bacterial vaginosis

Summary

Summary: Polymicrobial, nonspecific vaginitis associated with positive cultures of Gardnerella vaginalis and other anaerobic organisms and a decrease in lactobacilli. It remains unclear whether the initial pathogenic event is caused by the growth of anaerobes or a primary decrease in lactobacilli.

Top Publications

  1. Bradshaw C, Morton A, Hocking J, Garland S, Morris M, Moss L, et al. High recurrence rates of bacterial vaginosis over the course of 12 months after oral metronidazole therapy and factors associated with recurrence. J Infect Dis. 2006;193:1478-86 pubmed
    We wished to determine recurrences of bacterial vaginosis (BV) after treatment over the course of 12 months and to establish factors associated with recurrence...
  2. Marrazzo J. A persistent(ly) enigmatic ecological mystery: bacterial vaginosis. J Infect Dis. 2006;193:1475-7 pubmed
  3. Marcone V, Calzolari E, Bertini M. Effectiveness of vaginal administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus following conventional metronidazole therapy: how to lower the rate of bacterial vaginosis recurrences. New Microbiol. 2008;31:429-33 pubmed
    Eighty-four patients with bacterial vaginosis diagnosed according to Amsel's criteria were randomized to receive either oral metronidazole 500 mg twice a day for seven days, or one vaginal tablet containing freeze-dried Lactobacillus ..
  4. Fredricks D, Fiedler T, Thomas K, Mitchell C, Marrazzo J. Changes in vaginal bacterial concentrations with intravaginal metronidazole therapy for bacterial vaginosis as assessed by quantitative PCR. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:721-6 pubmed publisher
    Several fastidious bacteria have been associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV) using broad-range bacterial PCR methods such as consensus sequence 16S rRNA gene PCR, but their role in BV remains poorly defined...
  5. Larsson P, Fåhraeus L, Carlsson B, Jakobsson T, Forsum U. Late miscarriage and preterm birth after treatment with clindamycin: a randomised consent design study according to Zelen. BJOG. 2006;113:629-37 pubmed
    To screen for bacterial vaginosis (BV) and to investigate the effect of treatment with vaginal clindamycin in order to observe the effect on late miscarriage and delivery prior to 37 completed weeks (primary outcome)...
  6. Andrews W, Hauth J, Cliver S, Conner M, Goldenberg R, Goepfert A. Association of asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis with endometrial microbial colonization and plasma cell endometritis in nonpregnant women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006;195:1611-6 pubmed
    This study was undertaken to determine whether asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis (BV) is associated with an increased risk of endometrial microbial colonization or plasma cell endometritis in nonpregnant women...
  7. Anton G, Rid J, Mylonas I, Friese K, Weissenbacher E. Evidence of a TH1-shift of local vaginal inflammatory response during bacterial vaginosis. Infection. 2008;36:147-52 pubmed publisher
    ..the levels of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the vagina of healthy women and in bacterial vaginosis (BV) patients...
  8. Discacciati M, Simoes J, Amaral R, Brolazo E, Rabelo Santos S, Westin M, et al. Presence of 20% or more clue cells: an accurate criterion for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis in Papanicolaou cervical smears. Diagn Cytopathol. 2006;34:272-6 pubmed
    ..evaluate the role of the Papanicolaou smear performed in cervical and vaginal samples for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV), to validate the method for this diagnosis and to evaluate the reproducibility of the criterion used...
  9. Mitchell C, Hitti J, Agnew K, Fredricks D. Comparison of oral and vaginal metronidazole for treatment of bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy: impact on fastidious bacteria. BMC Infect Dis. 2009;9:89 pubmed publisher
    b>Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common condition that is associated with preterm birth and acquisition of complex communities of vaginal bacteria that include several fastidious species...

More Information

Publications99

  1. Discacciati M, Simoes J, Lopes E, Silva S, Montemor E, Rabelo Santos S, et al. Is bacterial vaginosis associated with squamous intraepithelial lesion of the uterine cervix?. Diagn Cytopathol. 2006;34:323-5 pubmed
    The objective of this study was to analyze the association between bacterial vaginosis (BV) and squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL). Pap smears were analyzed to verify the presence of BV and SIL...
  2. Denney J, Culhane J. Bacterial vaginosis: a problematic infection from both a perinatal and neonatal perspective. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2009;14:200-3 pubmed publisher
    b>Bacterial vaginosis (BV) infections are common in women of reproductive age and are easily diagnosed and treatable...
