borrelia burgdorferi group

Summary

Summary: Gram-negative helical bacteria, in the genus BORRELIA, that are the etiologic agents of LYME DISEASE. The group comprises many specific species including Borrelia afzelii, Borellia garinii, and BORRELIA BURGDORFERI proper. These spirochetes are generally transmitted by several species of ixodid ticks.

Top Publications

  1. Vennestrøm J, Egholm H, Jensen P. Occurrence of multiple infections with different Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies in Danish Ixodes ricinus nymphs. Parasitol Int. 2008;57:32-7 pubmed
    ..1% (4/56) with three, and 5.3% (3/56) with four. We try to explain the high infection rate and the peculiar number of multiple infections, with a discussion of changes host abundance and occurrence of different transmission patterns...
  2. Richter D, Debski A, Hubalek Z, Matuschka F. Absence of Lyme disease spirochetes in larval Ixodes ricinus ticks. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2012;12:21-7 pubmed publisher
    ..No undisputable proof exists for vertical transmission of Lyme disease spirochetes, whereas B. miyamotoi appears to be readily passed between generations of vector ticks...
  3. Rauter C, Hartung T. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Europe: a metaanalysis. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71:7203-16 pubmed
    ..afzelii and B. garinii are the most common Borrelia species, but the distribution of genospecies seems to vary in different regions in Europe. The most frequent coinfection by Borrelia species was found for B. garinii and B. valaisiana...
  4. Kampen H, Rötzel D, Kurtenbach K, Maier W, Seitz H. Substantial rise in the prevalence of Lyme borreliosis spirochetes in a region of western Germany over a 10-year period. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004;70:1576-82 pubmed
    ..We conclude that B. burgdorferi sensu lato infection has increased in this region over the last 15 years due to presently unknown changes in ecological conditions, perhaps related to climate change or wildlife management...
  5. Yang X, Nguyen A, Qiu D, Luft B. In vitro activity of tigecycline against multiple strains of Borrelia burgdorferi. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2009;63:709-12 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare the antimicrobial activity of tigecycline and doxycycline against multiple isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi...
  6. Juricová Z, Hubalek Z. Serologic survey of the wild boar (Sus scrofa) for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2009;9:479-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The study also reviews the importance of wild boar in Lyme borreliosis (LB) ecology. Wild boar serology may provide another means of surveillance of endemic areas of LB...
  7. Feder H, Johnson B, O Connell S, Shapiro E, Steere A, Wormser G, et al. A critical appraisal of "chronic Lyme disease". N Engl J Med. 2007;357:1422-30 pubmed
  8. Richter D, Matuschka F. Modulatory effect of cattle on risk for lyme disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:1919-23 pubmed
    ..The presence of cattle limited the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., but not B. miyamotoi, in vector ticks. The reintroduction of traditional, nonintensive agriculture in central Europe may help reduce risk for Lyme disease...
  9. Lorusso V, Lia R, Dantas Torres F, Mallia E, Ravagnan S, Capelli G, et al. Ixodid ticks of road-killed wildlife species in southern Italy: new tick-host associations and locality records. Exp Appl Acarol. 2011;55:293-300 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, from a conservation perspective, it would be interesting to assess whether these wild animals (e.g., Lepus corsicanus) are exposed to tick-borne pathogens, investigating the possible implications for their health and behavior...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Perez D, Kneubühler Y, Rais O, Jouda F, Gern L. Borrelia afzelii ospC genotype diversity in Ixodes ricinus questing ticks and ticks from rodents in two Lyme borreliosis endemic areas: contribution of co-feeding ticks. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2011;2:137-42 pubmed publisher
    ..17 for PR and 1 for SW). We suggest that co-feeding transmission of Borrelia, previously described in laboratory models, contributes in nature in promoting and maintaining ospC diversity within local tick populations...
