spirochaeta

Summary

Summary: A genus of flexible, spiral rods found in hydrogen sulfide-containing mud, sewage, and polluted water. None of the species properly referred to in this genus are pathogenic.

Top Publications

  1. Hoover R, Pikuta E, Bej A, Marsic D, Whitman W, Tang J, et al. Spirochaeta americana sp. nov., a new haloalkaliphilic, obligately anaerobic spirochaete isolated from soda Mono Lake in California. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2003;53:815-21 pubmed
    ..5 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization analysis of strain ASpG1(T) with its most closely related species, Spirochaeta alkalica Z-7491(T), revealed a hybridization value of only 48.7%...
  2. Magot M, Fardeau M, Arnauld O, Lanau C, Ollivier B, Thomas P, et al. Spirochaeta smaragdinae sp. nov., a new mesophilic strictly anaerobic spirochete from an oil field. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1997;155:185-91 pubmed
    ..Strain SEBR 4228T possessed features typical of the members of the genus Spirochaeta. 16S rRNA sequence analysis revealed that it was closely related to Spirochaeta bajacaliforniensis (similarity ..
  3. Pikuta E, Hoover R, Bej A, Marsic D, Whitman W, Krader P. Spirochaeta dissipatitropha sp. nov., an alkaliphilic, obligately anaerobic bacterium, and emended description of the genus Spirochaeta Ehrenberg 1835. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2009;59:1798-804 pubmed publisher
    ..hybridization experiments demonstrated 46 % similarity with the phylogenetically most closely related species, Spirochaeta asiatica Z-7591(T)...
  4. Angelov A, Liebl S, Ballschmiter M, Bömeke M, Lehmann R, Liesegang H, et al. Genome sequence of the polysaccharide-degrading, thermophilic anaerobe Spirochaeta thermophila DSM 6192. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:6492-3 pubmed publisher
    b>Spirochaeta thermophila is a thermophilic, free-living anaerobe that is able to degrade various ?- and ?-linked sugar polymers, including cellulose. We report here the complete genome sequence of S...
  5. Angelov A, Loderer C, Pompei S, Liebl W. Novel family of carbohydrate-binding modules revealed by the genome sequence of Spirochaeta thermophila DSM 6192. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:5483-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Spirochaeta thermophila is a thermophilic, free-living, and cellulolytic anaerobe...
  6. Janssen P, Morgan H. Glucose catabolism by Spirochaeta thermophila RI 19.B1. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:2449-53 pubmed
    b>Spirochaeta thermophila RI 19.B1 (DSM 6192) fermented glucose to lactate, acetate, CO2, and H2 with concomitant formation of cell material. The cell dry mass yield was 20.0 g/mol of glucose...
  7. Fracek S, Stolz J. Spirochaeta bajacaliforniensis sp. n. from a microbial mat community at Laguna Figueroa, Baja California Norte, Mexico. Arch Microbiol. 1985;142:317-25 pubmed
    ..On the basis of its free-living anaerobic habitat, its unique morphological and physiological characteristics and G+C ratio, it is proposed that this isolated be considered a new species and names Spirochaeta bajacaliforniensis.
  8. Dröge S, Fröhlich J, Radek R, König H. Spirochaeta coccoides sp. nov., a novel coccoid spirochete from the hindgut of the termite Neotermes castaneus. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:392-7 pubmed
    ..similarities (about 90%) of the strain SPN1 16S rRNA gene sequence are with spirochetes belonging to the genus Spirochaeta, and thus, the isolate could not be assigned to the so-called termite clusters of the treponemes or to a known ..
  9. Zhilina T, Zavarzin G, Rainey F, Kevbrin V, Kostrikina N, Lysenko A. Spirochaeta alkalica sp. nov., Spirochaeta africana sp. nov., and Spirochaeta asiatica sp. nov., alkaliphilic anaerobes from the Continental Soda Lakes in Central Asia and the East African Rift. Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1996;46:305-12 pubmed
    During a study of microbial communities in athalassic bodies of water, three new species within the genus Spirochaeta were described. These are alkaliphilic Spirochaeta alkalica sp. nov. Z-7491 (DSM 8900) and halophilic S. africana sp...