  3. Garg K, Ganguli I, Kriplani A, Lohiya N, Thulkar J, Talwar G. Metabolic properties of lactobacilli in women experiencing recurring episodes of bacterial vaginosis with vaginal pH >or= 5. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2010;29:123-5 pubmed publisher
    While 60% of women experiencing recurring episodes of bacterial vaginosis (BV) with vaginal pH >or= 5 are depleted of resident probiotic lactobacilli, the remainder carry one or more strains of lactobacilli...
  4. Simoes J, Bahamondes L, Camargo R, Alves V, Zaneveld L, Waller D, et al. A pilot clinical trial comparing an acid-buffering formulation (ACIDFORM gel) with metronidazole gel for the treatment of symptomatic bacterial vaginosis. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2006;61:211-7 pubmed
    ..of an acid-buffering formulation gel (ACIDFORM) with metronidazole gel in the treatment of symptomatic bacterial vaginosis (BV)...
  5. Vetrano G, Pacchiarotti A, Lombardi G, Cimellaro V, Verrico M, Carboni S, et al. Correlation between squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs) and bacterial vaginosis. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2007;28:310-2 pubmed
    b>Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a condition that seldom occurs in prepuberal girls or postmenopausal women, suggesting a hormonal component in its aetiology. The precise mechanisms by which BV arises are not fully understood...
  6. Ehrstrom S, Daroczy K, Rylander E, Samuelsson C, Johannesson U, Anzen B, et al. Lactic acid bacteria colonization and clinical outcome after probiotic supplementation in conventionally treated bacterial vaginosis and vulvovaginal candidiasis. Microbes Infect. 2010;12:691-9 pubmed publisher
    ..acidilactici LN23, or placebos were administered for five days to 95 women after conventional treatment of bacterial vaginosis and/or vulvovaginal candidiasis...
  7. Mares D, Simoes J, Novak R, Spear G. TLR2-mediated cell stimulation in bacterial vaginosis. J Reprod Immunol. 2008;77:91-9 pubmed
    b>Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is associated with preterm labor, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and increased HIV acquisition, although the pathways that mediate these pathological effects have not been elucidated...
  8. Sharami S, Afrakhteh M, Shakiba M. Urinary tract infections in pregnant women with bacterial vaginosis. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2007;27:252-4 pubmed
    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) and bacterial vaginosis are common problems in pregnancy and are associated with serious obstetric complications. We evaluated the risk of UTIs in pregnant women with bacterial vaginosis...
  9. Romoren M, Velauthapillai M, Rahman M, Sundby J, Klouman E, Hjortdahl P. Trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy: inadequately managed with the syndromic approach. Bull World Health Organ. 2007;85:297-304 pubmed
    To measure the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) infection and bacterial vaginosis (BV) among pregnant women in Botswana, and to evaluate the syndromic approach and alternative management strategies for these conditions in ..
  10. Cauci S, Culhane J, Di Santolo M, McCollum K. Among pregnant women with bacterial vaginosis, the hydrolytic enzymes sialidase and prolidase are positively associated with interleukin-1beta. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008;198:132.e1-7 pubmed
    ..was to explore the mechanisms of local innate immunity induction and modulation in pregnant women with bacterial vaginosis (BV)...
  11. Larsson P, Fåhraeus L, Carlsson B, Jakobsson T, Forsum U. Predisposing factors for bacterial vaginosis, treatment efficacy and pregnancy outcome among term deliveries; results from a preterm delivery study. BMC Womens Health. 2007;7:20 pubmed
    b>Bacterial vaginosis (BV) during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery but little is known about factors that could predict BV...
  12. . Screening for bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy to prevent preterm delivery: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2008;148:214-9 pubmed
    Update of the 2001 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy...
  13. Marrazzo J, Wiesenfeld H, Murray P, Busse B, Meyn L, Krohn M, et al. Risk factors for cervicitis among women with bacterial vaginosis. J Infect Dis. 2006;193:617-24 pubmed
    Cervicitis commonly occurs in women with bacterial vaginosis (BV), often without concomitant chlamydial or gonococcal infection. The risk factors for cervicitis have not been described...
  14. Allsworth J, Peipert J. Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis: 2001-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. Obstet Gynecol. 2007;109:114-20 pubmed
    To estimate the prevalence and correlates of bacterial vaginosis among women between the ages of 14 and 49 years in the United States. Data from the 2001-2001 and 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were combined...
  15. Waters T, Denney J, Mathew L, Goldenberg R, Culhane J. Longitudinal trajectory of bacterial vaginosis during pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008;199:431.e1-5 pubmed publisher
    This study was undertaken to characterize the course of bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy and to discern the bacterial morphotypes responsible for infection.
