myxococcales

Summary

Summary: An order of rod-shaped, gram-negative fruiting gliding bacteria found in SOIL; WATER; and HUMUS.

Top Publications

  1. Garcia R, Gerth K, Stadler M, Dogma I, Muller R. Expanded phylogeny of myxobacteria and evidence for cultivation of the 'unculturables'. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2010;57:878-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the myxobacteria, on the basis of bracket distance, could be divided into 16 clusters, as supported by tree topology and a morphology-based approach...
  2. Zhang Y, Li Y, Wang B, Wu Z, Zhang C, Gong X, et al. Characteristics and living patterns of marine myxobacterial isolates. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71:3331-6 pubmed
  3. Gong G, Sun X, Liu X, Hu W, Cao W, Liu H, et al. Mutation and a high-throughput screening method for improving the production of Epothilones of Sorangium. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007;34:615-23 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the production was greatly increased by the genome shuffling. For epothilone B, the production of one fusant was increased about 130 times compared to the starting strain, increasing from 0.8 mg l(-1) to 104 mg l(-1)...
  4. Sanford R, Wu Q, Sung Y, Thomas S, Amos B, Prince E, et al. Hexavalent uranium supports growth of Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans and Geobacter spp. with lower than predicted biomass yields. Environ Microbiol. 2007;9:2885-93 pubmed
    ..These findings have implications for U(VI) bioremediation because Anaeromyxobacter spp. and Geobacter spp. contribute to radionuclide immobilization in contaminated subsurface environments...
  5. Irschik H, Schummer D, Hofle G, Reichenbach H, Steinmetz H, Jansen R. Etnangien, a macrolide-polyene antibiotic from Sorangium cellulosum that inhibits nucleic acid polymerases. J Nat Prod. 2007;70:1060-3 pubmed
    ..Initial studies toward the mechanism of action showed that bacterial and viral nucleic acid polymerases are inhibited by etnangien (1)...
  6. Xiao Y, Wei X, EBRIGHT R, Wall D. Antibiotic production by myxobacteria plays a role in predation. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:4626-33 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first report to directly show a link between secondary metabolite production and predation...
  7. Steinmetz H, Glaser N, Herdtweck E, Sasse F, Reichenbach H, Hofle G. Isolation, crystal and solution structure determination, and biosynthesis of tubulysins--powerful inhibitors of tubulin polymerization from myxobacteria. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2004;43:4888-92 pubmed
  8. Dömling A, Richter W. Myxobacterial epothilones and tubulysins as promising anticancer agents. Mol Divers. 2005;9:141-7 pubmed
    ..In this article a known class, epothilones, as well as a novel class, tubulysins, are presented...
  9. Zhao L, Li P, Lu C, Li S, Shen Y, Li Y. Glycosylation and production characteristics of epothilones in alkali-tolerant Sorangium cellulosum strain So0157-2. J Microbiol. 2010;48:438-44 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that glycosylation is a stable process, paralleling the biosynthesis of epothilones in the So0157-2 strain...
  10. Pradella S, Hans A, Sproer C, Reichenbach H, Gerth K, Beyer S. Characterisation, genome size and genetic manipulation of the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum So ce56. Arch Microbiol. 2002;178:484-92 pubmed
    ..Using triparental mating, polyketide synthase-encoding genes were inactivated, leading to chivosazole-negative mutants...

Detail Information

Publications80

  1. Garcia R, Gerth K, Stadler M, Dogma I, Muller R. Expanded phylogeny of myxobacteria and evidence for cultivation of the 'unculturables'. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2010;57:878-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the myxobacteria, on the basis of bracket distance, could be divided into 16 clusters, as supported by tree topology and a morphology-based approach...
  2. Zhang Y, Li Y, Wang B, Wu Z, Zhang C, Gong X, et al. Characteristics and living patterns of marine myxobacterial isolates. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71:3331-6 pubmed
  3. Gong G, Sun X, Liu X, Hu W, Cao W, Liu H, et al. Mutation and a high-throughput screening method for improving the production of Epothilones of Sorangium. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007;34:615-23 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the production was greatly increased by the genome shuffling. For epothilone B, the production of one fusant was increased about 130 times compared to the starting strain, increasing from 0.8 mg l(-1) to 104 mg l(-1)...