More Information

Publications88

  1. Barth A, Stricker J, Margulis L. Search for eukaryotic motility proteins in spirochetes: immunological detection of a tektin-like protein in Spirochaeta halophila. Biosystems. 1991;24:313-9 pubmed
    ..testing, the SET proteins associated with eukaryotic motility (tektin, centrin and calmodulin) were sought in Spirochaeta halophila...
  2. Dubinina G, Grabovich M, Leshcheva N, Gronow S, Gavrish E, Akimov V. Spirochaeta sinaica sp. nov., a halophilic spirochaete isolated from a cyanobacterial mat. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2015;65:3872-3877 pubmed publisher
    ..7 mol%. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain SLT clustered within the genus Spirochaeta, exhibiting 94.2 and 93...
  3. Zhou X, Jiang X, Yang C, Ma B, Lei C, Xu C, et al. Cecal microbiota of Tibetan Chickens from five geographic regions were determined by 16S rRNA sequencing. Microbiologyopen. 2016;5:753-762 pubmed publisher
    ..There were relatively more Christensenellaceae, Subdoligranulum, Spirochaeta, and Treponema in Tibetan Chickens, whereas there were more Phascolarctobacterium, Faecalibacterium, Megamonas, ..
  4. Alvarez Venegas R, Sadder M, Tikhonov A, Avramova Z. Origin of the bacterial SET domain genes: vertical or horizontal?. Mol Biol Evol. 2007;24:482-97 pubmed
    ..However, a lateral transfer of SET domain genes may have occurred between some bacteria and a family of Archaea. A model for the evolution and distribution of SET domain genes in bacteria is proposed. ..
  5. Ferrando L, Fernández Scavino A. Strong shift in the diazotrophic endophytic bacterial community inhabiting rice (Oryza sativa) plants after flooding. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2015;91:fiv104 pubmed publisher
    ..g. Dechloromonas, Rhodopseudomonas, Desulfovibrio, Geobacter, Chlorobium, Spirochaeta, Selenomonas and Dehalobacter) with diverse metabolic traits were retrieved from flooded rice roots...
  6. Pandit P, Gulhane M, Khardenavis A, Purohit H. Mining of hemicellulose and lignin degrading genes from differentially enriched methane producing microbial community. Bioresour Technol. 2016;216:923-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Ruminococcus, Thermotoga associated with hemicellulose degradation and Burkholderia, Pandorea, Sphingomonas, Spirochaeta, Pseudomonas for lignocellulose hydrolysis...
  7. Wang X, Cao A, Zhao G, Zhou C, Xu R. Microbial community structure and diversity in a municipal solid waste landfill. Waste Manag. 2017;66:79-87 pubmed publisher
    ..were the dominant phyla, whereas Halanaerobium, Methylohalobius, Syntrophomonas, Fastidiosipila, and Spirochaeta were the dominant genera...
  8. Hao L, Zhang B, Cheng M, Feng C. Effects of various organic carbon sources on simultaneous V(V) reduction and bioelectricity generation in single chamber microbial fuel cells. Bioresour Technol. 2016;201:105-10 pubmed publisher
    ..reduction, electrochemical activity and fermentation, accompanied with other functional species as Pseudomonas, Spirochaeta, Sedimentibacter and Dysgonomonas...
  9. Zhao C, Mu H, Zhao Y, Wang L, Zuo B. Microbial characteristics analysis and kinetic studies on substrate composition to methane after microbial and nutritional regulation of fruit and vegetable wastes anaerobic digestion. Bioresour Technol. 2018;249:315-321 pubmed publisher
    ..Results showed that the enriched hydrogenotrophic methanogens, and Firmicutes and Spirochaeta in the AGS were responsible for the enhanced methane yield...
  10. Hontecillas R, Bassaganya Riera J, Wilson J, Hutto D, Wannemuehler M. CD4+ T-cell responses and distribution at the colonic mucosa during Brachyspira hyodysenteriae-induced colitis in pigs. Immunology. 2005;115:127-35 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that infection with B. hyodysenteriae induces a mucosal CD4(+) T-cell response and points to CD4(+) T cells being important contributors to the immunopathogenesis of swine dysentery. ..
