mycoplasma penetrans

Summary

Summary: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria. This organism shows remarkable pathobiologic properties: it adheres to cell surfaces, deeply penetrates into the cell, and strongly adsorbs human red blood cells and human CD4+ lymphocytes and monocytes. M. penetrans was first isolated from the urogenital tract of patients with AIDS and high frequencies of antibodies to it are seen in HIV-infected patients.

Top Publications

  1. Tarshis M, Yavlovich A, Katzenell A, Ginsburg I, Rottem S. Intracellular location and survival of Mycoplasma penetrans within HeLa cells. Curr Microbiol. 2004;49:136-40 pubmed
    b>Mycoplasma penetrans invades HeLa cells and survives within them for prolonged periods of time. The intracellular distribution of M...
  2. Bendjennat M, Blanchard A, Loutfi M, Montagnier L, Bahraoui E. Role of Mycoplasma penetrans endonuclease P40 as a potential pathogenic determinant. Infect Immun. 1999;67:4456-62 pubmed
    ..to homogeneity and characterization of Ca(2+)- and Mg(2+)-dependent endonuclease P40 produced by Mycoplasma penetrans (M. Bendjennat, A. Blanchard, M. Loutfi, L. Montagnier, and E. Bahraoui, J. Bacteriol...
  3. Jurkovic D, Newman J, Balish M. Conserved terminal organelle morphology and function in Mycoplasma penetrans and Mycoplasma iowae. J Bacteriol. 2012;194:2877-83 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Mycoplasma penetrans, found mostly in HIV-infected patients, and Mycoplasma iowae, an economically significant poultry pathogen, ..
  4. Johnson C, Kannan T, Baseman J. Characterization of a unique ADP-ribosyltransferase of Mycoplasma penetrans. Infect Immun. 2009;77:4362-70 pubmed publisher
    b>Mycoplasma penetrans is a urogenital tract pathogen implicated in the deterioration of the immune system in human immunodeficiency virus-infected AIDS patients. Here, we describe a 78-kDa protein from M...
  5. Borovsky Z, Tarshis M, Zhang P, Rottem S. Protein kinase C activation and vacuolation in HeLa cells invaded by Mycoplasma penetrans. J Med Microbiol. 1998;47:915-22 pubmed
    The AIDS-associated Mycoplasma penetrans is capable of inducing its own uptake by non-phagocytic cells. This study investigated the invasion of HeLa cells and its consequences by confocal laser scanning microscopy...
  6. Gallego P, Planell R, Benach J, Querol E, Perez Pons J, Reverter D. Structural characterization of the enzymes composing the arginine deiminase pathway in Mycoplasma penetrans. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47886 pubmed publisher
    ..of arginine towards ATP synthesis has been considered a major source of energy for microorganisms such as Mycoplasma penetrans in anaerobic conditions...
  7. Neyrolles O, Eliane J, Ferris S, da Cunha R, Prevost M, Bahraoui E, et al. Antigenic characterization and cytolocalization of P35, the major Mycoplasma penetrans antigen. Microbiology. 1999;145 ( Pt 2):343-55 pubmed
    b>Mycoplasma penetrans is a mycoplasma with unique morphology, recently identified in urine samples collected from HIV-infected patients...
  8. Iyama K, Ono S, Kuwano K, Ohishi M, Shigematsu H, Arai S. Induction of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) and enhancement of HIV-1 replication in the J22HL60 cell line by Mycoplasma penetrans. Microbiol Immunol. 1996;40:907-14 pubmed
    b>Mycoplasma penetrans isolated from clinical specimens of AIDS patients showed potent activity in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) production in THP-1, U937 and J22HL60 cell lines, and in the enhancement of HIV-1 replication in a ..
  9. Roske K, Blanchard A, Chambaud I, Citti C, Helbig J, Prevost M, et al. Phase variation among major surface antigens of Mycoplasma penetrans. Infect Immun. 2001;69:7642-51 pubmed
    The pathogenicity and prevalence of Mycoplasma penetrans, a Mycoplasma species recently isolated from humans, are still debated...