  4. Sanford R, Wu Q, Sung Y, Thomas S, Amos B, Prince E, et al. Hexavalent uranium supports growth of Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans and Geobacter spp. with lower than predicted biomass yields. Environ Microbiol. 2007;9:2885-93 pubmed
    ..These findings have implications for U(VI) bioremediation because Anaeromyxobacter spp. and Geobacter spp. contribute to radionuclide immobilization in contaminated subsurface environments...
  5. Irschik H, Schummer D, Hofle G, Reichenbach H, Steinmetz H, Jansen R. Etnangien, a macrolide-polyene antibiotic from Sorangium cellulosum that inhibits nucleic acid polymerases. J Nat Prod. 2007;70:1060-3 pubmed
    ..Initial studies toward the mechanism of action showed that bacterial and viral nucleic acid polymerases are inhibited by etnangien (1)...
  6. Xiao Y, Wei X, EBRIGHT R, Wall D. Antibiotic production by myxobacteria plays a role in predation. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:4626-33 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first report to directly show a link between secondary metabolite production and predation...
  7. Steinmetz H, Glaser N, Herdtweck E, Sasse F, Reichenbach H, Hofle G. Isolation, crystal and solution structure determination, and biosynthesis of tubulysins--powerful inhibitors of tubulin polymerization from myxobacteria. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2004;43:4888-92 pubmed
  8. Dömling A, Richter W. Myxobacterial epothilones and tubulysins as promising anticancer agents. Mol Divers. 2005;9:141-7 pubmed
    ..In this article a known class, epothilones, as well as a novel class, tubulysins, are presented...
  9. Zhao L, Li P, Lu C, Li S, Shen Y, Li Y. Glycosylation and production characteristics of epothilones in alkali-tolerant Sorangium cellulosum strain So0157-2. J Microbiol. 2010;48:438-44 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that glycosylation is a stable process, paralleling the biosynthesis of epothilones in the So0157-2 strain...
  10. Pradella S, Hans A, Sproer C, Reichenbach H, Gerth K, Beyer S. Characterisation, genome size and genetic manipulation of the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum So ce56. Arch Microbiol. 2002;178:484-92 pubmed
    ..Using triparental mating, polyketide synthase-encoding genes were inactivated, leading to chivosazole-negative mutants...
  11. Gerth K, Pradella S, Perlova O, Beyer S, Muller R. Myxobacteria: proficient producers of novel natural products with various biological activities--past and future biotechnological aspects with the focus on the genus Sorangium. J Biotechnol. 2003;106:233-53 pubmed
    ..The current status of the S. cellulosum functional genome project with model strain So ce56 is discussed...
  12. Sandmann A, Sasse F, Muller R. Identification and analysis of the core biosynthetic machinery of tubulysin, a potent cytotoxin with potential anticancer activity. Chem Biol. 2004;11:1071-9 pubmed
    ..Sequence analysis of more than 80,000 bp reveals an unusual multimodular hybrid polyketide synthase/peptide synthetase assembly line with a variety of unprecedented features...
  13. Iizuka T, Jojima Y, Fudou R, Hiraishi A, Ahn J, Yamanaka S. Plesiocystis pacifica gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine myxobacterium that contains dihydrogenated menaquinone, isolated from the Pacific coasts of Japan. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2003;53:189-95 pubmed
    ..Thus, strains SIR-1T and SHI-1 represent a novel genus and species, for which the names Plesiocystis and Plesiocystis pacifica, respectively, are proposed. The type strain of the species is SIR-1T (=JCM 11591T =DSM 14875T =AJ 13960T)...
  14. Jiang D, Kato C, Zhou X, Wu Z, Sato T, Li Y. Phylogeographic separation of marine and soil myxobacteria at high levels of classification. ISME J. 2010;4:1520-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This discovery indicates that the marine myxobacteria are phylogeographically separated from their terrestrial relatives, likely because of geographic separation and environment selection...