  11. Fiehn N. Susceptibility of small-sized oral spirochetes to eight antibiotics and chlorhexidine. Acta Pathol Microbiol Immunol Scand B. 1987;95:325-9 pubmed
    ..These spirochetes were resistant to the remaining agents. The significance of these observations is discussed in relation to obtainable gingival crevicular fluid concentrations and treatment of marginal periodontitis. ..
  12. Dettori G, Grillo R, Cattani P, Calderaro A, Chezzi C, Milner J, et al. Comparative study of the enzyme activities of Borrelia burgdorferi and other non-intestinal and intestinal spirochaetes. New Microbiol. 1995;18:13-26 pubmed
    ..However, swine strain LL3 and avian strain 1380 showed some beta-glucosidase activity. ..
  13. Pires V, Pereira P, Brás J, Correia M, Cardoso V, Bule P, et al. Stability and Ligand Promiscuity of Type A Carbohydrate-binding Modules Are Illustrated by the Structure of Spirochaeta thermophila StCBM64C. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:4847-4860 pubmed publisher
    ..A Spirochaeta thermophila CBM64, in particular, displayed plasticity in its capacity to bind both crystalline and soluble ..
  14. Charon N, Greenberg E, Koopman M, Limberger R. Spirochete chemotaxis, motility, and the structure of the spirochetal periplasmic flagella. Res Microbiol. 1992;143:597-603 pubmed
    ..This rotation generates thrust. As shown for one spirochete, Spirochaeta aurantia, motility is driven by a proton motive force...
  15. Slade A, Maclean P, van Otterdijk F. The impact of cleaner processing on nutrient availability in the bleached kraft industry. Water Sci Technol. 2007;55:165-72 pubmed
    ..This case study demonstrates that whilst more closed operation can result in reduced discharge of organic loads, there may be negative impacts on the availability of nutrients for balanced biological growth...
  16. Brook C, Clair A, Mikosza A, Riley T, Hampson D. Carriage of intestinal spirochaetes by humans: epidemiological data from Western Australia. Epidemiol Infect. 2001;127:369-74 pubmed
    ..0034). Carriage was significantly associated with detection of faecal protozoa in both Aboriginals (P = 0.0021) and migrants (P = 0.012). PFGE results indicated that the B. pilosicoli strains were genetically diverse. ..
  17. Ge Y, Li C, Corum L, Slaughter C, Charon N. Structure and expression of the FlaA periplasmic flagellar protein of Borrelia burgdorferi. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:2418-25 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the results indicate that both FlaA and FlaB comprise the PFs of B. burgdorferi and that they are regulated differently from flagellin proteins of other bacteria. ..
  18. Duangmanee T, Padmasiri S, Simmons J, Raskin L, Sung S. Hydrogen production by anaerobic microbial communities exposed to repeated heat treatments. Water Environ Res. 2007;79:975-83 pubmed
    ..The first group consisted of Bifidobacterium thermophilum, and the second group included one or more of Bacillus, Melissococcus, Spirochaeta, and Spiroplasma spp.
  19. Breznak J, Warnecke F. Spirochaeta cellobiosiphila sp. nov., a facultatively anaerobic, marine spirochaete. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2008;58:2762-8 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence, strain SIP1(T) was grouped among other members of the genus Spirochaeta, but it bore only 89 % similarity with respect to its closest known relatives, Spirochaeta litoralis and ..
  20. Merialdi G, Bonilauri P, Granelli F, Luppi A, Dottori M. Bacterial pathogens in field cases of clinical colitis in growing and finishing pigs in Italy. Vet Rec. 2003;153:529-30 pubmed
  21. Fosnaugh K, Greenberg E. Motility and chemotaxis of Spirochaeta aurantia: computer-assisted motion analysis. J Bacteriol. 1988;170:1768-74 pubmed
    A computer program has been designed to study behavior in populations of Spirochaeta aurantia cells, and this program has been used to analyze changes in behavior in response to chemoattractants...
  22. Brahamsha B, Greenberg E. Biochemical and cytological analysis of the complex periplasmic flagella from Spirochaeta aurantia. J Bacteriol. 1988;170:4023-32 pubmed
    The periplasmic flagella of Spirochaeta aurantia were isolated and were found to be ultrastructurally and biochemically complex...