More Information

Publications63

  1. Eberl M, Hintz M, Jamba Z, Beck E, Jomaa H, Christiansen G. Mycoplasma penetrans is capable of activating V gamma 9/V delta 2 T cells while other human pathogenic mycoplasmas fail to do so. Infect Immun. 2004;72:4881-3 pubmed
    ..most mycoplasma species appear to have evolutionarily lost the ability to synthesize isoprenoid precursors, Mycoplasma penetrans has retained the nonmevalonate pathway that proceeds via the immunogenic intermediate (E)-4-hydroxy-3-..
  2. Zeng Y, Wu Y, Deng Z, You X, Zhu C, Yu M, et al. Apoptosis induced by lipid-associated membrane proteins from Mycoplasma penetrans is mediated by nuclear factor kappaB activation in mouse macrophage. Can J Microbiol. 2008;54:150-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Mycoplasma penetrans was shown to be involved in alteration of several eukaryotical cells functions and a causative agent in urogenital infectious diseases...
  3. Horino A, Kenri T, Sasaki Y, Okamura N, Sasaki T. Identification of a site-specific tyrosine recombinase that mediates promoter inversions of phase-variable mpl lipoprotein genes in Mycoplasma penetrans. Microbiology. 2009;155:1241-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Mycoplasma penetrans has the ability to change its surface lipoprotein profiles frequently. The P35 family lipoproteins encoded by the mpl genes are key players in this profile variation. The M...
  4. Neyrolles O, Chambaud I, Ferris S, Prevost M, Sasaki T, Montagnier L, et al. Phase variations of the Mycoplasma penetrans main surface lipoprotein increase antigenic diversity. Infect Immun. 1999;67:1569-78 pubmed
    b>Mycoplasma penetrans is a recently identified mycoplasma, isolated from urine samples collected from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Its presence is significantly associated with HIV infection...
  5. Moussa A, Nir Paz R, Rottem S. Binding of IgA by Mycoplasma penetrans. Curr Microbiol. 2009;58:360-5 pubmed publisher
    The current study shows that Mycoplasma penetrans strain GTU binds human serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) and secretory IgA but not IgG...
  6. Ferraz A, Belo E, Coutinho L, Oliveira A, De Gaspari E. Rapid and efficient preparation of monoclonal antibodies against 35 kDa lipoprotein of Mycoplasma penetrans. Hybridoma (Larchmt). 2007;26:92-7 pubmed
    ..a rapid and efficient method for preparing monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against 35 kDa lipoprotein of Mycoplasma penetrans, BALB/c mice were injected into the footpads for immunization, and the popliteal lymph nodes were isolated ..
  7. Sasaki Y, Ishikawa J, Yamashita A, Oshima K, Kenri T, Furuya K, et al. The complete genomic sequence of Mycoplasma penetrans, an intracellular bacterial pathogen in humans. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002;30:5293-300 pubmed
    The complete genomic sequence of an intracellular bacterial pathogen, Mycoplasma penetrans HF-2 strain, was determined...
  8. Horino A, Sasaki Y, Sasaki T, Kenri T. Multiple promoter inversions generate surface antigenic variation in Mycoplasma penetrans. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:231-42 pubmed
    b>Mycoplasma penetrans is a newly identified species of the genus MYCOPLASMA: It was first isolated from a urine sample from a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patient. M...
  9. Ferrer Navarro M, Gomez A, Yanes O, Planell R, Aviles F, Piñol J, et al. Proteome of the bacterium Mycoplasma penetrans. J Proteome Res. 2006;5:688-94 pubmed
    A proteome map of Mycoplasma penetrans has been constructed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in combination with mass spectrometry (MS). Mycoplasma penetrans infects the urogenital and respiratory tracts of humans...
  10. Andreev J, Borovsky Z, Rosenshine I, Rottem S. Invasion of HeLa cells by Mycoplasma penetrans and the induction of tyrosine phosphorylation of a 145-kDa host cell protein. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1995;132:189-94 pubmed
    The ability of Mycoplasma penetrans to invade eukaryotic cells was studied using a HeLa cell line...
  11. Bendjennat M, Blanchard A, Loutfi M, Montagnier L, Bahraoui E. Purification and characterization of Mycoplasma penetrans Ca2+/Mg2+-dependent endonuclease. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:2210-20 pubmed
    The major nuclease from Mycoplasma penetrans has been purified to homogeneity...