  15. Komaki H, Fudou R, Iizuka T, Nakajima D, Okazaki K, Shibata D, et al. PCR detection of type I polyketide synthase genes in myxobacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:5571-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The sequencing of the amplicons revealed that many PKS genes were distantly related to the published sequences. Thus, myxobacteria may be excellent resources for novel and diverse polyketides...
  16. Schneiker S, Perlova O, Kaiser O, Gerth K, Alici A, Altmeyer M, et al. Complete genome sequence of the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum. Nat Biotechnol. 2007;25:1281-9 pubmed
    ..Seventeen secondary metabolite loci are encoded in the genome, as well as many enzymes with potential utility in industry...
  17. Iizuka T, Jojima Y, Fudou R, Tokura M, Hiraishi A, Yamanaka S. Enhygromyxa salina gen. nov., sp. nov., a slightly halophilic myxobacterium isolated from the coastal areas of Japan. Syst Appl Microbiol. 2003;26:189-96 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we propose to classify the six isolates into a new taxon of marine myxobacteria with the name, Enhygromyxa salina gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain is SHK-1(T) (JCM 11769(T) = DSM 15217(T) = AJ 110011(T))...
  18. Wu Z, Jiang D, Li P, Li Y. Exploring the diversity of myxobacteria in a soil niche by myxobacteria-specific primers and probes. Environ Microbiol. 2005;7:1602-10 pubmed
    ..The sequences in the Cystobacterineae can further be divided into at least 12 groups, of which most were unreported. The results suggest that myxobacteria in nature are much more diverse than were ever known, even in one soil niche...
  19. Menche D, Arikan F, Perlova O, Horstmann N, Ahlbrecht W, Wenzel S, et al. Stereochemical determination and complex biosynthetic assembly of etnangien, a highly potent RNA polymerase inhibitor from the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum. J Am Chem Soc. 2008;130:14234-43 pubmed publisher
  20. Perez J, Castañeda García A, Jenke Kodama H, Muller R, Munoz Dorado J. Eukaryotic-like protein kinases in the prokaryotes and the myxobacterial kinome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:15950-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We have identified 2697 ELKs, most of which are encoded by multicellular strains of the phyla Proteobacteria (Myxococcales), Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria, and Chloroflexi, and 2 Acidobacteria and 1 Planctomycetes...
  21. Chao T, Kalinowski J, Nyalwidhe J, Hansmeier N. Comprehensive proteome profiling of the Fe(III)-reducing myxobacterium Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans 2CP-C during growth with fumarate and ferric citrate. Proteomics. 2010;10:1673-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that the adaptation to Fe(III) reductive conditions involves an increase in metabolic flux through the tricarboxylic acid cycle, which is fueled by an increased catabolism of amino acids...
  22. He Q, Sanford R. Acetate threshold concentrations suggest varying energy requirements during anaerobic respiration by Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004;70:6940-3 pubmed
    ..By comparing threshold concentrations for different metabolisms in a single organism, this study provides insight into the metabolic use of energy under different growth conditions...
  23. Weissman K, Muller R. A brief tour of myxobacterial secondary metabolism. Bioorg Med Chem. 2009;17:2121-36 pubmed publisher
  24. Yan Z, Wang B, Li Y, Gong X, Zhang H, Gao P. Morphologies and phylogenetic classification of cellulolytic myxobacteria. Syst Appl Microbiol. 2003;26:104-9 pubmed
    ..The second species has large myxospores, polyhedral sporangioles with many inter-cystic substrates, and normally deep brown to black color...
  25. Fudou R, Jojima Y, Iizuka T, Yamanaka S. Haliangium ochraceum gen. nov., sp. nov. and Haliangium tepidum sp. nov.: novel moderately halophilic myxobacteria isolated from coastal saline environments. J Gen Appl Microbiol. 2002;48:109-16 pubmed
    ..nov., with SMP-2 designated as Haliangium ochraceum sp. nov. (= JCM 11303(T) = DSM 14365(T)), and SMP-10 as Haliangium tepidum sp. nov. (= JCM 11304(T)= DSM 14436(T))...
  26. Wenzel S, Muller R. Myxobacteria--'microbial factories' for the production of bioactive secondary metabolites. Mol Biosyst. 2009;5:567-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We will focus on the production of polyketides, non-ribosomally-made peptides, and their hybrids, and discuss the evaluation of biosynthetic potential using genome-based methods, as well as biosynthetic process engineering...