  23. Meng L, Li X, Wang X, Ma K, Liu G, Zhang J. Amoxicillin effects on functional microbial community and spread of antibiotic resistance genes in amoxicillin manufacture wastewater treatment system. J Environ Sci (China). 2017;61:110-117 pubmed publisher
    ..The results showed that the genera Ignavibacterium, Phocoenobacter, Spirochaeta, Aminobacterium and Cloacibacillus contributed to the degradation of different organic compounds (such as ..
  24. Lilburn T, Kim K, Ostrom N, Byzek K, Leadbetter J, Breznak J. Nitrogen fixation by symbiotic and free-living spirochetes. Science. 2001;292:2495-8 pubmed
    ..Fixation of 15-dinitrogen was demonstrated with termite gut Treponema ZAS-9 and free-living Spirochaeta aurantia. Homologs of nifH were also present in human oral and bovine ruminal treponemes...
  25. Sun W, Krumins V, Dong Y, Gao P, Ma C, Hu M, et al. A Combination of Stable Isotope Probing, Illumina Sequencing, and Co-occurrence Network to Investigate Thermophilic Acetate- and Lactate-Utilizing Bacteria. Microb Ecol. 2018;75:113-122 pubmed publisher
    ..fed 13C-acetate, bacteria related to members of Clostridium, Hydrogenophaga, Fervidobacterium, Spirochaeta, Limnohabitans, and Rhodococcus demonstrated elevated abundances of 13C-DNA fractions, suggesting ..
  26. Liu H, Zhang B, Yuan H, Cheng Y, Wang S, He Z. Microbial reduction of vanadium (V) in groundwater: Interactions with coexisting common electron acceptors and analysis of microbial community. Environ Pollut. 2017;231:1362-1369 pubmed publisher
    ..16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing analysis indicated the accumulation of Geobacter, Longilinea, Syntrophobacter, Spirochaeta and Anaerolinea, which might be responsible for the reduction of multiple electron acceptors...
  27. McLaughlin R, Secko D, Paul C, Kropinski A. Nature of the genome of the saprophytic spirochete Spirochaeta aurantia and its ribosomal RNA operons. Can J Microbiol. 2004;50:967-71 pubmed
    ..endonucleases DraI, AseI, and I-CeuI in conjunction with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we have shown that Spirochaeta aurantia M1 possesses a circular 3.98-Mb genome. This is the second largest spirochete chromosome yet analyzed...
  28. Duperron S, Fiala Médioni A, Caprais J, Olu K, Sibuet M. Evidence for chemoautotrophic symbiosis in a Mediterranean cold seep clam (Bivalvia: Lucinidae): comparative sequence analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA, APS reductase and RubisCO genes. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2007;59:64-70 pubmed
  29. Munson D, Obar R, Tzertzinis G, Margulis L. The 'tubulin-like' S1 protein of Spirochaeta is a member of the hsp65 stress protein family. Biosystems. 1993;31:161-7 pubmed
    A 65-kDa protein (called S1) from Spirochaeta bajacaliforniensis was identified as 'tubulin-like' because it cross-reacted with at least four different antisera raised against tubulin and was isolated, with a co-polymerizing 45-kDa ..
  30. Gunther U, Epple H, Heller F, Loddenkemper C, Grunbaum M, Schneider T, et al. In vivo diagnosis of intestinal spirochaetosis by confocal endomicroscopy. Gut. 2008;57:1331-3 pubmed
  31. Parales J, Greenberg E. Analysis of the Spirochaeta aurantia flaA gene and transcript. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1993;106:245-51 pubmed
    The flaA gene, which codes for the Spirochaeta aurantia flagellar filament outer layer polypeptide, FlaA, was cloned, sequenced and analysed. The gene appears to be transcribed into a monocistronic mRNA from a sigma 70-like promoter...
  32. Waugh M. The centenary of treponema pallidum: on the discovery of Spirochaeta pallida. Skinmed. 2005;4:313-5 pubmed
  33. Dubinina G, Grabovich M, Chernyshova I. [The role of oxygen in the regulation of the metabolism of aerotolerant spirochetes, a major component of "Thiodendron" bacterial sulfur mats]. Mikrobiologiia. 2004;73:725-33 pubmed
    ..The formation of "Thiodendron" bacterial sulfur mats in saltwater environments is also discussed...