  16. Anukam K, Osazuwa E, Osemene G, Ehigiagbe F, Bruce A, Reid G. Clinical study comparing probiotic Lactobacillus GR-1 and RC-14 with metronidazole vaginal gel to treat symptomatic bacterial vaginosis. Microbes Infect. 2006;8:2772-6 pubmed
    b>Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is particularly common in black women, and in Nigeria it is often caused by Mycoplasma, as well as Atopobium, Prevotella and Gardnerella sp...
  17. Trabert B, Misra D. Risk factors for bacterial vaginosis during pregnancy among African American women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2007;197:477.e1-8 pubmed
    The objective of the study was to examine risk factors for bacterial vaginosis (BV) during pregnancy among African American women...
  18. Verstraelen H, Verhelst R, Vaneechoutte M, Temmerman M. The epidemiology of bacterial vaginosis in relation to sexual behaviour. BMC Infect Dis. 2010;10:81 pubmed publisher
    b>Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been most consistently linked to sexual behaviour, and the epidemiological profile of BV mirrors that of established sexually transmitted infections (STIs)...
  19. Decena D, Co J, Manalastas R, Palaypayon E, Padolina C, Sison J, et al. Metronidazole with Lactacyd vaginal gel in bacterial vaginosis. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2006;32:243-51 pubmed
    ..of lactic acid (Lactacyd vaginal gel; LVG) when given as an adjunct to metronidazole in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis (BV) among Filipino patients...
  20. Thies F, König W, König B. Rapid characterization of the normal and disturbed vaginal microbiota by application of 16S rRNA gene terminal RFLP fingerprinting. J Med Microbiol. 2007;56:755-61 pubmed
    b>Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a prevalent infection in women of reproductive age associated with numerous sequelae, including preterm delivery, amniotic fluid infections and an increased risk of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases...
  21. Nelson D, Bellamy S, Odibo A, Nachamkin I, Ness R, Allen Taylor L. Vaginal symptoms and bacterial vaginosis (BV): how useful is self-report? Development of a screening tool for predicting BV status. Epidemiol Infect. 2007;135:1369-75 pubmed
    Vaginal complaints compel an evaluation of bacterial vaginosis (BV), however, many cases of BV are asymptomatic...
  22. Lim K, Brooks H, McDougal R, Burton J, Devenish C, De Silva T. Is there a correlation between bacterial vaginosis and preterm labour in women in the Otago region of New Zealand?. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2010;50:226-9 pubmed publisher
    While an association between bacterial vaginosis and preterm labour has been established, the relative contribution of this condition remains controversial...
  23. Donders G. Diagnosis and management of bacterial vaginosis and other types of abnormal vaginal bacterial flora: a review. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2010;65:462-73 pubmed publisher
    b>Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common cause of abnormal vaginal discharge. It is characterised by an overgrowth of predominantly anaerobic organisms (Gardnerella vaginalis, Prevotella spp., Peptostreptocci, Mobiluncus spp...
  24. Libby E, Pascal K, Mordechai E, Adelson M, Trama J. Atopobium vaginae triggers an innate immune response in an in vitro model of bacterial vaginosis. Microbes Infect. 2008;10:439-46 pubmed publisher
    b>Bacterial vaginosis is the most common vaginal disorder among women of reproductive age...
  25. Ryckman K, Simhan H, Krohn M, Williams S. Predicting risk of bacterial vaginosis: the role of race, smoking and corticotropin-releasing hormone-related genes. Mol Hum Reprod. 2009;15:131-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is one of the most prevalent vaginal disorders in adult women and is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as pre-term birth...
  26. Ling Z, Kong J, Liu F, Zhu H, Chen X, Wang Y, et al. Molecular analysis of the diversity of vaginal microbiota associated with bacterial vaginosis. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:488 pubmed publisher
    b>Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is an ecological disorder of the vaginal microbiota that affects millions of women annually, and is associated with numerous adverse health outcomes including pre-term birth and the acquisition of sexually ..
  27. Nansel T, Riggs M, Yu K, Andrews W, Schwebke J, Klebanoff M. The association of psychosocial stress and bacterial vaginosis in a longitudinal cohort. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006;194:381-6 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to assess the association of psychosocial stress with bacterial vaginosis in a longitudinal sample of nonpregnant women. A 1-year prospective longitudinal design was used...
  28. Myer L, Kuhn L, Denny L, Wright T. Recurrence of symptomatic bacterial vaginosis 12 months after oral metronidazole therapy in HIV-positive and -negative women. J Infect Dis. 2006;194:1797-9 pubmed
  29. Anukam K, Osazuwa E, Ahonkhai I, Ngwu M, Osemene G, Bruce A, et al. Augmentation of antimicrobial metronidazole therapy of bacterial vaginosis with oral probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14: randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial. Microbes Infect. 2006;8:1450-4 pubmed
    This study enrolled 125 premenopausal women diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis (BV) by presence of vaginal irritation, discharge and 'fishy' odor, and Nugent criteria and detection of sialidase enzyme...