  27. Dawid W. Biology and global distribution of myxobacteria in soils. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2000;24:403-27 pubmed
    ..The myxobacterial floras of different climate zones are compared. Included are myxobacterial species adapted to extreme biotopes. The efficiency of different methods used presently for isolation of myxobacteria is compared...
  28. Nguimbi E, Li Y, Gao B, Li Z, Wang B, Wu Z, et al. 16S-23S ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer regions in cellulolytic myxobacteria and differentiation of closely related strains. Syst Appl Microbiol. 2003;26:262-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, the tRNA-lacking ISR polymorphisms can be used to discriminate among different strains of sorangial species...
  29. He Q, Sanford R. Characterization of Fe(III) reduction by chlororespiring Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003;69:2712-8 pubmed
    ..With its ability to respire chlorinated organic compounds and metals such as Fe(III), strain 2CP-C is a promising model organism for the study of the interaction of these potentially competing processes in contaminated environments...
  30. Reichenbach H, Hofle G. Discovery and development of the epothilones : a novel class of antineoplastic drugs. Drugs R D. 2008;9:1-10 pubmed
    ..This article reviews the identification and early molecular characterization of the epothilones, which has provided insight into the mode of action of these novel antitumour agents in vivo...
  31. Thomas S, Wagner R, Arakaki A, Skolnick J, Kirby J, Shimkets L, et al. The mosaic genome of Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans strain 2CP-C suggests an aerobic common ancestor to the delta-proteobacteria. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2103 pubmed publisher
    ..The mosaic nature of the A. dehalogenans strain 2CP-C genome suggests that the metabolically versatile, anaerobic members of the delta-Proteobacteria may have descended from aerobic ancestors with complex lifestyles...
  32. Zhang J, Liu Z, Wang S, Jiang P. Characterization of a bioflocculant produced by the marine myxobacterium Nannocystis sp. NU-2. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2002;59:517-22 pubmed
    ..2% for acid red in 100 mg l(-1)of the flocculant and 99.0% for direct emerald blue in 50 mg l(-1)of the flocculant under test conditions. Use of the flocculant to bleach basic pink and cation emerald blue liquors was not effective...
  33. Kunze B, Reck M, Dötsch A, Lemme A, Schummer D, Irschik H, et al. Damage of Streptococcus mutans biofilms by carolacton, a secondary metabolite from the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum. BMC Microbiol. 2010;10:199 pubmed publisher
    ..Eradication of such biofilms is extremely difficult. We therefore screened a library of secondary metabolites from myxobacteria for their ability to damage biofilms of S. mutans...
  34. Bode H, Muller R. Analysis of myxobacterial secondary metabolism goes molecular. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2006;33:577-88 pubmed
    ..The progress made is a prerequisite for using the vast resource of myxobacterial diversity regarding secondary metabolism more efficiently in the future...
  35. Xia Z, Wang J, Hu W, Liu H, Gao X, Wu Z, et al. Improving conjugation efficacy of Sorangium cellulosum by the addition of dual selection antibiotics. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2008;35:1157-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Using the improved protocol, the epothilone biosynthetic pathway was inactivated by an insertion mutation in the biosynthetic genes of the producing Sorangium strains...
  36. Hopkins C, Wipf P. Isolation, biology and chemistry of the disorazoles: new anti-cancer macrodiolides. Nat Prod Rep. 2009;26:585-601 pubmed publisher
    ..The majority of the discussion addresses synthetic efforts, including partial syntheses of various disorazoles and a summary of the total synthesis of disorazole C1...
  37. Erol O, Schäberle T, Schmitz A, Rachid S, Gurgui C, El Omari M, et al. Biosynthesis of the myxobacterial antibiotic corallopyronin A. Chembiochem. 2010;11:1253-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, the stereochemistry of corallopyronin A was deduced by a combination of a modified Mosher's method and ozonolysis with subsequent chiral GC analyses...