  34. Pernice M, Wetzel S, Gros O, Boucher Rodoni R, Dubilier N. Enigmatic dual symbiosis in the excretory organ of Nautilus macromphalus (Cephalopoda: Nautiloidea). Proc Biol Sci. 2007;274:1143-52 pubmed
    ..5% sequence similarity) and marine Spirochaeta species as the closest relatives of the spirochaete (above or equal to 89...
  35. Paster B, Dewhirst F, Cooke S, Fussing V, Poulsen L, Breznak J. Phylogeny of not-yet-cultured spirochetes from termite guts. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1996;62:347-52 pubmed
    ..85%. The sequence of NL1 was most closely related (ca. 87 to 88% similarity) to sequences of Spirochaeta stenostrepta and Spirochaeta caldaria and to a previously published sequence (ca...
  36. Yang M, Lapham R. Appendiceal spirochetosis. South Med J. 1997;90:30-2 pubmed
    ..We observed appendiceal spirochetosis to be an uncommon phenomenon that affects both sexes, occurring with or without symptoms of acute appendicitis. None of our four positive cases occurred in the pediatric age group...
  37. McDowell J, Tran E, Hamilton D, Wolfgang J, Miller K, Marconi R. Analysis of the ability of spirochete species associated with relapsing fever, avian borreliosis, and epizootic bovine abortion to bind factor H and cleave c3b. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:3905-10 pubmed
    ..Cell-bound fH was also found to mediate cleavage of exogenously supplied human C3b, demonstrating the biological relevance of fH binding and its possible importance in the pathogenesis of the relapsing-fever spirochetes...
  38. Berlanga M, Aas J, Paster B, Boumenna T, Dewhirst F, Guerrero R. Phylogenetic diversity and temporal variation in the Spirochaeta populations from two Mediterranean microbial mats. Int Microbiol. 2008;11:267-74 pubmed
    ..from samples of both locations, 42 novel phylotypes of not-yet-cultivated spirochetes belonging to the genus Spirochaeta were detected...
  39. Brahamsha B, Greenberg E. Cloning and sequence analysis of flaA, a gene encoding a Spirochaeta aurantia flagellar filament surface antigen. J Bacteriol. 1989;171:1692-7 pubmed
    b>Spirochaeta aurantia DNA that coded for an antigenic determinant of the flagellin associated with the filament surface of the periplasmic flagella was isolated...
  40. Paul C, Lyle E, Beveridge T, Tapping R, Kropinski A, Vinogradov E. Characterization of the cell surface glycolipid from Spirochaeta aurantia. Glycoconj J. 2009;26:1097-108 pubmed publisher
    b>Spirochaeta aurantia is a free-living saprophytic spirochete that grows easily in simple laboratory media, and thus can be used as a model for the investigation of surface carbohydrate structures in spirochetae, which are normally not ..
  41. Swayne D, Eaton K, Stoutenburg J, Trott D, Hampson D, Jensen N. Identification of a new intestinal spirochete with pathogenicity for chickens. Infect Immun. 1995;63:430-6 pubmed
    ..These findings support the conclusion that avian intestinal spirochetes can be pathogenic to commercial poultry and that the microorganisms are different from intestinal spirochetes that infect pigs...
  42. Radek R, Nitsch G. Ectobiotic spirochetes of flagellates from the termite Mastotermes darwiniensis: attachment and cyst formation. Eur J Protistol. 2007;43:281-94 pubmed
    ..The cysts contain protoplasmic cylinders in the periphery and sometimes larger central bodies. Production of dormant cystic forms may be a survival mechanism under hostile conditions...
  43. Bermudes D, Fracek S, Laursen R, Margulis L, Obar R, Tzertzinis G. Tubulinlike protein from Spirochaeta bajacaliforniensis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1987;503:515-27 pubmed
    ..g., Spirochaeta; large termite spirochetes; treponemes; cyanobacteria; and Azotobacter...