  30. Payne S, Cromer P, Stanek M, Palmer A. Evidence of African-American women's frustrations with chronic recurrent bacterial vaginosis. J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 2010;22:101-8 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of recurrent bacterial vaginosis (BV) and its treatment on quality of life (QOL), acceptance of current treatment options, and psychosocial issues related to lifestyle practices ..
  31. Atassi F, Brassart D, Grob P, Graf F, Servin A. Lactobacillus strains isolated from the vaginal microbiota of healthy women inhibit Prevotella bivia and Gardnerella vaginalis in coculture and cell culture. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2006;48:424-32 pubmed
    ..In addition, coculture of G. vaginalis or P. bivia with L. gasseri KS120.1 culture or KS120.1 bacteria results in inhibition of the adhesion of the pathogens onto HeLa cells...
  32. Petricevic L, Witt A. The role of Lactobacillus casei rhamnosus Lcr35 in restoring the normal vaginal flora after antibiotic treatment of bacterial vaginosis. BJOG. 2008;115:1369-74 pubmed publisher
    ..efficacy of additional topical Lactobacillus casei rhamnosus (Lcr35) subsequent to antibiotic treatment of bacterial vaginosis (BV) to restore the normal vaginal flora. Single-centre, randomised, observerblinded study...
  33. Xu J, Holzman C, ARVIDSON C, Chung H, Goepfert A. Midpregnancy vaginal fluid defensins, bacterial vaginosis, and risk of preterm delivery. Obstet Gynecol. 2008;112:524-31 pubmed publisher
    ..relations among midpregnancy vaginal defensin levels, a component of the host innate immune response, bacterial vaginosis, and risk of preterm delivery...
  34. Marrazzo J, Thomas K, Fiedler T, Ringwood K, Fredricks D. Relationship of specific vaginal bacteria and bacterial vaginosis treatment failure in women who have sex with women. Ann Intern Med. 2008;149:20-8 pubmed
    b>Bacterial vaginosis frequently persists after treatment. The role of newly defined bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria (BVAB), which have a specificity for this condition of 97% or greater, has not been assessed.
  35. Swidsinski A, Mendling W, Loening Baucke V, Swidsinski S, Dörffel Y, Scholze J, et al. An adherent Gardnerella vaginalis biofilm persists on the vaginal epithelium after standard therapy with oral metronidazole. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008;198:97.e1-6 pubmed
    ..study was to determine the efficacy of standard treatment with oral metronidazole in the eradication of the bacterial vaginosis biofilm...
  36. Kavoussi S, Pearlman M, Burke W, Lebovic D. Endometrioma complicated by tubo-ovarian abscess in a woman with bacterial vaginosis. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2006;2006:84140 pubmed
    ..with polymicrobial sources such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and obligate anaerobic bacteria; however, bacterial vaginosis (BV) predisposing to abscess formation in an endometrioma has not been reported to date.
  37. Yotebieng M, Turner A, Hoke T, Van Damme K, Rasolofomanana J, Behets F. Effect of consistent condom use on 6-month prevalence of bacterial vaginosis varies by baseline BV status. Trop Med Int Health. 2009;14:480-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a condition characterized by a disturbed vaginal ecosystem which fluctuates in response to extrinsic and intrinsic factors. BV recurrence is common...
  38. Haggerty C, Totten P, Ferris M, Martin D, Hoferka S, Astete S, et al. Clinical characteristics of bacterial vaginosis among women testing positive for fastidious bacteria. Sex Transm Infect. 2009;85:242-8 pubmed publisher
    As the aetiology of bacterial vaginosis (BV) is not well understood, this study sought to determine the relationships between several fastidious microbes, BV and selected clinical characteristics of BV.
  39. Menard J, Fenollar F, Henry M, Bretelle F, Raoult D. Molecular quantification of Gardnerella vaginalis and Atopobium vaginae loads to predict bacterial vaginosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;47:33-43 pubmed publisher
    b>Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a poorly detected public health problem that is associated with preterm delivery and for which no reliable diagnostic tool exists.
  40. Pretorius C, Jagatt A, Lamont R. The relationship between periodontal disease, bacterial vaginosis, and preterm birth. J Perinat Med. 2007;35:93-9 pubmed
    ..focused on the associations between abnormal genital tract flora in pregnancy (diagnosed by the presence of bacterial vaginosis) and preterm birth...