  2. Stanczak J, Gabre R, Kruminis Łozowska W, Racewicz M, Kubica Biernat B. Ixodes ricinus as a vector of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti in urban and suburban forests. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2004;11:109-14 pubmed
    ..3 %). Among adult ticks (n = 303), 8.3 % were dually infected with A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l., 2.0 % with the agent of human anaplasmosis and B. microti and 0.3 % with borreliae and B. microti...
  3. Comstedt P, Asokliene L, Eliasson I, Olsen B, Wallensten A, Bunikis J, et al. Complex population structure of Lyme borreliosis group spirochete Borrelia garinii in subarctic Eurasia. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5841 pubmed publisher
  4. Wallich R, Pattathu J, Kitiratschky V, Brenner C, Zipfel P, Brade V, et al. Identification and functional characterization of complement regulator-acquiring surface protein 1 of the Lyme disease spirochetes Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii. Infect Immun. 2005;73:2351-9 pubmed
  5. Zygner W, Jaros S, Wedrychowicz H. Prevalence of Babesia canis, Borrelia afzelii, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in hard ticks removed from dogs in Warsaw (central Poland). Vet Parasitol. 2008;153:139-42 pubmed publisher
    ..This work is the first detection of B. afzelii and A. phagocytophilum in ticks from Warsaw, and the first survey for the prevalence of B. canis, B. afzelii, and A. phagocytophilum in ticks in central Poland...
  6. Popov V, Korenberg E, Nefedova V, Han V, Wen J, Kovalevskii Y, et al. Ultrastructural evidence of the ehrlichial developmental cycle in naturally infected Ixodes persulcatus ticks in the course of coinfection with Rickettsia, Borrelia, and a flavivirus. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2007;7:699-716 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first demonstration of E. muris, "R. tarasevichiae," and the ehrlichial developmental cycle in naturally infected I. persulcatus sticks...
  7. Dietrich F, Schmidgen T, Maggi R, Richter D, Matuschka F, Vonthein R, et al. Prevalence of Bartonella henselae and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato DNA in ixodes ricinus ticks in Europe. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76:1395-8 pubmed publisher
    ..No tick was found to be coinfected with B. henselae and B. burgdorferi sensu lato. Taken together, our data indicate that ticks might serve as a vector for the transmission of B. henselae to humans...
  8. Zhang F, Gong Z, Zhang J, Liu Z. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in rodents from Gansu, northwestern China. BMC Microbiol. 2010;10:157 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, a molecular epidemiological survey was conducted to investigate the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in rodents from Gansu Province for the first time...
  9. Burri C, Moran Cadenas F, Douet V, Moret J, Gern L. Ixodes ricinus density and infection prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato along a North-facing altitudinal gradient in the Rhône Valley (Switzerland). Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2007;7:50-8 pubmed
    ..Four B. burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies were detected: B. afzelii (40%), B. garinii (22%), B. valaisiana (12%) and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (6%). Mixed infections were detected in 13% of infected ticks...
  10. Stanek G, Reiter M. The expanding Lyme Borrelia complex--clinical significance of genomic species?. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2011;17:487-93 pubmed publisher
    ..spielmanii has been detected in early skin disease, and B. bissettii and B. valaisiana have been detected in specimens from single cases of Lyme borreliosis. The clinical role of B. lusitaniae remains to be substantiated...
  11. de Carvalho I, Zeidner N, Ullmann A, Hojgaard A, Amaro F, Zé Zé L, et al. Molecular characterization of a new isolate of Borrelia lusitaniae derived from Apodemus sylvaticus in Portugal. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2010;10:531-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The single strain of spirochete isolated was confirmed as Borrelia lusitaniae by genetic analyses. This is the first report of B. lusitaniae isolated from Apodemus sylvaticus...
  12. Rogers E, Marconi R. Delineation of species-specific binding properties of the CspZ protein (BBH06) of Lyme disease spirochetes: evidence for new contributions to the pathogenesis of Borrelia spp. Infect Immun. 2007;75:5272-81 pubmed
  13. Casjens S, Fraser Liggett C, Mongodin E, Qiu W, Dunn J, Luft B, et al. Whole genome sequence of an unusual Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolate. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:1489-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that this isolate should be named "Borrelia finlandensis."..