  44. Murray R, Downham D, Demirkan I, Carter S. Some relationships between spirochaete infections and digital dermatitis in four UK dairy herds. Res Vet Sci. 2002;73:223-30 pubmed
    ..The presence or absence of lesions had the most significant effect for all three antibodies (P<0.001). Neither the herd effects nor the effects due to lactation number or yield showed consistent patterns...
  45. Pride D, Meinersmann R, Wassenaar T, Blaser M. Evolutionary implications of microbial genome tetranucleotide frequency biases. Genome Res. 2003;13:145-58 pubmed
    ..Because relationships demonstrated in TUD-based analyses utilize whole genomes, they should be considered complementary to phylogenies based on single genetic elements, such as 16S rRNA...
  46. Dubinina G, Grabovich M, Leshcheva N, Rainey F, Gavrish E. Spirochaeta perfilievii sp. nov., an oxygen-tolerant, sulfide-oxidizing, sulfur- and thiosulfate-reducing spirochaete isolated from a saline spring. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2011;61:110-7 pubmed publisher
    ..7 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain P(T) fell within a group of species in the genus Spirochaeta, including Spirochaeta litoralis, S. isovalerica and S...
  47. Choi C, Han D, Kim J, Cho W, Chung H, Jung T, et al. Prevalence of Brachyspira pilosicoli in Korean pigs, determined using a nested PCR. Vet Rec. 2002;150:217-8 pubmed
  48. Limberger R. The periplasmic flagellum of spirochetes. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2004;7:30-40 pubmed
    ..These include the polarity or distribution of flagellar synthesis as well as the mechanisms required for coordination of the movement of the cell ends, to enable it to move in the forward or reverse direction...
  49. Campbell B, Cary S. Characterization of a novel spirochete associated with the hydrothermal vent polychaete annelid, Alvinella pompejana. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2001;67:110-7 pubmed
    ..pompejana epibiotic community. Additional analysis of the environments surrounding the worm revealed that spirochetes are a ubiquitous component of high-temperature vents and may play an important role in this unique ecosystem...
  50. Park C, Kim J, Lee S, Kim Y, Kang L, Oh D. Characterization of a recombinant mannobiose 2-epimerase from Spirochaeta thermophila that is suggested to be a cellobiose 2-epimerase. Biotechnol Lett. 2013;35:1873-80 pubmed publisher
    A purified recombinant enzyme from Spirochaeta thermophila, that is suggested to be a cellobiose 2-epimerase, was a 47 kDa monomer with a specific activity of 29.2 U min(-1) for mannobiose...
  51. Li J, Wu C. Perspectives on the origin of microfilaments, microtubules, the relevant chaperonin system and cytoskeletal motors--a commentary on the spirochaete origin of flagella. Cell Res. 2003;13:219-27 pubmed
    ..In this case, if they had "evolved" into cilia and lost their bacterial flagella, they would immediately become immobile! In fact, tubulin and dynein-like proteins have not been found in any spirochaete...
  52. Sjöling S, Cowan D. High 16S rDNA bacterial diversity in glacial meltwater lake sediment, Bratina Island, Antarctica. Extremophiles. 2003;7:275-82 pubmed
    ..All of the archaeal clones sequenced belonged to the group Crenarchaeota and phylogenetic analysis revealed close relationships with members of the deep-branching Group 1 Marine Archaea...
  53. Angelov A, Mientus M, Liebl S, Liebl W. A two-host fosmid system for functional screening of (meta)genomic libraries from extreme thermophiles. Syst Appl Microbiol. 2009;32:177-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Comparative screening of a fosmid library constructed from genomic DNA from the thermophilic spirochaete, Spirochaeta thermophila, for clones expressing thermoactive xylanase activity revealed that 50% of the fosmids that ..
  54. Caro Quintero A, Ritalahti K, Cusick K, Löffler F, Konstantinidis K. The chimeric genome of Sphaerochaeta: nonspiral spirochetes that break with the prevalent dogma in spirochete biology. MBio. 2012;3: pubmed publisher
    ..Such a high level of direct interphylum genetic exchange is extremely rare among mesophilic organisms and has important implications for the assembly of the prokaryotic tree of life...
