Summary: A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.

Top Publications

  1. Chan C, Fakra S, Emerson D, Fleming E, Edwards K. Lithotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria produce organic stalks to control mineral growth: implications for biosignature formation. ISME J. 2011;5:717-27 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that stalk-like morphologies observed in modern and ancient samples may be correlated confidently with the Fe-oxidizing metabolism as a robust biosignature...
  2. McBeth J, Little B, Ray R, Farrar K, Emerson D. Neutrophilic iron-oxidizing "zetaproteobacteria" and mild steel corrosion in nearshore marine environments. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:1405-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, this work shows that the global distribution of Zetaproteobacteria is far greater than previously thought...
  3. Pecoraro V, Zerulla K, Lange C, Soppa J. Quantification of ploidy in proteobacteria revealed the existence of monoploid, (mero-)oligoploid and polyploid species. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16392 pubmed publisher
    ..However, several species of proteobacteria are oligo- or polyploid, respectively...
  4. Xu Z, Tang M, Chen H, Ban Y, Zhang H. Microbial community structure in the rhizosphere of Sophora viciifolia grown at a lead and zinc mine of northwest China. Sci Total Environ. 2012;435-436:453-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The dominant AM fungi were identified as Glomeraceae, whereas the dominant bacteria belonged to Proteobacteria. The amount of lead bound to GRSP varied from 3.3 to 172...
  5. Koren O, Goodrich J, Cullender T, Spor A, Laitinen K, Bäckhed H, et al. Host remodeling of the gut microbiome and metabolic changes during pregnancy. Cell. 2012;150:470-80 pubmed publisher
    ..first (T1) to third (T3) trimesters, with vast expansion of diversity between mothers, an overall increase in Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, and reduced richness...
  6. Fan J, Chen C, Yu Q, Brlansky R, Li Z, Gmitter F. Comparative iTRAQ proteome and transcriptome analyses of sweet orange infected by "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus". Physiol Plant. 2011;143:235-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Combined with the transcriptomic data, the proteomic data can provide an enhanced understanding of citrus stress/defense responses to HLB...
  7. Novichkov P, Li X, Kuehl J, Deutschbauer A, Arkin A, Price M, et al. Control of methionine metabolism by the SahR transcriptional regulator in Proteobacteria. Environ Microbiol. 2014;16:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..genomics, we predicted SahR-binding DNA motifs and reconstructed SahR regulons in the genomes of 62 Proteobacteria. The conserved core of SahR regulons includes all enzymes required for the SAM cycle: the SAH hydrolase AhcY, ..
  8. Andreatta M, Nielsen M, Møller Aarestrup F, Lund O. In silico prediction of human pathogenicity in the ?-proteobacteria. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13680 pubmed publisher
    ..Bioinformatics-based methods are therefore strongly needed to mine the fast growing number of genome sequences and assess in a rapid and reliable way the pathogenicity of novel bacteria...
  9. Mendes R, Kruijt M, de Bruijn I, Dekkers E, van der Voort M, Schneider J, et al. Deciphering the rhizosphere microbiome for disease-suppressive bacteria. Science. 2011;332:1097-100 pubmed publisher
    ..More than 33,000 bacterial and archaeal species were detected, with Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria consistently associated with disease suppression...

More Information


  1. Pieja A, Rostkowski K, Criddle C. Distribution and selection of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate production capacity in methanotrophic proteobacteria. Microb Ecol. 2011;62:564-73 pubmed publisher
  2. Reigstad L, Jorgensen S, Lauritzen S, Schleper C, Urich T. Sulfur-oxidizing chemolithotrophic proteobacteria dominate the microbiota in high arctic thermal springs on Svalbard. Astrobiology. 2011;11:665-78 pubmed publisher
  3. Dang H, Chen R, Wang L, Shao S, Dai L, Ye Y, et al. Molecular characterization of putative biocorroding microbiota with a novel niche detection of Epsilon- and Zetaproteobacteria in Pacific Ocean coastal seawaters. Environ Microbiol. 2011;13:3059-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies of Epsilon- and Zetaproteobacteria in particular may thus help with the design of effective corrosion prevention and control strategies...
  4. Singer E, Emerson D, Webb E, Barco R, Kuenen J, Nelson W, et al. Mariprofundus ferrooxydans PV-1 the first genome of a marine Fe(II) oxidizing Zetaproteobacterium. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25386 pubmed publisher
    ..This study has provided novel insights into the molecular nature of Zetaproteobacteria...