  14. Pichon B, Rogers M, Egan D, Gray J. Blood-meal analysis for the identification of reservoir hosts of tick-borne pathogens in Ireland. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2005;5:172-80 pubmed
    ..burgdorferi s.l. host specificity...
  15. Schuijt T, Hovius J, van Burgel N, Ramamoorthi N, Fikrig E, van Dam A. The tick salivary protein Salp15 inhibits the killing of serum-sensitive Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates. Infect Immun. 2008;76:2888-94 pubmed publisher
    ..In the presence of normal human serum, serum-sensitive Borrelia burgdorferi requires protection against complement-mediated killing, which is provided, at least in part, by the binding to the tick salivary protein Salp15...
  16. Moran Cadenas F, Rais O, Humair P, Douet V, Moret J, Gern L. Identification of host bloodmeal source and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in field-collected Ixodes ricinus ticks in Chaumont (Switzerland). J Med Entomol. 2007;44:1109-17 pubmed
    ..afzelii and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto with rodents, and B. valaisiana and B. garinii with birds...
  17. Ivacic L, Reed K, Mitchell P, Ghebranious N. A LightCycler TaqMan assay for detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in clinical samples. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2007;57:137-43 pubmed
    ..The developed assay is robust, is highly sensitive and specific for B. burgdorferi sensu lato, and is suitable for clinical detection of the bacterium in biologic samples...
  18. Glockner G, Lehmann R, Romualdi A, Pradella S, Schulte Spechtel U, Schilhabel M, et al. Comparative analysis of the Borrelia garinii genome. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:6038-46 pubmed
    ..garinii genome. Thus, phenotypic differences between the two species could be attributable to the presence or absence of these two plasmids as well as to the potentially positively selected genes...
  19. Sjöwall J, Carlsson A, Vaarala O, Bergstrom S, Ernerudh J, Forsberg P, et al. Innate immune responses in Lyme borreliosis: enhanced tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-12 in asymptomatic individuals in response to live spirochetes. Clin Exp Immunol. 2005;141:89-98 pubmed
    ..These results are in line with previous experiments using cells of the adaptive immune response, indicating that strong T helper type 1 (Th1) proinflammatory responses might be associated with a successful resolution of Lyme disease...
  20. Sinski E, Pawełczyk A, Bajer A, Behnke J. Abundance of wild rodents, ticks and environmental risk of Lyme borreliosis: a longitudinal study in an area of Mazury Lakes district of Poland. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2006;13:295-300 pubmed
    ..It follows, therefore, that any factor which reduces the relative density of A. flavicollis in comparison to other hosts in the wild rodent community, will reduce also the risk of human exposure to Lyme borreliosis spirochetes...
  21. Skuballa J, Petney T, Pfäffle M, Oehme R, Hartelt K, Fingerle V, et al. Occurrence of different Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies including B. afzelii, B. bavariensis, and B. spielmanii in hedgehogs (Erinaceus spp.) in Europe. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2012;3:8-13 pubmed publisher
    ..burgdorferi s.l. genospecies in various habitats. We hypothesise that juvenile or individuals with low immune competence in particular, have a high reservoir potential for the 3 genospecies identified here...
  22. Kurtenbach K, Hanincová K, Tsao J, Margos G, Fish D, Ogden N. Fundamental processes in the evolutionary ecology of Lyme borreliosis. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2006;4:660-9 pubmed
    ..burgdorferi s.l. populations. Additionally, we highlight possible epidemiological parallels between B. burgdorferi s.l. and other vector-borne zoonotic pathogens, including West Nile virus...
  23. Masuzawa T. Terrestrial distribution of the Lyme borreliosis agent Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in East Asia. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2004;57:229-35 pubmed
    ..It is believed that these molecular epidemiological surveys will provide useful information for the diagnoses and prevention of Lyme borreliosis in these countries...
