spirochaetaceae

Summary

Summary: A family of spiral bacteria of the order SPIROCHAETALES.

Top Publications

  1. Troshina O, Oshurkova V, Suzina N, Machulin A, Ariskina E, Vinokurova N, et al. Sphaerochaeta associata sp. nov., a spherical spirochaete isolated from cultures of Methanosarcina mazei JL01. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2015;65:4315-22 pubmed publisher
    ..rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain GLS2T was shown to belong to the genus Sphaerochaeta within the family Spirochaetaceae. Its closest relatives were Sphaerochaeta globosa BuddyT (99...
  2. Pan M, Wan C, Xie Q, Huang R, Tao X, Shah N, et al. Changes in gastric microbiota induced by Helicobacter pylori infection and preventive effects of Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013 against such infection. J Dairy Sci. 2016;99:970-981 pubmed publisher
    ..g., Pasteurellaceae, Erysipelotrichaceae, Halomonadaceae, Helicobacteraceae, and Spirochaetaceae) that overgrew in the gastric microbiota of H...
  3. Deng Y, Huang Z, Ruan W, Miao H, Shi W, Zhao M. Enriching ruminal polysaccharide-degrading consortia via co-inoculation with methanogenic sludge and microbial mechanisms of acidification across lignocellulose loading gradients. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2018;102:3819-3830 pubmed publisher
    ..The acidogen members were mainly Spirochaetaceae and Clostridiales...
  4. Hutchinson M, Strohecker M, Simmons T, Kyle A, Helwig M. Prevalence Rates of Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), and Babesia microti (Piroplasmida: Babesiidae) in Host-Seeking Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) from Pennsylvan. J Med Entomol. 2015;52:693-8 pubmed publisher
    ..5%) and one tick positive for A. phagocytophilum+Ba. microti. Infection rates for B. burgdorferi were lower in the western region of the state. Our findings substantiate that Lyme disease risk is high throughout Pennsylvania. ..
  5. Li F, Guan L. Metatranscriptomic Profiling Reveals Linkages between the Active Rumen Microbiome and Feed Efficiency in Beef Cattle. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2017;83: pubmed publisher
    ..i>Prevotellaceae, Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Veillonellaceae, Spirochaetaceae, Dethiosulfovibrionaceae, and Mogibacteriaceae), four archaeal clades (..
  6. Tang M, Han H, Yu Z, Tsuruta T, Nishino N. Variability, stability, and resilience of fecal microbiota in dairy cows fed whole crop corn silage. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2017;101:6355-6364 pubmed publisher
    ..Succinivibrionaceae, Prevotellaceae, p-2534-18B5, and Spirochaetaceae were regarded as highly variable taxa in this study...
  7. Meyer D, de Andrade P, Durrer A, Andreote F, Corção G, Brandelli A. Bacterial communities involved in sulfur transformations in wastewater treatment plants. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2016;100:10125-10135 pubmed
    ..For SOB, the most abundant families were Spirochaetaceae, Chromatiaceae, Helicobacteriaceae, Rhodospirillaceae, and Neisseriaceae, whereas, for SRB, were ..
  8. Neelakanta G, Sultana H, Sonenshine D, Marconi R. An In Vitro Blood-Feeding Method Revealed Differential Borrelia turicatae (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae) Gene Expression After Spirochete Acquisition and Colonization in the Soft Tick Ornithodoros turicata (Acari: Argasidae). J Med Entomol. 2017;54:441-449 pubmed publisher
    ..We also report that B. turicatae genes are differentially expressed in ticks in comparison with the in vitro-grown cultures, indicating influence of tick environment on spirochete gene expression. ..
  9. Palomar A, Portillo A, Santibáñez P, Mazuelas D, Roncero L, Gutierrez O, et al. Presence of Borrelia turdi and Borrelia valaisiana (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae) in Ticks Removed From Birds in the North of Spain, 2009-2011. J Med Entomol. 2017;54:243-246 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the detection of B. turdi and B. valaisiana in H. punctata and I. frontalis ticks, respectively, is reported for the first time. ..