  38. Khalil M, Sasse F, Lünsdorf H, Elnakady Y, Reichenbach H. Mechanism of action of tubulysin, an antimitotic peptide from myxobacteria. Chembiochem. 2006;7:678-83 pubmed
    ..The mode of action of tubulysin A resembled that of peptide antimitotics dolastatin 10, phomopsin A, and hemiasterlin. Efforts are underway to develop this new group of compounds as anticancer drugs...
  39. Wu Q, Sanford R, Löffler F. Uranium(VI) reduction by Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans strain 2CP-C. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:3608-14 pubmed
  40. Huntley S, Hamann N, Wegener Feldbrügge S, Treuner Lange A, Kube M, Reinhardt R, et al. Comparative genomic analysis of fruiting body formation in Myxococcales. Mol Biol Evol. 2011;28:1083-97 pubmed publisher
    ..also exist in bacteria such as the formation of multicellular, spore-filled fruiting bodies in the order Myxococcales. Most members of the Myxococcales undergo a multicellular developmental program culminating in the formation of ..
  41. Ullrich A, Chai Y, Pistorius D, Elnakady Y, Herrmann J, Weissman K, et al. Pretubulysin, a potent and chemically accessible tubulysin precursor from Angiococcus disciformis. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2009;48:4422-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This biosynthetic precursor of the tubulysins is not as active as tubulysins A and D but is still effective in picomolar concentrations against cancer cell lines...
  42. Mohr K, Garcia R, Gerth K, Irschik H, Muller R. Sandaracinus amylolyticus gen. nov., sp. nov., a starch-degrading soil myxobacterium, and description of Sandaracinaceae fam. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2012;62:1191-8 pubmed publisher
    ..e. Sandaracinus amylolyticus gen. nov., sp. nov., but also belongs to a new family, Sandaracinaceae fam. nov. The type strain of the type species, S. amylolyticus sp. nov., is NOSO-4(T) (?=?DSM 53668(T)?=?NCCB 100362(T)). ..
  43. Kaur G, Hollingshead M, Holbeck S, Schauer Vukasinovic V, Camalier R, Dömling A, et al. Biological evaluation of tubulysin A: a potential anticancer and antiangiogenic natural product. Biochem J. 2006;396:235-42 pubmed
    ..This study suggests that both in vitro and preclinical profiles of tubA may translate into clinically useful anticancer properties. ..
  44. Bolten C, Heinzle E, Muller R, Wittmann C. Investigation of the central carbon metabolism of Sorangium cellulosum: metabolic network reconstruction and quantification of pathway fluxes. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009;19:23-36 pubmed
  45. Thomas S, Padilla Crespo E, Jardine P, Sanford R, Löffler F. Diversity and distribution of anaeromyxobacter strains in a uranium-contaminated subsurface environment with a nonuniform groundwater flow. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:3679-87 pubmed publisher
    ..The combined applications of genus- and strain-level mqPCR approaches along with clone libraries provided novel information on patterns of microbial variability within a bacterial group relevant to uranium bioremediation. ..
  46. Ewen K, Hannemann F, Khatri Y, Perlova O, Kappl R, Krug D, et al. Genome mining in Sorangium cellulosum So ce56: identification and characterization of the homologous electron transfer proteins of a myxobacterial cytochrome P450. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:28590-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that S. cellulosum can alternate between different electron transport pathways to sustain cytochrome P450 activity...
  47. Cheng Y, Kaiser D. dsg, a gene required for Myxococcus development, is necessary for cell viability. J Bacteriol. 1989;171:3727-31 pubmed
  48. Bode H, Irschik H, Wenzel S, Reichenbach H, Muller R, Hofle G. The leupyrrins: a structurally unique family of secondary metabolites from the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum. J Nat Prod. 2003;66:1203-6 pubmed
    ..Leupyrrin A1 (1) shows good biological activity against various fungi and eukaryotic cells. ..
  49. Frank B, Wenzel S, Bode H, Scharfe M, Blöcker H, Muller R. From genetic diversity to metabolic unity: studies on the biosynthesis of aurafurones and aurafuron-like structures in myxobacteria and streptomycetes. J Mol Biol. 2007;374:24-38 pubmed
    ..These findings point to a currently unknown but important biological function of aurafuron-like compounds for the producing organisms. ..