  24. Hartemink N, Randolph S, Davis S, Heesterbeek J. The basic reproduction number for complex disease systems: defining R(0) for tick-borne infections. Am Nat. 2008;171:743-54 pubmed publisher
    ..This provides further support that transmission between cofeeding ticks is critically important for the establishment of tick-borne encephalitis...
  25. Hao Q, Hou X, Geng Z, Wan K. Distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in China. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:647-50 pubmed publisher
    ..All Borrelia valaisiana strains were isolated from Guizhou Province. Additionally, one B. burgdorferi strain was isolated from Hunan Province. Our results show the diversity and wide distribution of B. burgdorferi sensu lato in China...
  26. Schutzer S, Fraser Liggett C, Qiu W, Kraiczy P, Mongodin E, Dunn J, et al. Whole-genome sequences of Borrelia bissettii, Borrelia valaisiana, and Borrelia spielmanii. J Bacteriol. 2012;194:545-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, Borrelia valaisiana, Borrelia spielmanii, and Borrelia bissettii have been associated with Lyme disease. We report the complete genome sequences of B. valaisiana VS116, B. spielmanii A14S, and B. bissettii DN127...
  27. Marsot M, Sigaud M, Chapuis J, Ferquel E, Cornet M, Vourc h G. Introduced Siberian chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus barberi) harbor more-diverse Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies than native bank voles (Myodes glareolus). Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:5716-21 pubmed publisher
    ..afzelii. If chipmunks are competent reservoir hosts for B. burgdorferi sensu lato, they may spill back B. burgdorferi sensu lato to native communities and eventually may increase the risk of Lyme disease transmission to humans...
  28. Jenkins A, Hvidsten D, Matussek A, Lindgren P, Stuen S, Kristiansen B. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks from Norway: evaluation of a PCR test targeting the chromosomal flaB gene. Exp Appl Acarol. 2012;58:431-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The flaB test is a rapid, sensitive and specific test for detection and quantification of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in I. ricinus ticks. This is the first report on Borrelia prevalence in I. ricinus in Northern Norway...
  29. Richter D, Klug B, Spielman A, Matuschka F. Adaptation of diverse lyme disease spirochetes in a natural rodent reservoir host. Infect Immun. 2004;72:2442-4 pubmed
    ..Borrelia afzelii, specializing in particular reservoir hosts, is better adapted to those hosts than is the more generalist genospecies B. burgdorferi sensu stricto...
  30. Ranka R, Bormane A, Salmina K, Baumanis V. Identification of three clinically relevant Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 16S-23S ribosomal DNA spacer amplicons. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:1444-9 pubmed
    ..burgdorferi species and subspecies with various degrees of pathogenic potential directly in ticks. These features are important in monitoring Lyme disease...
  31. Majlathova V, Majláth I, Derdakova M, Vichova B, Pet Ko B. Borrelia lusitaniae and green lizards (Lacerta viridis), Karst Region, Slovakia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:1895-901 pubmed
    ..garinii was the dominant species, and B. lusitaniae represented 11.1%. The presence of B. lusitaniae in skin biopsy specimens and in ticks that had fed on green lizards implicates this species in the transmission cycle of B. lusitaniae...
  32. Schwarz A, Honig V, Vavrušková Z, Grubhoffer L, Balczun C, Albring A, et al. Abundance of Ixodes ricinus and prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in the nature reserve Siebengebirge, Germany, in comparison to three former studies from 1978 onwards. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:268 pubmed publisher
    ..Data from all investigations were compared...
  33. Margos G, Vollmer S, Cornet M, Garnier M, Fingerle V, Wilske B, et al. A new Borrelia species defined by multilocus sequence analysis of housekeeping genes. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:5410-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that OspA serotype 4 strains be raised to species status and named Borrelia bavariensis sp. nov. The rooted phylogenetic trees provide novel insights into the evolutionary history of LB spirochetes...