More Information

Publications66

  1. Li Y, Wu B, Zhu G, Liu Y, Ng W, Appan A, et al. High-throughput pyrosequencing analysis of bacteria relevant to cometabolic and metabolic degradation of ibuprofen in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands. Sci Total Environ. 2016;562:604-613 pubmed publisher
    ..Flavobacteriaceae, family Methylococcaceae and genus Methylocystis, and the anaerobic species of family Spirochaetaceae and genus Clostridium_sensu_stricto were the most possible bacteria relevant to the cometabolic degradation ..
  2. Williams S, Linske M, Ward J. Long-Term Effects of Berberis thunbergii (Ranunculales: Berberidaceae) Management on Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) Abundance and Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae) Prevalence in Connecticut, USA. Environ Entomol. 2017;46:1329-1338 pubmed publisher
    ..prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi (Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt, and Brenner; Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae), the etiologic agent of Lyme disease. At six locations across Connecticut, adult I...
  3. Bocs S, Danchin A, Medigue C. Re-annotation of genome microbial coding-sequences: finding new genes and inaccurately annotated genes. BMC Bioinformatics. 2002;3:5 pubmed
    ..Thus, detection of translation initiation sites and/or selection of the correct coding regions remain difficult unless appropriate biological knowledge (about the structure of a gene) is imbedded in the approach...
  4. Charon N, Greenberg E, Koopman M, Limberger R. Spirochete chemotaxis, motility, and the structure of the spirochetal periplasmic flagella. Res Microbiol. 1992;143:597-603 pubmed
    ..The product of this gene shows significant similarity to the E. coli hook protein, FlgE, and homologs have been identified in T. pallidum and B. burgdorferi.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  5. Lilburn T, Kim K, Ostrom N, Byzek K, Leadbetter J, Breznak J. Nitrogen fixation by symbiotic and free-living spirochetes. Science. 2001;292:2495-8 pubmed
    ..These results also proffer spirochetes as a likely origin of certain nifHs observed in termite guts and other environments that were not previously attributable to known microbes...
  6. Atyeo R, Stanton T, Jensen N, Suriyaarachichi D, Hampson D. Differentiation of Serpulina species by NADH oxidase gene (nox) sequence comparisons and nox-based polymerase chain reaction tests. Vet Microbiol. 1999;67:47-60 pubmed
    ..pilosicoli strains, even at low stringency. Tests NOX1 and NOX4 should prove useful in veterinary diagnostic laboratories, whilst NOX2 and NOX3 require further refinement...
  7. Dollhopf S, Hashsham S, Dazzo F, Hickey R, Criddle C, Tiedje J. The impact of fermentative organisms on carbon flow in methanogenic systems under constant low-substrate conditions. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2001;56:531-8 pubmed
    ..50% of the cloned SSU rRNA genes and the most common SSU rDNA terminal restriction fragment corresponded to Spirochaetaceae-related sequences, while in the latter bioreactor over 50% of the cloned SSU rRNA genes and the most common ..
  8. Mikosza A, La T, Brooke C, Lindboe C, Ward P, Heine R, et al. PCR amplification from fixed tissue indicates frequent involvement of Brachyspira aalborgi in human intestinal spirochetosis. J Clin Microbiol. 1999;37:2093-8 pubmed
    ..Direct sequencing of products from three of the positive samples provided further confirmation of the presence of B. aalborgi. B. aalborgi may be a more common cause of intestinal spirochetosis than has been previously thought...
  9. Jergens A, Dorn A, Wilson J, Dingbaum K, Henderson A, Liu Z, et al. Induction of differential immune reactivity to members of the flora of gnotobiotic mice following colonization with Helicobacter bilis or Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. Microbes Infect. 2006;8:1602-10 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that microbial perturbation may induce differential immune responses to nonpathogenic resident bacteria that can lead to intestinal inflammation...
  10. Park N, Chung C, McLaren A, Atyeo R, Hampson D. Polymerase chain reaction for identification of human and porcine spirochaetes recovered from cases of intestinal spirochaetosis. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1995;125:225-9 pubmed
    ..coli' cells, with a detection limit equivalent to 2.5 x 10(2) cells. The reaction was used to detect and identify these spirochaetes from selective agar plates inoculated with stool specimens from infected pigs...
  11. Subhash Y, Lee S. Description of Oceanispirochaeta sediminicola gen. nov., sp. nov., an obligately anaerobic bacterium isolated from coastal marine sediments, and reclassification of Spirochaeta litoralis as Oceanispirochaeta litoralis comb. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2017;67:3403-3409 pubmed publisher
    ..5?mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons indicated that strain SY2T represents a member of the family Spirochaetaceae in the phylum Spirochaetes. Strain SY2T has a sequence similarity of 95...