  41. Koumans E, Sternberg M, Bruce C, McQuillan G, Kendrick J, Sutton M, et al. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in the United States, 2001-2004; associations with symptoms, sexual behaviors, and reproductive health. Sex Transm Dis. 2007;34:864-9 pubmed
    b>Bacterial vaginosis (BV), a disturbance of vaginal microflora, is a common cause of vaginal symptoms and is associated with an increased risk of acquisition of sexually transmitted infections, HIV, and with adverse pregnancy outcomes...
  42. Beigi R, Yudin M, Cosentino L, Meyn L, Hillier S. Cytokines, pregnancy, and bacterial vaginosis: comparison of levels of cervical cytokines in pregnant and nonpregnant women with bacterial vaginosis. J Infect Dis. 2007;196:1355-60 pubmed
    ..in pregnant versus nonpregnant women, endocervical proinflammatory-cytokine expression in response to bacterial vaginosis. Endocervical levels of interleukin (IL)-1 beta , IL-6, and IL-8 in 99 pregnant and 99 nonpregnant women, ..
  43. Bhalla P, Chawla R, Garg S, Singh M, Raina U, Bhalla R, et al. Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis among women in Delhi, India. Indian J Med Res. 2007;125:167-72 pubmed
    b>Bacterial vaginosis is the most common cause of vaginal discharge among women in reproductive age. Surveillance studies on bacterial vaginosis are mostly based on specialist clinic settings...
  44. Fethers K, Fairley C, Morton A, Hocking J, Hopkins C, Kennedy L, et al. Early sexual experiences and risk factors for bacterial vaginosis. J Infect Dis. 2009;200:1662-70 pubmed publisher
    We have undertaken a cross-sectional study that investigates the association between bacterial vaginosis (BV) and sexual practices in sexually experienced and inexperienced women...
  45. Svare J, Schmidt H, Hansen B, Lose G. Bacterial vaginosis in a cohort of Danish pregnant women: prevalence and relationship with preterm delivery, low birthweight and perinatal infections. BJOG. 2006;113:1419-25 pubmed
    To determine the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) in the second trimester of pregnancy in a Danish population using the Schmidt criteria and to examine whether BV was associated with subsequent preterm delivery, low birthweight or ..
  46. Campos A, Freitas Junior R, Ribeiro L, Paulinelli R, Reis C. Prevalence of vulvovaginitis and bacterial vaginosis in patients with koilocytosis. Sao Paulo Med J. 2008;126:333-6 pubmed
    ..Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of microorganisms associated with bacterial vaginosis and vulvovaginitis in women with and without koilocytosis.
  47. Verstraelen H, Verhelst R. Bacterial vaginosis: an update on diagnosis and treatment. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2009;7:1109-24 pubmed publisher
    b>Bacterial vaginosis is the most common cause of vaginal complaints. Bacterial vaginosis is further associated with a sizeable burden of infectious complications...
  48. Nyirjesy P. Vulvovaginal candidiasis and bacterial vaginosis. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2008;22:637-52, vi pubmed publisher
    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and bacterial vaginosis (BV) are frequently encountered in clinical practice. Recent advances have furthered understanding of pathophysiology...
  49. Witkin S, Linhares I, Giraldo P, Ledger W. An altered immunity hypothesis for the development of symptomatic bacterial vaginosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44:554-7 pubmed
    ..that the transition from a Lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microflora to a microflora characteristic of bacterial vaginosis (BV), as well as development of the adverse consequences of BV in some women but not in others, are due to ..
  50. Barrons R, Tassone D. Use of Lactobacillus probiotics for bacterial genitourinary infections in women: a review. Clin Ther. 2008;30:453-68 pubmed publisher
    ..controlled trials that have assessed the therapeutic efficacy and tolerability of lactobacilli in bacterial vaginosis (BV) and urinary tract infection (UTI)...
  51. Tabrizi S, Fairley C, Bradshaw C, Garland S. Prevalence of Gardnerella vaginalis and Atopobium vaginae in virginal women. Sex Transm Dis. 2006;33:663-5 pubmed
    ..2-222) and hand-genital contact without penetration (P = 0.02), but not genital-genital contact. This study shows that nonpenetrative intimate sexual contact is associated with carriage of G. vaginalis in virginal women. ..
  52. Numanovic F, Hukic M, Nurkić M, Gegić M, Delibegovic Z, Imamovic A, et al. Importance of isolation and biotypization of Gardnerella vaginalis in diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2008;8:270-6 pubmed
    ..5% girls. G. vaginalis is almost certainly identified among women diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis as well as in the urethra of their sexual partner. The increase in prevalence and concentration of G...