  55. Lee B, Hampson D. A monoclonal antibody reacting with the cell envelope of spirochaetes isolated from cases of intestinal spirochaetosis in pigs and humans. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1995;131:179-84 pubmed
    ..The mAb should prove to be a useful reagent for detection and identification of spirochaetes that are specifically associated with intestinal spirochaetosis...
  56. Reddy S, Aspana S, Tushar D, Sasikala C, Ramana C. Spirochaeta sphaeroplastigenens sp. nov., a halo-alkaliphilic, obligately anaerobic spirochaete isolated from soda lake Lonar. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2013;63:2223-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, both strains were identified as belonging to the genus Spirochaeta with Spirochaeta alkalica Z-7491(T) (99...
  57. Farias M, Rascovan N, Toneatti D, Albarracín V, Flores M, Poiré D, et al. The discovery of stromatolites developing at 3570 m above sea level in a high-altitude volcanic lake Socompa, Argentinean Andes. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e53497 pubmed publisher
  58. Sohaskey C, Barbour A. Spirochaeta aurantia has diacetyl chloramphenicol esterase activity. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:1930-4 pubmed
    The free-living spirochete Spirochaeta aurantia was nearly as susceptible to diacetyl chloramphenicol, the product of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, as it was to chloramphenicol itself...
  59. Fosnaugh K, Greenberg E. Chemotaxis mutants of Spirochaeta aurantia. J Bacteriol. 1989;171:606-11 pubmed
    Five Spirochaeta aurantia chemotaxis mutants were isolated...
  60. Ronimus R, de Heus E, Ruckert A, Morgan H. Sequencing, high-level expression and phylogeny of the pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructokinase from the thermophilic spirochete Spirochaeta thermophila. Arch Microbiol. 2001;175:308-12 pubmed
    The full-length gene encoding a 554-amino-acid, active pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructokinase from Spirochaeta thermophila was cloned and sequenced using a combination of degenerate and inverse PCR, and the enzyme expressed to a ..
  61. Chitale S, Burgess N, Barker T, Roberts P. Pseudospirochaetosis of the urinary bladder. J Clin Pathol. 2005;58:437-8 pubmed
    ..Therefore, this condition was described as pseudospirochaetosis of the urinary bladder. The urinary symptoms regressed on treatment with ciprofloxacin. The clinicopathological relevance of these findings is discussed in the report...
  62. Liu H, Zheng L, Xiao X. [Relationship between Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome and spirochetes infection]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 1994;74:92-3, 127 pubmed
    ..11 cases were treated by high dose of penicillin, and 10 were responsive. This result provided further basis for a conjecture that the attack of MRS may be related to the infection of spirochetes...
  63. Brooke C, Riley T, Hampson D. Comparison of prevalence and risk factors for faecal carriage of the intestinal spirochaetes Brachyspira aalborgi and Brachyspira pilosicoli in four Australian populations. Epidemiol Infect. 2006;134:627-34 pubmed
    ..Both species may have pathogenic potential, but B. aalborgi appears more host-adapted than the opportunistic B. pilosicoli...
  64. Vinogradov E, Paul C, Li J, Zhou Y, Lyle E, Tapping R, et al. The structure and biological characteristics of the Spirochaeta aurantia outer membrane glycolipid LGLB. Eur J Biochem. 2004;271:4685-95 pubmed
    In an attempt to isolate lipopolysaccharide from Spirochaeta aurantia, Darveau-Hancock extraction of the cell mass was performed. While no lipopolysaccharide was found, two carbohydrate-containing compounds were detected...
  65. Marylène Gaudron S, Demoyencourt E, Duperron S. Reproductive traits of the cold-seep symbiotic mussel Idas modiolaeformis: gametogenesis and larval biology. Biol Bull. 2012;222:6-16 pubmed
    ..Diameters of the two larval shells are in the range of sizes reported for mytilids, with a PII size between that of the shallow Mytilus edulis and that of the cold-seep mussel "Bathymodiolus" childressi...
  66. Margulis L. Archaeal-eubacterial mergers in the origin of Eukarya: phylogenetic classification of life. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:1071-6 pubmed
    ..g., Thermoplasma-like organisms) and of Eubacteria (e.g., Spirochaeta-like organisms)...