  12. Cizek A, Lobová D. [Human intestinal spirochetosis]. Klin Mikrobiol Infekc Lek. 2004;10:61-7 pubmed
    ..A varying frequency of resistance was found with clindamycin and amoxicillin, which how ever was efficacious in combination with clavulanic acid...
  13. Uezato K, Kinjo E, Adachi Y. In vitro susceptibility of 21 antimicrobial agents to 37 isolates of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolated from pigs in Okinawa Prefecture. J Vet Med Sci. 2004;66:307-9 pubmed
    ..6 microg/ml. Penicillins, chloramphenicol, tetracyclines, terdecamycin and streptomycin were also active against the isolates. Most isolates were resistant to lincomycin, avilamycin and macrolides (with the exception of terdecamycin)...
  14. La T, Tan P, Phillips N, Hampson D. The distribution of bmpB, a gene encoding a 29.7 kDa lipoprotein with homology to MetQ, in Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and related species. Vet Microbiol. 2005;107:249-56 pubmed
    ..9-39.9% similarity with the d-methionine binding proteins (MetQ) of a number of pathogenic bacterial species. The bmpB gene was confirmed to be the same as a gene of B. hyodysenteriae that was recently designated "blpA"...
  15. Ohkuma M, Iida T, Kudo T. Phylogenetic relationships of symbiotic spirochetes in the gut of diverse termites. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1999;181:123-9 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that termites constitute a rich reservoir of novel spirochetal diversity and that evolution of the symbiosis is not simple...
  16. Penn C, Bassford P, Yelton D, Dunn J, Nelson D, Fukunaga M, et al. Genetic approaches to cell biology and metabolism of spirochetes. Res Microbiol. 1992;143:605-13 pubmed
    ..5) The gene organization of rRNA genes have revealed differences between spirochetes and other types of bacteria...
  17. Gassmann G, Deutzmann R, Vogt A, Gobel U. N-terminal amino acid sequence of the Borrelia burgdorferi flagellin. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1989;51:101-5 pubmed
    ..There was little similarity to other flagellins except the B. subtilis flagellar protein...
  18. Saito T, Ono E, Yanagawa R. Enzyme activities of the strains belonging to family Leptospiraceae detected by the API ZYM system. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg A. 1987;266:218-25 pubmed
    ..interrogans and serovar andamana of L. biflexa; the second group consisted of the remaining 5 serovars of L. biflexa; the third group consisted of the genus Leptonema; and the fourth group consisted of only L. parva...
  19. Cacciapuoti B, Ciceroni L, Barbini D. Fatty acid profiles in the family Leptospiraceae. Zentralbl Bakteriol. 1990;274:16-27 pubmed
    ..Inter-strain divergences of FAME profiles were quantified by linear regression analysis (LR). Step-wise divergences in FAME profiles were observed between strains at serogroup, species, and genus levels...
  20. Lee B, Hampson D. A monoclonal antibody reacting with the cell envelope of spirochaetes isolated from cases of intestinal spirochaetosis in pigs and humans. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1995;131:179-84 pubmed
    ..The mAb should prove to be a useful reagent for detection and identification of spirochaetes that are specifically associated with intestinal spirochaetosis...
  21. Baek G, Kim J, Shin S, Lee C. Bioaugmentation of anaerobic sludge digestion with iron-reducing bacteria: process and microbial responses to variations in hydraulic retention time. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2016;100:927-37 pubmed publisher
    ..putative iron-reducing bacteria (IRBs) was identified by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), with Spirochaetaceae- and Thauera-related organisms being dominant members, and clear dominance shifts among them with respect to ..
  22. Kraaz W, Pettersson B, Thunberg U, Engstrand L, Fellström C. Brachyspira aalborgi infection diagnosed by culture and 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing using human colonic biopsy specimens. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:3555-60 pubmed
    ..Electron microscopy showed spirochetes attached end-on to the colonic mucosal surface. The isolate grew poorly on a commonly used selective medium for intestinal spirochetes, which may explain previous failures to isolate B. aalborgi...