  5. Thomas F, Barbeyron T, Tonon T, Genicot S, Czjzek M, Michel G. Characterization of the first alginolytic operons in a marine bacterium: from their emergence in marine Flavobacteriia to their independent transfers to marine Proteobacteria and human gut Bacteroides. Environ Microbiol. 2012;14:2379-94 pubmed publisher
    ..operons originated from an ancestral marine flavobacterium and were independently transferred to marine proteobacteria and Japanese gut Bacteroides...
  6. Dasgupta S, Manna D, Basu G. Structural and functional consequences of mutating a proteobacteria-specific surface residue in the catalytic domain of Escherichia coli GluRS. FEBS Lett. 2012;586:1724-30 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, most non-proteobacterial GluRS contain Leu, and never Arg, at this position. Our results imply a unique strategy of glutamylation of tRNA(Glu) in proteobacteria under phylum-specific evolutionary compulsions.
  7. Carvalho F, Koren O, Goodrich J, Johansson M, Nalbantoglu I, Aitken J, et al. Transient inability to manage proteobacteria promotes chronic gut inflammation in TLR5-deficient mice. Cell Host Microbe. 2012;12:139-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Transient high levels of proteobacteria, especially enterobacteria species including E...
  8. Prakash A, Yogeeshwari S, Sircar S, Agrawal S. Protein domain of unknown function 3233 is a translocation domain of autotransporter secretory mechanism in gamma proteobacteria. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25570 pubmed publisher
  9. Dewhirst F, Chen T, Izard J, Paster B, Tanner A, Yu W, et al. The human oral microbiome. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:5002-17 pubmed publisher follows: Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chlamydiae, Chloroflexi, Euryarchaeota, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, SR1, Synergistetes, Tenericutes, and TM7...
  10. Desriac F, Jégou C, Balnois E, Brillet B, Le Chevalier P, Fleury Y. Antimicrobial peptides from marine proteobacteria. Mar Drugs. 2013;11:3632-60 pubmed publisher
    ..In the past two decades, the structures of several antimicrobial compounds have been elucidated in marine Proteobacteria. Of these compounds, polyketides (PKs), synthesised by condensation of malonyl-coenzyme A and/or acetyl-..
  11. Shivaji S, Kumari K, Kishore K, Pindi P, Rao P, Radha Srinivas T, et al. Vertical distribution of bacteria in a lake sediment from Antarctica by culture-independent and culture-dependent approaches. Res Microbiol. 2011;162:191-203 pubmed publisher the phyla level using T-RFLP and 16S rRNA clone libraries was similar and clones were affiliated with Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes...
  12. Boldareva Nuianzina E, Bláhová Z, Sobotka R, Koblizek M. Distribution and origin of oxygen-dependent and oxygen-independent forms of Mg-protoporphyrin monomethylester cyclase among phototrophic proteobacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2013;79:2596-604 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of acsF and bchE genes was surveyed in various phototrophic Proteobacteria using the available genomic data and newly designed degenerated primers...
  13. Curson A, Sullivan M, Todd J, Johnston A. DddY, a periplasmic dimethylsulfoniopropionate lyase found in taxonomically diverse species of Proteobacteria. ISME J. 2011;5:1191-200 pubmed publisher
    ..There are dddY-like genes in strains of Alcaligenes, Arcobacter and Shewanella, in the ?-, ?- and ?-proteobacteria, respectively...
  14. Fredborg M, Theil P, Jensen B, Purup S. G protein-coupled receptor120 (GPR120) transcription in intestinal epithelial cells is significantly affected by bacteria belonging to the Bacteroides, Proteobacteria, and Firmicutes phyla. J Anim Sci. 2012;90 Suppl 4:10-2 pubmed publisher
    ..The beneficial effect of these bacteria may very well be mediated by regulation of GPR120. The regulation of GPR120 by intestinal microbiota represents a direct signaling pathway for gut bacteria to affect host health and metabolism...
  15. Hedrich S, Schlömann M, Johnson D. The iron-oxidizing proteobacteria. Microbiology. 2011;157:1551-64 pubmed publisher
    ..While species of iron-oxidizing bacteria can be found in many different phyla, most are affiliated with the Proteobacteria. The latter can be subdivided into four main physiological groups: (i) acidophilic, aerobic iron oxidizers; (..