  67. Paster B, Dewhirst F, Weisburg W, Tordoff L, Fraser G, Hespell R, et al. Phylogenetic analysis of the spirochetes. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:6101-9 pubmed
    The 16S rRNA sequences were determined for species of Spirochaeta, Treponema, Borrelia, Leptospira, Leptonema, and Serpula, using a modified Sanger method of direct RNA sequencing...
  68. Li C, Motaleb A, Sal M, Goldstein S, Charon N. Spirochete periplasmic flagella and motility. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2000;2:345-54 pubmed
    ..Future studies on spirochete motility should be exciting, as only recently have complete genome sequences and tools for allelic exchange mutagenesis become available...
  69. Matsuyama T, Yasuike M, Fujiwara A, Nakamura Y, Takano T, Takeuchi T, et al. A Spirochaete is suggested as the causative agent of Akoya oyster disease by metagenomic analysis. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182280 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose 'Candidatus Maribrachyspira akoyae' gen. nov, sp nov., for this bacterium. ..
  70. Brahamsha B, Han C, Crawford I, Greenberg E. Nucleotide sequence and analysis of a gene encoding anthranilate synthase component I in Spirochaeta aurantia. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:541-8 pubmed
    A Spirochaeta aurantia DNA fragment containing the trpE gene and flanking chromosomal DNA was cloned, and the sequence of the trpE structural gene plus 870 bp upstream and 1,257 bp downstream of trpE was determined. The S...
  71. Fellström C, Gunnarsson A. Phenotypical characterisation of intestinal spirochaetes isolated from pigs. Res Vet Sci. 1995;59:1-4 pubmed
    ..There was a statistical relationship between pigs with diarrhoea and the isolation of group IV spirochaetes but no relationship with group III spirochaetes...
  72. Hookey J, Bryden J, Gatehouse L. The use of 16S rDNA sequence analysis to investigate the phylogeny of Leptospiraceae and related spirochaetes. J Gen Microbiol. 1993;139:2585-90 pubmed
    ..noguchii and L. meyeri. The saprophytic species, L. wolbachii and L. biflexa sensu stricto shared about 99% sequence similarity. The freshwater isolates were distinct from the marine isolate L. biflexa sensu lato ancona Ancona Porto...
  73. Parales J, Greenberg E. N-terminal amino acid sequences and amino acid compositions of the Spirochaeta aurantia flagellar filament polypeptides. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:1357-9 pubmed
    ..and amino acid compositions of the three major and two minor polypeptides constituting the filaments of Spirochaeta aurantia periplasmic flagella were determined. The amino-terminal sequence of the major 37...
  74. Paster B, Dewhirst F. Phylogenetic foundation of spirochetes. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2000;2:341-4 pubmed
    ..The first family Spirochaetaceae contains species of the genera Borrelia, Brevinema, Cristispira, Spirochaeta, Spironema, and Treponema. The second family Brachyspiraceae contains the genus Brachyspira (Serpulina)...
  75. Abe Y, Adachi Y. A possibility of application of the 105-kilodaltons protein of Brachyspira alvinipulli cross-reacting with antisera to five species in the genus Brachyspira to diagnosis. J Vet Med Sci. 2004;66:773-8 pubmed
    ..alvinipulli ATCC 51933 was Met-Lys-Lys-Met-Val-Tyr-Phe-Phe-Gly-Asn. The amino acid alignment of this protein possessed 50% homology with the periplasmic-iron-binding protein BitC in B. hyodysenteriae...
  76. Thom F, Taylor D. 16 kDa envelope proteins in non-Serpulina hyodysenteriae spirochaetes isolated from pigs. Vet Rec. 1993;133:237-9 pubmed
    ..It was concluded that there may be a family of 16 kDa proteins located on the envelope of various spirochaetes responsible for diarrhoea in pigs...
  77. Woese C, Olsen G, Ibba M, Soll D. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, the genetic code, and the evolutionary process. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2000;64:202-36 pubmed
  78. Glávits R, Ivanics E, Thuma A, Kaszanyitzky E, Samu P, Ursu K, et al. Typhlocolitis associated with spirochaetes in duck flocks. Avian Pathol. 2011;40:23-31 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report on the isolation of B. hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli from laying ducks affected by fibrinonecrotic typhlocolitis...