  53. Klebanoff M, Andrews W, Zhang J, Brotman R, Nansel T, Yu K, et al. Race of male sex partners and occurrence of bacterial vaginosis. Sex Transm Dis. 2010;37:184-90 pubmed publisher
    Whether bacterial vaginosis (BV) is sexually transmitted is uncertain. Also it is unknown why BV is approximately twice as prevalent among black as among white women...
  54. Sutyak K, Wirawan R, Aroutcheva A, Chikindas M. Isolation of the Bacillus subtilis antimicrobial peptide subtilosin from the dairy product-derived Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. J Appl Microbiol. 2008;104:1067-74 pubmed
    ..amyloliquefaciens. Finally, this is the first report on subtilosin's activity against bacterial vaginosis-associated pathogens.
  55. Gray R, Kigozi G, Serwadda D, Makumbi F, Nalugoda F, Watya S, et al. The effects of male circumcision on female partners' genital tract symptoms and vaginal infections in a randomized trial in Rakai, Uganda. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009;200:42.e1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Genital symptoms, bacterial vaginosis (BV), and trichomonas were assessed in HIV-negative wives of married participants...
  56. Hassan W, Lavreys L, Chohan V, Richardson B, Mandaliya K, Ndinya Achola J, et al. Associations between intravaginal practices and bacterial vaginosis in Kenyan female sex workers without symptoms of vaginal infections. Sex Transm Dis. 2007;34:384-8 pubmed
    b>Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is highly prevalent among African women and has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV-1...
  57. Kaul R, Nagelkerke N, Kimani J, Ngugi E, Bwayo J, MacDonald K, et al. Prevalent herpes simplex virus type 2 infection is associated with altered vaginal flora and an increased susceptibility to multiple sexually transmitted infections. J Infect Dis. 2007;196:1692-7 pubmed
    ..We hypothesized that HSV-2 infection might also predispose individuals to acquire other common sexually transmitted infections (STIs)...
  58. Hutchinson K, Kip K, Ness R. Vaginal douching and development of bacterial vaginosis among women with normal and abnormal vaginal microflora. Sex Transm Dis. 2007;34:671-5 pubmed
    To evaluate the relationship between douching and bacterial vaginosis (BV) among women with and without prior abnormal vaginal flora...
  59. Gibbs R. Asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis: is it time to treat?. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2007;196:495-6 pubmed
  60. Tosun I, Alpay Karaoglu S, Ciftci H, Buruk C, Aydin F, Kiliç A, et al. [Biotypes and antibiotic resistance patterns of Gardnerella vaginalis strains isolated from healthy women and women with bacterial vaginosis]. Mikrobiyol Bul. 2007;41:21-7 pubmed
    ..accepted as a member of normal vaginal flora, it is one of the dominant species which has been related to bacterial vaginosis (BV)...
  61. Nagot N, Ouedraogo A, Defer M, Vallo R, Mayaud P, Van de Perre P. Association between bacterial vaginosis and Herpes simplex virus type-2 infection: implications for HIV acquisition studies. Sex Transm Infect. 2007;83:365-8 pubmed
    b>Bacterial vaginosis (BV) and Herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) have been linked to an increased risk of HIV-1 acquisition. Recent research suggests an association between BV and HSV-2 acquisition, but the converse has not been studied...
  62. Hutchinson K, Kip K, Ness R. Condom use and its association with bacterial vaginosis and bacterial vaginosis-associated vaginal microflora. Epidemiology. 2007;18:702-8 pubmed
    Previous studies have been inconsistent with regard to whether condom use is associated with bacterial vaginosis. We evaluated this association using case-crossover analyses...
  63. van de Wijgert J, Morrison C, Cornelisse P, Munjoma M, Moncada J, Awio P, et al. Bacterial vaginosis and vaginal yeast, but not vaginal cleansing, increase HIV-1 acquisition in African women. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008;48:203-10 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate interrelationships between bacterial vaginosis (BV), vaginal yeast, vaginal practices (cleansing and drying/tightening), mucosal inflammation, and HIV acquisition...
  64. Bukusi E, Cohen C, Meier A, Waiyaki P, Nguti R, Njeri J, et al. Bacterial vaginosis: risk factors among Kenyan women and their male partners. Sex Transm Dis. 2006;33:361-7 pubmed
    To simultaneously examine associations of bacterial vaginosis (BV) with potential risk factors in both the female and her male partner. We recruited women 18-45 years of age and their male partners from clinics in Nairobi, Kenya...
  65. Swidsinski A, Dörffel Y, Loening Baucke V, Mendling W, Schilling J, Patterson J, et al. Dissimilarity in the occurrence of Bifidobacteriaceae in vaginal and perianal microbiota in women with bacterial vaginosis. Anaerobe. 2010;16:478-82 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Bacterial vaginosis, the most common perturbation of the vaginal microflora involving primarily overgrowth of Gardnerella ..