  23. Xie G, Chain P, Lo C, Liu K, Gans J, Merritt J, et al. Community and gene composition of a human dental plaque microbiota obtained by metagenomic sequencing. Mol Oral Microbiol. 2010;25:391-405 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, ~2.8% of the total predicted genes coded for proteins involved in resistance to antibiotics and toxic compounds, suggesting that the oral cavity is an important reservoir for antimicrobial resistance...
  24. Margulis L, Nault L, Sieburth J. Cristispira from oyster styles: complex morphology of large symbiotic spirochetes. Symbiosis. 1991;11:1-17 pubmed
    ..The ultrastructure of the spirillum and an electron micrograph of the third bacterium are shown...
  25. Jonasson R, Andersson M, Råsbäck T, Johannisson A, Jensen Waern M. Immunological alterations during the clinical and recovery phases of experimental swine dysentery. J Med Microbiol. 2006;55:845-55 pubmed
    ..Increased numbers of neutrophils, gammadelta T cells and specific antibodies were seen during the recovery period...
  26. Pławińska J, Jakubowski T, Rzewuska M, Binek M. Occurrence of Lawsonia Intracellularis and Brachyspira spp. infection in swine suffering from diarrhoea. Pol J Vet Sci. 2004;7:203-6 pubmed
    ..intracellularis and B. hyodysenteriae was observed. Results were comparable in herds that differed in quantity, breeding technology, hygienic standards and preventive treatment with different chemotherapeutics...
  27. Korner M, Gebbers J. Spirochaetes within the cysts of pneumatosis coli. Histopathology. 2004;45:199-200 pubmed
  28. Salmassi T, Leadbetter J. Analysis of genes of tetrahydrofolate-dependent metabolism from cultivated spirochaetes and the gut community of the termite Zootermopsis angusticollis. Microbiology. 2003;149:2529-37 pubmed
    ..The homoacetogenic capacity of termite-gut spirochaetes may have been acquired via lateral gene transfer from clostridia...
  29. Kent K, Sellwood R, Lemcke R, Burrows M, Lysons R. Analysis of the axial filaments of Treponema hyodysenteriae by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting. J Gen Microbiol. 1989;135:1625-32 pubmed
    ..Hence, the axial filaments of T. hyodysenteriae have been identified as major immunodominant antigens, although the role that antibodies to these antigens play in protection has yet to be established...
  30. Abe Y, Hirane A, Yoshizawa A, Nakajima H, Adachi Y. The specific antibody to Brachyspira aalborgi in serum obtained from a patient with intestinal spirochetosis. J Vet Med Sci. 2006;68:1089-91 pubmed
    ..aalborgi except for a 74 kDa band but were different from those of B. pilosicoli and B. hyodysenteriae. Therefore, we identified the Matsumoto isolates as B. aalborgi and diagnosed the patient with a B. aalborgi infection...
  31. Paster B, Dewhirst F, Cooke S, Fussing V, Poulsen L, Breznak J. Phylogeny of not-yet-cultured spirochetes from termite guts. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1996;62:347-52 pubmed
    ..The sequence data suggest that termite gut spirochetes may represent a separate line of descent from other treponemes and that they constitute a significant reservoir of previously unrecognized spirochetal biodiversity...
  32. Noda S, Ohkuma M, Yamada A, Hongoh Y, Kudo T. Phylogenetic position and in situ identification of ectosymbiotic spirochetes on protists in the termite gut. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003;69:625-33 pubmed
    ..Each single protist cell harbored multiple spirochete species, and some of the spirochetes were common among protist species. The results indicate complex relationships of the ectosymbiotic spirochetes with the gut protists...
  33. Garcia Monco J, Fernandez Villar B, Rogers R, Szczepanski A, Wheeler C, Benach J. Borrelia burgdorferi and other related spirochetes bind to galactocerebroside. Neurology. 1992;42:1341-8 pubmed
    ..Since B burgdorferi and other spirochetes cause neurologic disease, these results suggest a role for GalCer as a binding site in both the central and peripheral nervous systems...
  34. Collighan R, Woodward M. Spirochaetes and other bacterial species associated with bovine digital dermatitis. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1997;156:37-41 pubmed
    ..denticola. The significance of the presence of organisms in digital dermatitis lesions of the bovine foot which are closely related to oral pathogens is discussed...