  16. Watsuji T, Nakagawa S, Tsuchida S, Toki T, Hirota A, Tsunogai U, et al. Diversity and function of epibiotic microbial communities on the galatheid crab, Shinkaia crosnieri. Microbes Environ. 2010;25:288-94 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the uptake experiments suggested that sulfur-oxidizing chemolithoautotrophic and methanotrophic production by the epibionts provides the nutrition for S. crosnieri...
  17. Lundberg D, Lebeis S, Paredes S, Yourstone S, Gehring J, Malfatti S, et al. Defining the core Arabidopsis thaliana root microbiome. Nature. 2012;488:86-90 pubmed publisher
    ..communities that are markedly enriched in Actinobacteria and specific families from other phyla, notably Proteobacteria. Some bacteria vary quantitatively between plants of different developmental stage and genotype...
  18. Ramírez Bahena M, Nesme X, Muller D. Rapid and simultaneous detection of linear chromosome and large plasmids in Proteobacteria. J Basic Microbiol. 2012;52:736-9 pubmed publisher
  19. Mukhopadhya I, Hansen R, El Omar E, Hold G. IBD-what role do Proteobacteria play?. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012;9:219-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Microbial diversity studies have continually demonstrated an expansion of the Proteobacteria phylum in patients with IBD...
  20. Jiang L, Lin K, Lu C. OGtree: a tool for creating genome trees of prokaryotes based on overlapping genes. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:W475-80 pubmed publisher
    ..OGtree is available online at ..
  21. Jones C, Stres B, Rosenquist M, Hallin S. Phylogenetic analysis of nitrite, nitric oxide, and nitrous oxide respiratory enzymes reveal a complex evolutionary history for denitrification. Mol Biol Evol. 2008;25:1955-66 pubmed publisher
  22. Grice E, Kong H, Conlan S, Deming C, Davis J, Young A, et al. Topographical and temporal diversity of the human skin microbiome. Science. 2009;324:1190-2 pubmed publisher
    ..This topographical and temporal survey provides a baseline for studies that examine the role of bacterial communities in disease states and the microbial interdependencies required to maintain healthy skin. ..
  23. Mamirova L, Popadin K, Gelfand M. Purifying selection in mitochondria, free-living and obligate intracellular proteobacteria. BMC Evol Biol. 2007;7:17 pubmed
    ..Here we analyze the influence of these two factors on the strength of the purifying selection in mitochondrial and proteobacterial orthologous genes taking into account the differences in the organism lifestyles...
  24. Spain A, Krumholz L, Elshahed M. Abundance, composition, diversity and novelty of soil Proteobacteria. ISME J. 2009;3:992-1000 pubmed publisher
    ..This study offers a detailed phylogenetic analysis of the Proteobacteria-affiliated clones identified from 13,001 nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene clones derived from Oklahoma tall-..
  25. Badger M, Bek E. Multiple Rubisco forms in proteobacteria: their functional significance in relation to CO2 acquisition by the CBB cycle. J Exp Bot. 2008;59:1525-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The most dramatic evidence of this is the occurrence of multiple forms of Rubisco within autotrophic proteobacteria, where Forms II, IC, IBc, IAc, and IAq can be found either singly or in multiple combinations within a ..
  26. Kazakov A, Rodionov D, Alm E, Arkin A, Dubchak I, Gelfand M. Comparative genomics of regulation of fatty acid and branched-chain amino acid utilization in proteobacteria. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:52-64 pubmed publisher identify candidate transcriptional factors and DNA motifs that control ILV and FA utilization pathways in proteobacteria. The metabolic regulons were characterized based on the identification and comparison of candidate ..
  27. Quéméneur M, Heinrich Salmeron A, Muller D, Lièvremont D, Jauzein M, Bertin P, et al. Diversity surveys and evolutionary relationships of aoxB genes in aerobic arsenite-oxidizing bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:4567-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study underlines the usefulness of the aoxB gene as a functional marker of aerobic As(III) oxidizers. ..
  28. Barbieri E, Guidi C, Bertaux J, Frey Klett P, Garbaye J, Ceccaroli P, et al. Occurrence and diversity of bacterial communities in Tuber magnatum during truffle maturation. Environ Microbiol. 2007;9:2234-46 pubmed
    ..Sequencing results from the clone library showed a significant presence of alpha-Proteobacteria (634 of the 771 total clones screened, c. 82%) affiliated with Sinorhizobium, Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium spp...