  34. Vourc h G, Marmet J, Chassagne M, Bord S, Chapuis J. Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato in Siberian chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus) introduced in suburban forests in France. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2007;7:637-41 pubmed
    ..3%) and predominantly of B. afzelii. The infection prevalence was 14.1% in bank voles, but no wood mouse was found to be infected. Our results suggest that the Siberian chipmunk may be an important reservoir host for LB...
  35. Rudenko N, Golovchenko M, Lin T, Gao L, Grubhoffer L, Oliver J. Delineation of a new species of the Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Complex, Borrelia americana sp. nov. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:3875-80 pubmed publisher
    ..nov. The currently recognized geographic distribution of B. americana is South Carolina and California. All strains are associated with Ixodes pacificus or Ixodes minor and their rodent and bird hosts...
  36. Bunikis J, Garpmo U, Tsao J, Berglund J, Fish D, Barbour A. Sequence typing reveals extensive strain diversity of the Lyme borreliosis agents Borrelia burgdorferi in North America and Borrelia afzelii in Europe. Microbiology. 2004;150:1741-55 pubmed
    ..burgdorferi. It is concluded that B. burgdorferi and B. afzelii have greater genetic diversity than had previously been estimated, and that the IGS locus alone is sufficient for strain typing and phylogenetic studies...
  37. Grzeszczuk A, Stanczak J, Kubica Biernat B, Racewicz M, Kruminis Łozowska W, Prokopowicz D. Human anaplasmosis in north-eastern Poland: seroprevalence in humans and prevalence in Ixodes ricinus ticks. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2004;11:99-103 pubmed
    ..05). The obtained results confirm both the occurrence of HA foci in north-eastern Poland with I. ricinus as the principal vector of the A. phagocytophilum infection, and forestry workers as the main group at risk...
  38. Dsouli N, Younsi Kabachii H, Postic D, Nouira S, Gern L, Bouattour A. Reservoir role of lizard Psammodromus algirus in transmission cycle of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Spirochaetaceae) in Tunisia. J Med Entomol. 2006;43:737-42 pubmed
    ..algirus. Therefore, we demonstrated the ability of the lizards to sustain Borrelia infection and to infect attached ticks, and we proved that P. algirus is a reservoir host competent to transmit B. lusitaniae...
  39. Richter D, Postic D, Sertour N, Livey I, Matuschka F, Baranton G. Delineation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species by multilocus sequence analysis and confirmation of the delineation of Borrelia spielmanii sp. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2006;56:873-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analysis confirmed the delineation of a novel species, Borrelia spielmanii sp. nov., previously known as 'Borrelia spielmani' Richter et al. 2004, with strain PC-Eq17N5T (=DSM 16813T = CIP 108855T) as the type strain...
  40. Gern L, Douet V, López Z, Rais O, Cadenas F. Diversity of Borrelia genospecies in Ixodes ricinus ticks in a Lyme borreliosis endemic area in Switzerland identified by using new probes for reverse line blotting. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2010;1:23-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Mixed infection with RFL spirochaetes and Lyme borreliosis spirochaetes were detected in 4 ticks. In addition, the set of probes could identify the recently described species, B. bavariensis...
  41. Reye A, Stegniy V, Mishaeva N, Velhin S, Hübschen J, Ignatyev G, et al. Prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks from different geographical locations in Belarus. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e54476 pubmed publisher
    ..Identified hotspots of infected ticks should be included in future surveillance studies, especially when F. tularensis ssp. and C. burnetii are involved...
  42. Casjens S, Mongodin E, Qiu W, Dunn J, Luft B, Fraser Liggett C, et al. Whole-genome sequences of two Borrelia afzelii and two Borrelia garinii Lyme disease agent isolates. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:6995-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here the whole-genome sequences of four isolates from two of the Borrelia species that cause human Lyme disease, B. afzelii isolates ACA-1 and PKo and B. garinii isolates PBr and Far04...