  35. Brooke C, Margawani K, Pearson A, Riley T, Robertson I, Hampson D. Evaluation of blood culture systems for detection of the intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira (Serpulina) pilosicoli in human blood. J Med Microbiol. 2000;49:1031-6 pubmed
    ..Spirochaetaemias caused by B. pilosicoli may be unrecognised because detection time by the signal or subculture exceeds 5 days...
  36. Cattani P, Dettori G, Calderaro A, Grillo R, Fadda G, Chezzi C. Detection of extrachromosomal DNA in Italian isolates of weakly beta-haemolytic human intestinal spirochaetes. New Microbiol. 1998;21:241-8 pubmed
    ..To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the detection of extrachromosomal DNA from w beta HIS...
  37. Choi B, Wyss C, Gobel U. Phylogenetic analysis of pathogen-related oral spirochetes. J Clin Microbiol. 1996;34:1922-5 pubmed
    ..We therefore conclude that pathogen-related oral spirochetes constitute a heterogeneous population of treponemes comprising T. vincentii and T. vincentii-related organisms that have common epitopes cross-reacting with MAb H9-2...
  38. Leadbetter J, Schmidt T, Graber J, Breznak J. Acetogenesis from H2 plus CO2 by spirochetes from termite guts. Science. 1999;283:686-9 pubmed
  39. Calderaro A, Dettori G, Grillo R, Plaisant P, Amalfitano G, Chezzi C. Search for bacteriophages spontaneously occurring in cultures of haemolytic intestinal spirochaetes of human and animal origin. J Basic Microbiol. 1998;38:313-22 pubmed
    ..According to our results and previous published reports, the occurrence of bacteriophages which appear spontaneously in cultures of intestinal spirochaetes is a rare event...
  40. Lee J, Hampson D, Lymbery A, Harders S. The porcine intestinal spirochaetes: identification of new genetic groups. Vet Microbiol. 1993;34:273-85 pubmed
    ..We consider that group C represents a new genus of spirochaetes, members of which may be associated with spirochaetal diarrhoea...
  41. Råsbäck T, Jansson D, Johansson K, Fellström C. A novel enteropathogenic, strongly haemolytic spirochaete isolated from pig and mallard, provisionally designated 'Brachyspira suanatina' sp. nov. Environ Microbiol. 2007;9:983-91 pubmed
    ..We propose that this atypical spirochaete genotype should be regarded as a new species within the genus Brachyspira, and be provisionally designated 'Brachyspira suanatina' sp. nov...
  42. Shivani Y, Subhash Y, Sasikala C, Ramana C. Characterisation of a newly isolated member of a candidatus lineage, Marispirochaeta aestuarii gen. nov., sp. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2017;67:3929-3936 pubmed publisher
    ..16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons indicated that strain JC444T represents a member of the family Spirochaetaceae in the order Spirochaetales. Strain JC444T has a sequence similarity of 97...
  43. Brorson O, Brorson S, Henriksen T, Skogen P, Schøyen R. Association between multiple sclerosis and cystic structures in cerebrospinal fluid. Infection. 2001;29:315-9 pubmed
    ..The aim of the study was to search for infectious agents in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS)...
  44. Gutmann E. Syphilitic cervicitis simulating stage II cervical cancer. Report of two cases with cytologic findings. Am J Clin Pathol. 1995;104:643-7 pubmed
    ..When interpreting cervical biopsies and cervicovaginal smears, they should be alert to patterns that suggest that syphilis is present...
  45. Ohkuma M, Kudo T. Phylogenetic diversity of the intestinal bacterial community in the termite Reticulitermes speratus. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1996;62:461-8 pubmed
    ..The 16S rDNA gene sequence data show that the majority of the intestinal microflora of R. speratus consists of new, uncultured species previously unknown to microbiologists...
  46. Zeller J, Takeuchi A. Infection of the colon of the rhesus monkey by spiral-shaped organisms. Vet Pathol Suppl. 1982;19 Suppl 7:26-32 pubmed
    ..Spirochetes and flagellates infrequently penetrated beyond the brush border into the epithelial cytoplasm and also into the lamina propria. Even in cases where invasion was documented, no inflammatory response was found...