  29. Emerson D, Rentz J, Lilburn T, Davis R, Aldrich H, Chan C, et al. A novel lineage of proteobacteria involved in formation of marine Fe-oxidizing microbial mat communities. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e667 pubmed
    ..We have used both cultivation and cultivation-independent techniques to study Fe-rich microbial mats associated with hydrothermal venting at Loihi Seamount, a submarine volcano...
  30. Moore F, Barac T, Borremans B, Oeyen L, Vangronsveld J, Van Der Lelie D, et al. Endophytic bacterial diversity in poplar trees growing on a BTEX-contaminated site: the characterisation of isolates with potential to enhance phytoremediation. Syst Appl Microbiol. 2006;29:539-56 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates that within the diverse bacterial communities found in poplar several endophytic strains are present that have the potential to enhance phytoremediation strategies. ..
  31. Heylen K, Vanparys B, Wittebolle L, Verstraete W, Boon N, De Vos P. Cultivation of denitrifying bacteria: optimization of isolation conditions and diversity study. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:2637-43 pubmed
    ..This study revealed a much more diverse denitrifying community than that previously described in cultivation-dependent research on activated sludge...
  32. Spring S, Lünsdorf H, Fuchs B, Tindall B. The photosynthetic apparatus and its regulation in the aerobic gammaproteobacterium Congregibacter litoralis gen. nov., sp. nov. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4866 pubmed publisher
    ..The interaction of photosynthesis and carbon metabolism in these interesting bacteria is still largely unknown and requires further investigation in order to estimate their contribution to the marine carbon cycle...
  33. Ley R, Harris J, Wilcox J, Spear J, Miller S, Bebout B, et al. Unexpected diversity and complexity of the Guerrero Negro hypersaline microbial mat. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:3685-95 pubmed
    ..The sequences determined in this study have been submitted to the GenBank database and assigned accession numbers DQ 329539 to DQ 331020, and DQ 397339 to DQ 397511...
  34. Gilbert J, Field D, Swift P, Newbold L, Oliver A, Smyth T, et al. The seasonal structure of microbial communities in the Western English Channel. Environ Microbiol. 2009;11:3132-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The most abundant phylum was Proteobacteria (50% of all sequenced reads), while the SAR11 clade comprised 21% of the ubiquitous reads and approximately 12%..
  35. Kampenusa I, Zikmanis P. Distinguishable codon usage and amino acid composition patterns among substrates of leaderless secretory pathways from proteobacteria. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010;86:285-93 pubmed publisher
    ..from the 111 annotated sequences of leaderless secreted type I, type III, type IV, and type VI proteins from proteobacteria were subjected to the forward and backward selection to obtain a combination of most effective predictor ..
  36. Foti M, Sorokin D, Zacharova E, Pimenov N, Kuenen J, Muyzer G. Bacterial diversity and activity along a salinity gradient in soda lakes of the Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia). Extremophiles. 2008;12:133-45 pubmed
    ..showed the presence of minor, but highly active microbial populations, mostly represented by members of the Proteobacteria. Remarkably high SRR were measured at hypersaline conditions (200 g L(-1))...
  37. Roesch L, Fulthorpe R, Riva A, Casella G, Hadwin A, Kent A, et al. Pyrosequencing enumerates and contrasts soil microbial diversity. ISME J. 2007;1:283-90 pubmed
    ..This work is the most comprehensive examination to date of bacterial diversity in soil and suggests that agricultural management of soil may significantly influence the diversity of bacteria and archaea...
  38. Man Aharonovich D, Kress N, Zeev E, Berman Frank I, Beja O. Molecular ecology of nifH genes and transcripts in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Environ Microbiol. 2007;9:2354-63 pubmed
    ..We observed different nifH genes from diverse microbial groups, such as Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria and methanogenic Archaea...
  39. Amalfitano S, Fazi S, Zoppini A, Barra Caracciolo A, Grenni P, Puddu A. Responses of benthic bacteria to experimental drying in sediments from Mediterranean temporary rivers. Microb Ecol. 2008;55:270-9 pubmed
    ..Community composition analysis showed a relative increase in alpha- and beta-Proteobacteria, when passing from wet to dry conditions...
  40. Kaakoush N, Sterzenbach T, Miller W, Suerbaum S, Mendz G. Identification of disulfide reductases in Campylobacterales: a bioinformatics investigation. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2007;92:429-41 pubmed
    ..TrxB(1) proteins were more closely related to those of Firmicutes than to the corresponding proteins of other Proteobacteria. The Campylobacterales TrxB(2) proteins were closer to glutathione reductases of other organisms than to their ..