  66. Josey W, Schwebke J. The polymicrobial hypothesis of bacterial vaginosis causation: a reassessment. Int J STD AIDS. 2008;19:152-4 pubmed publisher
    The cause of bacterial vaginosis remains controversial. The two leading hypotheses are that Gardnerella vaginalis is the specific aetiologic agent versus the polymicrobial hypothesis that G...
  67. Hay P. Recurrent bacterial vaginosis. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2009;22:82-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Bacterial vaginosis is a common condition that recurs frequently, adversely affecting women's lives, and is associated with complications including increased risk of sexually transmitted infections, HIV, and adverse pregnancy outcome.
  68. Riggs M, Klebanoff M, Nansel T, Zhang J, Schwebke J, Andrews W. Longitudinal association between hormonal contraceptives and bacterial vaginosis in women of reproductive age. Sex Transm Dis. 2007;34:954-9 pubmed
    This study examined whether hormonal contraceptive use is associated with diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV) over 1 year...
  69. Cauci S, Di Santolo M, Casabellata G, Ryckman K, Williams S, Guaschino S. Association of interleukin-1beta and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist polymorphisms with bacterial vaginosis in non-pregnant Italian women. Mol Hum Reprod. 2007;13:243-50 pubmed
    b>Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most prevalent alteration of vaginal microflora worldwide. BV is a polymicrobial disorder, and its etiology is elusive. Factors predisposing to this recurrent condition are not fully characterized...
  70. Brotman R, Ghanem K, Klebanoff M, Taha T, Scharfstein D, Zenilman J. The effect of vaginal douching cessation on bacterial vaginosis: a pilot study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008;198:628.e1-7 pubmed publisher
    The objective of the study was to evaluate the risk for bacterial vaginosis (BV) in a douching cessation trial...
  71. Vitali B, Pugliese C, Biagi E, Candela M, Turroni S, Bellen G, et al. Dynamics of vaginal bacterial communities in women developing bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis, or no infection, analyzed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and real-time PCR. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:5731-41 pubmed
    The microbial flora of the vagina plays a major role in preventing genital infections, including bacterial vaginosis (BV) and candidiasis (CA)...
  72. Farquhar C, Mbori Ngacha D, Overbaugh J, Wamalwa D, Harris J, Bosire R, et al. Illness during pregnancy and bacterial vaginosis are associated with in-utero HIV-1 transmission. AIDS. 2010;24:153-5 pubmed publisher
    ..6-fold increased risk of in-utero HIV-1 transmission [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-5.8] and bacterial vaginosis with a three-fold increase (95% CI 1.0-7.0) after adjusting for maternal HIV-1 viral load...
  73. Nyirjesy P, McIntosh M, Steinmetz J, Schumacher R, Joffrion J. The effects of intravaginal clindamycin and metronidazole therapy on vaginal mobiluncus morphotypes in patients with bacterial vaginosis. Sex Transm Dis. 2007;34:197-202 pubmed
    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of treatments for bacterial vaginosis (BV) on vaginal Mobiluncus morphotypes.
  74. Giraldo P, Babula O, Gonçalves A, Linhares I, Amaral R, Ledger W, et al. Mannose-binding lectin gene polymorphism, vulvovaginal candidiasis, and bacterial vaginosis. Obstet Gynecol. 2007;109:1123-8 pubmed
    To evaluate associations between polymorphisms in the gene coding for mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and the diagnosis of acute or recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and bacterial vaginosis
  75. Fethers K, Fairley C, Hocking J, Gurrin L, Bradshaw C. Sexual risk factors and bacterial vaginosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;47:1426-35 pubmed publisher
    We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between sexual risk factors and bacterial vaginosis (BV)...
  76. Schwiertz A, Taras D, Rusch K, Rusch V. Throwing the dice for the diagnosis of vaginal complaints?. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2006;5:4 pubmed
    ..The participating physicians diagnosed Bacterial vaginosis (BV) as origin of discomfort in 80 cases, candidiasis in 109 cases and mixed infections in 8 cases...
  77. Vaca M, Guadalupe I, Erazo S, Tinizaray K, Chico M, Cooper P, et al. High prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in adolescent girls in a tropical area of Ecuador. BJOG. 2010;117:225-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common clinical syndrome, but data are scarce on the BV prevalence in tropical regions among sexually active and virgin adolescents...