  43. Masuzawa T, Kharitonenkov I, Kadosaka T, Hashimoto N, Kudeken M, Takada N, et al. Characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolated in Moscow province--a sympatric region for Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes persulcatus. Int J Med Microbiol. 2005;294:455-64 pubmed
    ..garinii type NT29 was found. In contrast, isolates from I. persulcatus were identified as both types 20047 and NT29 of B. garinii, and B. afzelii. No B. burgdorferi s.s. isolate was found among isolates from I. persulcatus...
  44. Margos G, Vollmer S, Ogden N, Fish D. Population genetics, taxonomy, phylogeny and evolution of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Infect Genet Evol. 2011;11:1545-63 pubmed publisher
  45. Marie Angèle P, Lommano E, Humair P, Douet V, Rais O, Schaad M, et al. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in ticks collected from migratory birds in Switzerland. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:976-9 pubmed
    ..Among birds infested by infected ticks, 23% (6/26) were infested by B. lusitaniae-infected larvae. Migratory birds appear to be reservoir hosts for B. lusitaniae...
  46. Smith R, Muzaffar S, Lavers J, Lacombe E, Cahill B, Lubelczyk C, et al. Borrelia garinii in seabird ticks (Ixodes uriae), Atlantic Coast, North America. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:1909-12 pubmed
    ..garinii rrs-rrla intergenic spacer were sequenced and matched to GenBank sequences for B. garinii. The potential for introduction of this agent into the North American Lyme disease enzootic is unknown...
  47. Chu C, Liu W, Jiang B, Wang D, Jiang W, Zhao Q, et al. Novel genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from rodents and ticks in southwestern China. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:3130-3 pubmed publisher
    ..burgdorferi sensu lato rather than B. valaisiana. The finding explained the differences in transmission cycle and phenotype between B. valaisiana strains from Europe and B. valaisiana-related strains from eastern Asia...
  48. Rar V, Fomenko N, Dobrotvorsky A, Livanova N, Rudakova S, Fedorov E, et al. Tickborne pathogen detection, Western Siberia, Russia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:1708-15 pubmed
    ..persulcatus, whereas B. garinii NT29 DNA was seen in samples from D. reticulatus. Among the I. persulcatus ticks studied, no Babesia spp. were observed, whereas B. canis canis was the single subspecies found in D. reticulatus...
  49. Postic D, Garnier M, Baranton G. Multilocus sequence analysis of atypical Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates--description of Borrelia californiensis sp. nov., and genomospecies 1 and 2. Int J Med Microbiol. 2007;297:263-71 pubmed
    ..burgdorferi s.l. species. In contrast, European atypical strains constituted a subgroup of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.)...
  50. Kenedy M, Lenhart T, Akins D. The role of Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface proteins. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2012;66:1-19 pubmed publisher
    ..burgdorferi to date and provides detailed insight into the functions of many of these proteins as they relate to the unique parasitic strategy of this spirochetal pathogen...
  51. Fingerle V, Schulte Spechtel U, Ruzic Sabljic E, Leonhard S, Hofmann H, Weber K, et al. Epidemiological aspects and molecular characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. from southern Germany with special respect to the new species Borrelia spielmanii sp. nov. Int J Med Microbiol. 2008;298:279-90 pubmed
    ..This genetic heterogeneity reveals that B. spielmanii sp. nov. did not evolve just recently...
  52. Tijsse Klasen E, Pandak N, Hengeveld P, Takumi K, Koopmans M, Sprong H. Ability to cause erythema migrans differs between Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates. Parasit Vectors. 2013;6:23 pubmed publisher
    ..The variety of characteristic and non-specific clinical manifestations is partially explained by its genetic diversity. We investigated the ability of B. burgdorferi sl isolates to cause erythema migrans...
  53. Rudenko N, Golovchenko M, Grubhoffer L, Oliver J. Borrelia carolinensis sp. nov., a new (14th) member of the Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato complex from the southeastern region of the United States. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:134-41 pubmed publisher
    ..burgdorferi sensu lato species. We propose to name this genospecies "Borrelia carolinensis" with respect to the place of its currently known geographic location...