  41. Wallenstein M, McMahon S, Schimel J. Bacterial and fungal community structure in Arctic tundra tussock and shrub soils. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2007;59:428-35 pubmed
    ..and intertussock bacterial communities were dominated by Acidobacteria, while shrub soils were dominated by Proteobacteria. These results appear consistent with previous work demonstrating that shrub soils contain an active, ..
  42. Johnston A, Todd J, Curson A, Lei S, Nikolaidou Katsaridou N, Gelfand M, et al. Living without Fur: the subtlety and complexity of iron-responsive gene regulation in the symbiotic bacterium Rhizobium and other alpha-proteobacteria. Biometals. 2007;20:501-11 pubmed
    The alpha-proteobacteria include several important genera, including the symbiotic N(2)-fixing "rhizobia", the plant pathogen Agrobacterium, the mammalian pathogens Brucella, Bartonella as well as many others that are of ..
  43. Schneider S, Sharp K, Barker P, Paoli M. An induced fit conformational change underlies the binding mechanism of the heme transport proteobacteria-protein HemS. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:32606-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The heme uptake system HemRSTUV is common to proteobacteria, and a major challenge is to understand the molecular mechanism of heme binding and transfer between the ..
  44. Ranchou Peyruse A, Herbert R, Caumette P, Guyoneaud R. Comparison of cultivation-dependent and molecular methods for studying the diversity of anoxygenic purple phototrophs in sediments of an eutrophic brackish lagoon. Environ Microbiol. 2006;8:1590-9 pubmed
  45. Henry S, Bru D, Stres B, Hallet S, Philippot L. Quantitative detection of the nosZ gene, encoding nitrous oxide reductase, and comparison of the abundances of 16S rRNA, narG, nirK, and nosZ genes in soils. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:5181-9 pubmed
    ..The two sets of nosZ primers gave similar gene copy numbers for all tested soils. The maximum abundance of nosZ and nirK relative to 16S rRNA was 5 to 6%, confirming the low proportion of denitrifiers to total bacteria in soils...
  46. Ward N, Challacombe J, Janssen P, Henrissat B, Coutinho P, Wu M, et al. Three genomes from the phylum Acidobacteria provide insight into the lifestyles of these microorganisms in soils. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:2046-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetic analysis placed them as a unique phylum. They share genomic traits with members of the Proteobacteria, the Cyanobacteria, and the Fungi. The three strains appear to be versatile heterotrophs...
  47. Case R, Labbate M, Kjelleberg S. AHL-driven quorum-sensing circuits: their frequency and function among the Proteobacteria. ISME J. 2008;2:345-9 pubmed publisher
  48. Cousin S, Brambilla E, Yang J, Stackebrandt E. Culturable aerobic bacteria from the upstream region of a karst water rivulet. Int Microbiol. 2008;11:91-100 pubmed
    ..showed that the isolates included members of Bacteriodetes (especially the genus Flavobacterium) and Proteobacteria (mainly Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas)...
  49. Fernandez N, Díaz E, Amils R, Sanz J. Analysis of microbial community during biofilm development in an anaerobic wastewater treatment reactor. Microb Ecol. 2008;56:121-32 pubmed
    ..During the consolidation period, proteobacteria with broad metabolic capabilities, mainly represented by members of alpha-Proteobacteria class (Oleomonas, ..
  50. Yin H, Cao L, Xie M, Chen Q, Qiu G, Zhou J, et al. Bacterial diversity based on 16S rRNA and gyrB genes at Yinshan mine, China. Syst Appl Microbiol. 2008;31:302-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the Mantel test showed that the geochemical characteristics, especially the pH value and the concentration of iron, strongly influenced the composition of the microbial communities...
  51. Bruneel O, Duran R, Casiot C, Elbaz Poulichet F, Personne J. Diversity of microorganisms in Fe-As-rich acid mine drainage waters of Carnoulès, France. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:551-6 pubmed
    ..The description of the bacterial community structure and its dynamics lead to a better understanding of the natural remediation processes occurring at this site...
  52. Yuan Z, Zaheer R, Morton R, Finan T. Genome prediction of PhoB regulated promoters in Sinorhizobium meliloti and twelve proteobacteria. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34:2686-97 pubmed
    In proteobacteria, genes whose expression is modulated in response to the external concentration of inorganic phosphate are often regulated by the PhoB protein which binds to a conserved motif (Pho box) within their promoter regions...