  78. Donders G, Van Calsteren K, Bellen G, Reybrouck R, van den Bosch T, Riphagen I, et al. Predictive value for preterm birth of abnormal vaginal flora, bacterial vaginosis and aerobic vaginitis during the first trimester of pregnancy. BJOG. 2009;116:1315-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Abnormal vaginal flora (AVF) before 14 gestational weeks is a risk factor for preterm birth (PTB). The presence of aerobic microorganisms and an inflammatory response in the vagina may also be important risk factors...
  79. Bradshaw C, Tabrizi S, Fairley C, Morton A, Rudland E, Garland S. The association of Atopobium vaginae and Gardnerella vaginalis with bacterial vaginosis and recurrence after oral metronidazole therapy. J Infect Dis. 2006;194:828-36 pubmed
    We investigated associations between Atopobium vaginae and bacterial vaginosis (BV) and the role that A. vaginae plays in recurrent BV after oral metronidazole therapy...
  80. Baisley K, Changalucha J, Weiss H, Mugeye K, Everett D, Hambleton I, et al. Bacterial vaginosis in female facility workers in north-western Tanzania: prevalence and risk factors. Sex Transm Infect. 2009;85:370-5 pubmed publisher
    To determine prevalence of, and risk factors for, bacterial vaginosis (BV) among herpes simplex virus (HSV) 2 seropositive Tanzanian women at enrollment into a randomised, placebo-controlled trial of HSV suppressive treatment...
  81. Falagas M, Betsi G, Athanasiou S. Probiotics for the treatment of women with bacterial vaginosis. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2007;13:657-64 pubmed
    This review considers whether probiotics are effective agents for the treatment and/or prevention of bacterial vaginosis (BV)...
  82. Simbar M, Azarbad Z, Mojab F, Majd H. A comparative study of the therapeutic effects of the Zataria multiflora vaginal cream and metronidazole vaginal gel on bacterial vaginosis. Phytomedicine. 2008;15:1025-31 pubmed publisher
    b>Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is one of most prevalent complications among reproductive-aged women. Metromidazole prescription, which is considered as the first-line treatment of BV, is usually followed by a few side effects...
  83. Fan S, Liu X, Liao Q. Human defensins and cytokines in vaginal lavage fluid of women with bacterial vaginosis. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2008;103:50-4 pubmed publisher
    ..2 (HBD-2), and human defensin 5 (HD-5) in the vaginal lavage fluid (VLF) of healthy women and women with bacterial vaginosis (BV)...
  84. Atashili J, Poole C, Ndumbe P, Adimora A, Smith J. Bacterial vaginosis and HIV acquisition: a meta-analysis of published studies. AIDS. 2008;22:1493-501 pubmed publisher
    To assess and summarize the published literature on the extent to which bacterial vaginosis may increase the risk of HIV acquisition. Meta-analysis of published studies...
  85. Oakley B, Fiedler T, Marrazzo J, Fredricks D. Diversity of human vaginal bacterial communities and associations with clinically defined bacterial vaginosis. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:4898-909 pubmed publisher
    b>Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common syndrome associated with numerous adverse health outcomes in women. Despite its medical importance, the etiology and microbial ecology of BV remain poorly understood...
  86. Cherpes T, Hillier S, Meyn L, Busch J, Krohn M. A delicate balance: risk factors for acquisition of bacterial vaginosis include sexual activity, absence of hydrogen peroxide-producing lactobacilli, black race, and positive herpes simplex virus type 2 serology. Sex Transm Dis. 2008;35:78-83 pubmed
    The etiology of bacterial vaginosis (BV) is poorly understood, but better definition of the risk factors associated with its acquisition should improve our understanding of this complex disease entity.
  87. Fredricks D, Fiedler T, Thomas K, Oakley B, Marrazzo J. Targeted PCR for detection of vaginal bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45:3270-6 pubmed
    Several novel bacterial species have been detected in subjects with bacterial vaginosis (BV) by using broad-range PCR assays, but this approach is insensitive for detecting minority species...
  88. Meltzer M, Desmond R, Schwebke J. Association of Mobiluncus curtisii with recurrence of bacterial vaginosis. Sex Transm Dis. 2008;35:611-3 pubmed publisher
  89. Cauci S, Culhane J. Modulation of vaginal immune response among pregnant women with bacterial vaginosis by Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and yeast. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2007;196:133.e1-7 pubmed
    ..on vaginal innate and adaptive immunity, and microbial enzyme activities of pregnant women with bacterial vaginosis (BV)...
  90. Zozaya Hinchliffe M, Martin D, Ferris M. Prevalence and abundance of uncultivated Megasphaera-like bacteria in the human vaginal environment. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:1656-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Quantitative PCR suggests that both phylotypes are present in higher concentrations in women with bacterial vaginosis.