  50. Johnson T, Sohn J, Vaske Y, White K, Cohen T, Vervoort H, et al. Myxobacteria versus sponge-derived alkaloids: the bengamide family identified as potent immune modulating agents by scrutiny of LC-MS/ELSD libraries. Bioorg Med Chem. 2012;20:4348-55 pubmed publisher
  51. Hyun H, Chung J, Kim J, Lee J, Kwon B, Son K, et al. Isolation of Sorangium cellulosum carrying epothilone gene clusters. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2008;18:1416-22 pubmed
    ..A migration assay revealed that Sorangium cellulosum KYC3013, 3016, 3017, and 3018 all produced microtubule-stabilizing compounds, and an LCMS/ MS analysis showed that S. cellulosum KYC3013 synthesized epothilone A. ..
  52. Buedenbender S, Rachid S, Muller R, Schulz G. Structure and action of the myxobacterial chondrochloren halogenase CndH: a new variant of FAD-dependent halogenases. J Mol Biol. 2009;385:520-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the structural and functional distinction, we classify CndH as a new variant B of the FAD-dependent halogenases, adding a new feature to the structurally established variant A enzymes PrnA and RebH...
  53. Gerth K, Steinmetz H, Hofle G, Jansen R. Chlorotonil A, a macrolide with a unique gem-dichloro-1,3-dione functionality from Sorangium cellulosum, So ce1525. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2008;47:600-2 pubmed
  54. Zhu L, Li Z, Sun X, Li S, Li Y. Characteristics and activity analysis of epothilone operon promoters from Sorangium cellulosum strains in Escherichia coli. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2013;97:6857-66 pubmed publisher
    ..5-fold. In conclusion, the expression of the epothilone operon non-coding region in E. coli is regulated by a double promoter (with -35 and -10 regions and two distinct TSSs), a stem-loop structure, and a distal non-coding region...
  55. Hassfeld J, Fares C, Steinmetz H, Carlomagno T, Menche D. Stereochemical determination of Archazolid A and B, highly potent vacuolar-type ATPase inhibitors from the Myxobacterium Archangium gephyra. Org Lett. 2006;8:4751-4 pubmed
  56. Jenke Kodama H, Dittmann E. Combinatorial polyketide biosynthesis at higher stage. Mol Syst Biol. 2005;1:2005.0025 pubmed
  57. Bode H, Wenzel S, Irschik H, Hofle G, Muller R. Unusual biosynthesis of leupyrrins in the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2004;43:4163-7 pubmed
  58. Tang L, Ward S, Chung L, Carney J, Li Y, Reid R, et al. Elucidating the mechanism of cis double bond formation in epothilone biosynthesis. J Am Chem Soc. 2004;126:46-7 pubmed
    ..A mechanistic model based on domain skipping and modular stuttering is presented to explain the basis for the iterative DH5 activity observed...
  59. Pedraza Reyes M, Gutiérrez Corona F. The bifunctional enzyme chitosanase-cellulase produced by the gram-negative microorganism Myxobacter sp. AL-1 is highly similar to Bacillus subtilis endoglucanases. Arch Microbiol. 1997;168:321-7 pubmed
    ..Amino-terminal sequencing indicated that mature chitosanase-cellulase shares more than 70% identity with endocellulases produced by strains DLG, PAP115, and 168 of the gram-positive microorganism Bacillus subtilis...
  60. Kunze B, Reichenbach H, Muller R, Hofle G. Aurafuron A and B, new bioactive polyketides from Stigmatella aurantiaca and Archangium gephyra (Myxobacteria). Fermentation, isolation, physico-chemical properties, structure and biological activity. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 2005;58:244-51 pubmed
    ..Aurafurons inhibited the growth of some filamentous fungi and additionally, aurafuron B was weakly active against few Gram-positive bacteria. Both compounds also showed cytotoxic activity against the mouse fibroblast cell line L929...
  61. Neil R, Hite D, Kelrick M, Lockhart M, Lee K. Myxobacterial biodiversity in an established oak-hickory forest and a savanna restoration site. Curr Microbiol. 2005;50:88-95 pubmed
  62. Schäberle T, Goralski E, Neu E, Erol O, Hölzl G, Dormann P, et al. Marine myxobacteria as a source of antibiotics--comparison of physiology, polyketide-type genes and antibiotic production of three new isolates of Enhygromyxa salina. Mar Drugs. 2010;8:2466-79 pubmed publisher
    ..SWB005 was shown to produce metabolites with prominent antibacterial activity, including activity towards methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE)...
