacterial and viral conjunctivitis and for prophylaxis against ophthalmia neonatorum. For these indications, liposomal formulations with 2.5 and 5.0% PVP-I were developed...
  52. Fruchtman Y, Greenberg D, Shany E, Melamed R, Peled N, Lifshitz M. Ophthalmia neonatorum caused by multidrug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Isr Med Assoc J. 2004;6:180-1 pubmed
  53. Kramer A, Aspöck C, Assadian O, Below H, Behrens Baumann W, Fusch C, et al. Prophylactic indications for eye antiseptics. Prophylaxis against ophthalmia neonatorum. Dev Ophthalmol. 2002;33:223-32 pubmed
  54. Lepage P, Kestelyn P, Bogaerts J. Treatment of gonococcal conjunctivitis with a single intramuscular injection of cefotaxime. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1990;26 Suppl A:23-7 pubmed
    ..African countries are exposed to Neisseria gonorrhoeae at birth and are at risk of developing gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum. The problem is aggravated by the emergence of penicillinase-producing strains of N. gonorrhoeae (PPNG)...
  55. Lush L, Walt G, Ogden J. Transferring policies for treating sexually transmitted infections: what's wrong with global guidelines?. Health Policy Plan. 2003;18:18-30 pubmed
    ..Finally, we comment on the way current global guidelines need to be adapted, given the growth in knowledge...
  56. Schaller U, Mino de Kaspar H, Schriever S, Klauss V. [Ophthalmia neonatorum caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. Rapid diagnosis and therapy]. Ophthalmologe. 1997;94:317-20 pubmed
    In up to 73% of ophthalmia neonatorum, Chlamydia trachomatis is the causative agents. Untreated sequelae to the eyes and organs may be the result...
  57. van Bogaert L. Ophthalmia neonatorum revisited. Afr J Reprod Health. 1998;2:81-6 pubmed
    The microbiology, epidemiology and pathophysiology of ophthalmia neonatorum are reviewed with special emphasis on its prevention and management in the developing world...
  58. Amini E, Ghasemi M, Daneshjou K. A five-year study in Iran of ophthalmia neonatorum: prevalence and etiology. Med Sci Monit. 2008;14:CR90-96 pubmed
    ..The aim was to determine the prevalence of conjunctivitis and its bacteriological causes in neonates hospitalized in two hospitals in Iran and to evaluate the maternal and newborns' data in conjunctivitis cases...
  59. Assadian O, Assadian A, Aspöck C, Hahn D, Koller W. Prophylaxis of ophthalmia neonatorum--a nationwide survey of the current practice in Austria. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2002;114:194-9 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to analyze the current practice of Ophthalmia neonatorum prophylaxis in Austria...
  60. Aavitsland P. [A medical ritual]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2006;126:1035 pubmed
  61. Zar H. Neonatal chlamydial infections: prevention and treatment. Paediatr Drugs. 2005;7:103-10 pubmed
    Neonatal chlamydial infection, which manifests principally as ophthalmia neonatorum (ON) or pneumonia, is a significant cause of neonatal morbidity...
  62. Alexander E. Gonorrhea in the newborn. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1988;549:180-6 pubmed
    ..The risks of transmission to the newborn are well studied for ophthalmia neonatorum and are 30%-40%...
  63. Latif A, Mason P, Marowa E, Paraiwa E, Dhamu F, Tambo J, et al. Management of gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum with single-dose kanamycin and ocular irrigation with saline. Sex Transm Dis. 1988;15:108-9 pubmed
    Two hundred nineteen neonates with gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum, including 40 infected with penicillinase-producing strains, were treated as outpatients with a single intramuscular injection of 100 mg of kanamycin and hourly ocular ..
  64. Buisman N, Abong Mwemba T, Garrigue G, Durand J, Stilma J, van Balen T. Chlamydia ophthalmia neonatorum in Cameroon. Doc Ophthalmol. 1988;70:257-64 pubmed
    ..Ndoungué Hospital in Cameroon 449 new-born babies were examined for a month to check on the occurrence of ophthalmia neonatorum. Silver nitrate eyedrops 1% were applied at birth. The incidence of ophthalmia neonatorum was 19...
  65. Dumas L, Landry I, Savoie A. [Perinatal interventions. The importance of convincing data]. Infirm Que. 2002;10:31-6 pubmed
  66. Woods C. Gonococcal infections in neonates and young children. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis. 2005;16:258-70 pubmed
    ..Gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum is the most common manifestation in infants born to mothers with gonococcal genital tract infections...
  67. Nsanze H, Dawodu A, Usmani A, Sabarinathan K, Varady E. Ophthalmia neonatorum in the United Arab Emirates. Ann Trop Paediatr. 1996;16:27-32 pubmed
    b>Ophthalmia neonatorum in small babies is a common problem in neonatal units in Al Ain, but is infrequently associated with sexually transmitted disease agents. A study of 81 babies with ophthalmia neonatorum showed that 81...