  53. Mathieu L, Bouteleux C, Fass S, Angel E, Block J. Reversible shift in the alpha-, beta- and gamma-proteobacteria populations of drinking water biofilms during discontinuous chlorination. Water Res. 2009;43:3375-86 pubmed publisher
    ..1-0.4-0.1 mg Cl(2)L(-1) or vice versa) was tested on the abundance of the alpha-, beta- and gamma-proteobacteria populations, used as indicators of changes in bacterial populations within drinking water biofilms...
  54. Lee S, Cho E, Jung S. Periplasmic glucans isolated from Proteobacteria. BMB Rep. 2009;42:769-75 pubmed
    Periplasmic glucans (PGs) are general constituents in the periplasmic space of Proteobacteria. PGs from bacterial strains are found in larger amounts during growth on medium with low osmolarity and thus are often been specified as ..
  55. Craig J, Chang F, Kim J, Obiajulu S, Brady S. Expanding small-molecule functional metagenomics through parallel screening of broad-host-range cosmid environmental DNA libraries in diverse proteobacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76:1633-41 pubmed publisher
    ..studies, we report the phenotypic screening of broad-host-range environmental DNA libraries in six different proteobacteria: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Burkholderia graminis, Caulobacter vibrioides, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas ..
  56. Nakagawa S, Takai K. Deep-sea vent chemoautotrophs: diversity, biochemistry and ecological significance. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2008;65:1-14 pubmed publisher
    ..This review summarizes chemoautotrophy in deep-sea vents, highlighting recent biochemical and genomic discoveries...
  57. Bru D, Sarr A, Philippot L. Relative abundances of proteobacterial membrane-bound and periplasmic nitrate reductases in selected environments. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:5971-4 pubmed
    ..8 x 10(4) copies per ng of DNA. This study provides evidence that, in soil samples, the number of proteobacteria carrying the napA gene is often as high as that of proteobacteria carrying the narG gene...
  58. Prigent Combaret C, Blaha D, Pothier J, Vial L, Poirier M, Wisniewski Dyé F, et al. Physical organization and phylogenetic analysis of acdR as leucine-responsive regulator of the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase gene acdS in phytobeneficial Azospirillum lipoferum 4B and other Proteobacteria. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2008;65:202-19 pubmed publisher
    ..lipoferum 4B and most other acdS+ Proteobacteria. Unlike in Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria, acdS (and acdR) is preferentially located on symbiotic islands and ..
  59. Mohamed N, Cicirelli E, Kan J, Chen F, Fuqua C, Hill R. Diversity and quorum-sensing signal production of Proteobacteria associated with marine sponges. Environ Microbiol. 2008;10:75-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Given that marine Proteobacteria are known to produce N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signal molecules, we tested the production of AHLs by ..
  60. Knight R, Maxwell P, Birmingham A, Carnes J, Caporaso J, Easton B, et al. PyCogent: a toolkit for making sense from sequence. Genome Biol. 2007;8:R171 pubmed
    ..The toolkit takes advantage of parallel architectures and runs on a range of hardware and operating systems, and is available under the general public license from
  61. Carnoy C, Roten C. The dif/Xer recombination systems in proteobacteria. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6531 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the present study was to extensively characterize the dif/Xer system in the proteobacteria, since this taxon accounts for the majority of genomes sequenced to date...
  62. Kato S, Yanagawa K, Sunamura M, Takano Y, Ishibashi J, Kakegawa T, et al. Abundance of Zetaproteobacteria within crustal fluids in back-arc hydrothermal fields of the Southern Mariana Trough. Environ Microbiol. 2009;11:3210-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results lead to the hypothesis that the Zetaproteobacteria play a role in iron oxidation within the oceanic crust...
  63. Chan K, Yin W, Sam C, Koh C. A novel medium for the isolation of N-acylhomoserine lactone-degrading bacteria. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009;36:247-51 pubmed publisher
    ..basis of the almost complete 16S ribosomal DNA sequence, isolate 13sw7 was clustered with unculturable beta-proteobacteria. This study indicates that the AHL-containing KG medium is effective in isolating AHL-degrading bacteria, ..
  64. Larsen P, Nielsen J, Dueholm M, Wetzel R, Otzen D, Nielsen P. Amyloid adhesins are abundant in natural biofilms. Environ Microbiol. 2007;9:3077-90 pubmed
    ..natural habitats, bacteria producing extracellular amyloid adhesins were identified within several phyla: Proteobacteria (Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria), Bacteriodetes, Chloroflexi and Actinobacteria, and most ..