  63. Bode H, Zeggel B, Silakowski B, Wenzel S, Reichenbach H, Muller R. Steroid biosynthesis in prokaryotes: identification of myxobacterial steroids and cloning of the first bacterial 2,3(S)-oxidosqualene cyclase from the myxobacterium Stigmatella aurantiaca. Mol Microbiol. 2003;47:471-81 pubmed
    ..The protein encoded by cas is most similar to the Cas proteins from several plant species, indicating a close evolutionary relationship between myxobacterial and eukaryotic steroid biosynthesis...
  64. Yang C, Kaplan H. Myxococcus xanthus sasS encodes a sensor histidine kinase required for early developmental gene expression. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:7759-67 pubmed
    ..SasS is predicted to be the sensor protein in a two-component system that integrates information required for M. xanthus developmental gene expression...
  65. Rakhimova E, Ivanitsa V. [Effect of various storage methods on the viability of myxobacteria]. Mikrobiol Z. 2001;63:3-8 pubmed
    ..Strain P. cellulosum preserves viability for two years when stored in liquid nitrogen and in suspensions on distilled water and physiological solution...
  66. Inouye S, Herzer P, Inouye M. Two independent retrons with highly diverse reverse transcriptases in Myxococcus xanthus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:942-5 pubmed
    ..On the basis of these findings, possible origins of two highly diverse retrons on the M. xanthus chromosome are discussed...
  67. Wistow G. Evolution of a protein superfamily: relationships between vertebrate lens crystallins and microorganism dormancy proteins. J Mol Evol. 1990;30:140-5 pubmed
    ..The relationship of beta- and gamma-crystallins to spherulin 3a and Protein S suggests that the lens proteins were derived from an ancestor with a role in stress-response, perhaps a response to osmotic stress...
  68. Sasse F, Steinmetz H, Schupp T, Petersen F, Memmert K, Hofmann H, et al. Argyrins, immunosuppressive cyclic peptides from myxobacteria. I. Production, isolation, physico-chemical and biological properties. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 2002;55:543-51 pubmed
    ..All argyrins had slight antibiotic activity, especially against Pseudomonas sp., and inhibited growth of mammalian cell cultures. The growth inhibition was often incomplete and varied highly with different cell lines...
  69. Feng Z, Qi J, Tsuge T, Oba Y, Kobayashi T, Suzuki Y, et al. Construction of a bacterial artificial chromosome library for a myxobacterium of the genus Cystobacter and characterization of an antibiotic biosynthetic gene cluster. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2005;69:1372-80 pubmed
    ..Additionally, two downstream genes, ctaJ and ctaK, which encode a nitrilase and an O-methyltransferase, respectively, must be responsible for the final methyl ester formation in the cystothiazole A biosynthesis...
  70. Pando O, Dörner S, Preusentanz R, Denkert A, Porzel A, Richter W, et al. First total synthesis of tubulysin B. Org Lett. 2009;11:5567-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, tubutyrosine (Tut) was synthesized by a Wittig olefination/diastereoselective catalytic reduction sequence. Interestingly, the C-2 epimer of tubulysin B has a cytotoxic activity almost identical to the natural diastereomer...
  71. Irschik H, Reichenbach H, Hofle G, Jansen R. The thuggacins, novel antibacterial macrolides from Sorangium cellulosum acting against selected Gram-positive bacteria. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 2007;60:733-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The antibiotic responsible for this activity was isolated and named thuggacin. Initial studies towards the mechanism of action showed that thuggacin A inhibits a late step of the respiratory chain of some bacteria...
  72. Sandmann A, Frank B, Muller R. A transposon-based strategy to scale up myxothiazol production in myxobacterial cell factories. J Biotechnol. 2008;135:255-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data show that this transposon-based strategy is a valuable tool to identify regulatory genes of secondary metabolism, including gene loci which cannot be detected using current in silico approaches...