  47. Keen M, Stamm L, Bassford P. Susceptibility of Treponema pallidum and other selected spirochaetes to zidovudine. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1992;29:447-53 pubmed
  48. Ochiai S, Adachi Y, Mori K. Unification of the genera Serpulina and Brachyspira, and proposals of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae Comb. Nov., Brachyspira innocens Comb. Nov. and Brachyspira pilosicoli Comb. Nov. Microbiol Immunol. 1997;41:445-52 pubmed
    ..hyodysenteriae serum. Only one heavy band and several faint bands were revealed by the reaction between B. aalborgi and anti-B. hyodysenteriae serum, and the heavy band was common among these strains...
  49. Malnick H, Williams K, Phil Ebosie J, Levy A. Description of a medium for isolating Anaerobiospirillum spp., a possible cause of zoonotic disease, from diarrheal feces and blood of humans and use of the medium in a survey of human, canine, and feline feces. J Clin Microbiol. 1990;28:1380-4 pubmed
    ..were not isolated from 527 "normal" human feces but were found in both cat and dog feces. We also describe biochemical tests and API ZYM results of A. succiniciproducens and anaerobiospirillumlike organisms...
  50. Riviere G, Wagoner M, Baker Zander S, Weisz K, Adams D, Simonson L, et al. Identification of spirochetes related to Treponema pallidum in necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis and chronic periodontitis. N Engl J Med. 1991;325:539-43 pubmed
    ..We sought to determine whether spirochetes present in periodontal disease share antigens thought to be unique to spirochetes that are known pathogens...
  51. Calderaro A, Dettori G, Collini L, Ragni P, Grillo R, Cattani P, et al. Bacteriophages induced from weakly beta-haemolytic human intestinal spirochaetes by mitomycin C. J Basic Microbiol. 1998;38:323-35 pubmed
  52. Stanton T, Thompson M, Humphrey S, Zuerner R. Detection of bacteriophage VSH-1 svp38 gene in Brachyspira spirochetes. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2003;224:225-9 pubmed
    ..VSH-1-like agents appear to be widely distributed among Brachyspira species and, as has been demonstrated for B. hyodysenteriae, may serve as useful gene transfer agents for those other species...
  53. De Smet K, Worth D, Barrett S. Variation amongst human isolates of Brachyspira (Serpulina) pilosicoli based on biochemical characterization and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1998;48 Pt 4:1257-63 pubmed
    ..pilosicoli, it is concluded that this species is more heterogeneous than previously appreciated. However, it cannot be excluded that some isolates may belong to uncharacterized related Brachyspira/Serpulina species...
  54. Barcellos D, de Uzeda M, Ikuta N, Lunge V, Fonseca A, Kader I, et al. Identification of porcine intestinal spirochetes by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of ribosomal DNA encoding 23S rRNA. Vet Microbiol. 2000;75:189-98 pubmed
    ..innocens (II), Brachyspira murdochii (III), B. pilosicoli (IV) and B. alvinipulli (V). The 23S rRNA PCR/RFLP provided a relatively simple genotypic method for identification of porcine pathogenic B. hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli...
  55. Riviere G, Smith K, Willis S, Riviere K. Phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity among cultivable pathogen-related oral spirochetes and Treponema vincentii. J Clin Microbiol. 1999;37:3676-80 pubmed
    ..vincentii strains. Thus, PROS isolates represent a heterogeneous group of treponemas that share some 16S rRNA gene sequences with T. vincentii and T. medium, but not with T. pallidum. It is proposed that the PROS nomenclature be dropped...
  56. Råsbäck T, Fellström C, Gunnarsson A, Aspan A. Comparison of culture and biochemical tests with PCR for detection of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Brachyspira pilosicoli. J Microbiol Methods. 2006;66:347-53 pubmed
    ..CBT detected more B. hyodysenteriae isolates in the clinical samples than PCR, but fewer B. pilosicoli positive samples. An atypical strongly haemolytic isolate was detected only by CBT...
  57. Råsbäck T, Fellström C, Bergsjø B, Cizek A, Collin K, Gunnarsson A, et al. Assessment of diagnostics and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Brachyspira species using a ring test. Vet Microbiol. 2005;109:229-43 pubmed
    ..The diversity of the results highlights the importance of ring tests for a high quality of diagnostics and antimicrobial susceptibility tests for Brachyspira spp. This is the first ring test described for Brachyspira spp...