  68. Rahi J, Sripathi S, Gilbert C, Foster A. The importance of prenatal factors in childhood blindness in India. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1997;39:449-55 pubmed
    ..This suggests that strategies to combat childhood blindness in India need to address concurrently both preventable and treatable causes. The need for aetiological studies, particularly on anophthalmos and microphthalmos, is highlighted...
  69. Napchan B, Morales R, Carvalho M, Cunha K, Figueras A. From suspicion to action: the chemical conjunctivitis and silver nitrate connexion example in Brazilian hospitals. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2005;14:555-9 pubmed
    ..20th century, silver nitrate (SN) eye drops instillation to newborns had been the best prophylaxis against ophthalmia neonatorum (ON) caused by Neisseria gonorrheae, the most frequent cause of ocular infections leading to blindness...
  70. Isenberg S, Apt L, Wood M. A controlled trial of povidone-iodine as prophylaxis against ophthalmia neonatorum. N Engl J Med. 1995;332:562-6 pubmed
    Neonatal conjunctivitis (ophthalmia neonatorum) continues to cause blindness because the agents used prophylactically to prevent this condition are not completely effective and are not widely available in many parts of the world...
  71. Milot J. [Ophthalmia neonatorum of the newborn and its treatments in Canadian medical publications: 1872-1985]. Can Bull Med Hist. 2008;25:499-514 pubmed
    In the 19th century the occurrence of ophthalmia neonatorum had reached alarming rates in the maternity wards not only of Europe but also across Canada...
  72. Isenberg S, Apt L, Yoshimori R, McCarty J, Alvarez S. Source of the conjunctival bacterial flora at birth and implications for ophthalmia neonatorum prophylaxis. Am J Ophthalmol. 1988;106:458-62 pubmed
    ..Infants delivered by cesarean section within three hours of membrane rupture may not need prophylactic eyedrops because of the type and scarcity of conjunctival bacteria...
  73. Barabasi Z. [Treatment of conjunctivitis]. Orv Hetil. 2004;145:2107-10 pubmed
  74. Quirke M, Cullinane A. Recent trends in chlamydial and gonococcal conjunctivitis among neonates and adults in an Irish hospital. Int J Infect Dis. 2008;12:371-3 pubmed
    ..Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are two important and frequently overlooked causes of neonatal and adult conjunctivitis...
  75. Frost E, Yvert F, Ndong J, Ivanoff B. Ophthalmia neonatorum in a semi-rural African community. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1987;81:378-80 pubmed
    The incidence and aetiology of ophthalmia neonatorum have been estimated over a 7-month period in Franceville, a semi-rural community in south-eastern Gabon...
  76. Deschenes J, Seamone C, Baines M. The ocular manifestations of sexually transmitted diseases. Can J Ophthalmol. 1990;25:177-85 pubmed
    ..Current methods of diagnosis and treatment are discussed. Neonatal infections associated with sexually transmitted diseases are also reviewed...
  77. Teoh D, Reynolds S. Diagnosis and management of pediatric conjunctivitis. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2003;19:48-55 pubmed
  78. Talley A, Garcia Ferrer F, Laycock K, Essary L, Holcomb W, Flowers B, et al. Comparative diagnosis of neonatal chlamydial conjunctivitis by polymerase chain reaction and McCoy cell culture. Am J Ophthalmol. 1994;117:50-7 pubmed
    ..The polymerase chain reaction assay appears to be equally specific and more sensitive than McCoy cell culture for the detection of C. trachomatis from ocular specimens...
  79. de Toledo A, Chandler J. Conjunctivitis of the newborn. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1992;6:807-13 pubmed
    ..Prophylaxis with silver nitrate solution, 1.0% tetracycline, or 0.05% erythromycin ointment is effective for the prevention of gonococcal and chlamydial conjunctivitis in the newborn...
  80. O Hara M. Ophthalmia neonatorum. Pediatr Clin North Am. 1993;40:715-25 pubmed
    b>Ophthalmia neonatorum is the most common infection in the first month of life and can have serious systemic as well as ophthalmic morbidity. This article discusses the differential diagnosis and treatment of conjunctivitis in the neonate...
  81. Pöschl J, Hellstern G, Ruef P, Bauer J, Linderkamp O. Ophthalmia neonatorum caused by group B Streptococcus. Scand J Infect Dis. 2002;34:921-2 pubmed
    A full-term infant was born with a swollen left conjunctival sac. Ophthalmia neonatorum developed within 5 d after birth. Examination of the purulent discharge showed Group B Streptococcus...
  82. Lehman S. Ophthalmia neonatorum associated with isoimmune neonatal neutropenia. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2002;39:181 pubmed
  83. Ali Z, Khadije D, Elahe A, Mohammad M, Fateme Z, Narges Z. Prophylaxis of ophthalmia neonatorum comparison of betadine, erythromycin and no prophylaxis. J Trop Pediatr. 2007;53:388-92 pubmed
    b>Ophthalmia neonatorum is a form of bacterial conjunctivitis contracted by newborns during delivery and occurs during the first month of life. Etiologic factors include Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, viruses and chemicals...
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    ..Since then the epidemiology of ophthalmia neonatorum (ON) has changed and Chlamydia trachomatis is more frequent than Neisseria gonorrhoeae...