  12. Salman M, Rottem S. The cell membrane of Mycoplasma penetrans: lipid composition and phospholipase A1 activity. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1995;1235:369-77 pubmed
    Analysis of Mycoplasma penetrans membrane lipids revealed that, in addition to large amounts of unesterified cholesterol, M. penetrans incorporated exogenous phospholipids, preferentially sphingomyelin, from the growth medium...
  13. Giron J, Lange M, Baseman J. Adherence, fibronectin binding, and induction of cytoskeleton reorganization in cultured human cells by Mycoplasma penetrans. Infect Immun. 1996;64:197-208 pubmed
    b>Mycoplasma penetrans adhered to cultured human cells, forming clusters that localized to specific areas of the host cell surface. Adherence and cluster formation were inhibited by anti-M...
  14. Distelhorst S, Jurkovic D, Shi J, Jensen G, Balish M. The Variable Internal Structure of the Mycoplasma penetrans Attachment Organelle Revealed by Biochemical and Microscopic Analyses: Implications for Attachment Organelle Mechanism and Evolution. J Bacteriol. 2017;199: pubmed publisher
    Although mycoplasmas have small genomes, many of them, including the HIV-associated opportunist Mycoplasma penetrans, construct a polar attachment organelle (AO) that is used for both adherence to host cells and gliding motility...
  15. Burns A, Watral V, Sichel S, Spagnoli S, Banse A, Mittge E, et al. Transmission of a common intestinal neoplasm in zebrafish by cohabitation. J Fish Dis. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..We found a single 16S rRNA sequence, most similar to Mycoplasma penetrans, to be highly enriched in the donors and exposed recipients compared to unexposed control fish...
  16. Baseman J, Lange M, Criscimagna N, Giron J, Thomas C. Interplay between mycoplasmas and host target cells. Microb Pathog. 1995;19:105-16 pubmed
    The infectious pattern of mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma penetrans, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Mycoplasma genitalium) in mammalian cells was examined using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry combined with cell fractionation and mycoplasma ..
  17. Tsai S, Wear D, Shih J, Lo S. Mycoplasmas and oncogenesis: persistent infection and multistage malignant transformation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:10197-201 pubmed
    ..Mycoplasma fermentans and Mycoplasma penetrans, mycoplasmas found in unusually high frequencies among patients with AIDS, were examined...
  18. Zeng Y, Wu Y, Yu M, Liu J, You X, Tang S. [Mycoplasma penetrans lipid-associated membrane proteins induce nuclear factor kappaB activation-mediated apoptosis in mouse macrophage]. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 2008;48:355-61 pubmed
    To investigate the potential pathogenicity of Mycoplasma penetrans (M. penetrans) and the possible molecular mechanisms, we investigated whether M. penetrans lipid-associated membrane proteins (LAMPs) could induce mouse macrophages Raw264...
  19. Deguchi T, Gilroy C, Taylor Robinson D. Failure to detect Mycoplasma fermentans, Mycoplasma penetrans, or Mycoplasma pirum in the urethra of patients with acute nongonococcal urethritis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1996;15:169-71 pubmed
    ..NGU) and from 50 Japanese men without NGU were examined for the presence of Mycoplasma fermentans, Mycoplasma penetrans, and Mycoplasma pirum by means of polymerase chain reaction-based assays...
  20. Wen X, Wang C, Zhou L, Wang S, Chen H. [Isolation of Mycoplasma penetrans and detection of the levels of serum IL-6 and TNF-alpha in the blood of patients with autoimmune disease]. Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2008;24:1079-81 pubmed
    To investigate the isolation of Mycoplasma penetrans from the blood of autoimmune disease patients and to evaluate the levels of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in patients with autoimmune disease (..
  21. Wojciechowski M, Czapinska H, Bochtler M. CpG underrepresentation and the bacterial CpG-specific DNA methyltransferase M.MpeI. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:105-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The very CpG poor Mycoplasma penetrans and its constitutively active CpG-specific methyltransferase M...
  22. Tuppin P, Delamare O, Launay V, Gueguen M, Samba M, Pambou L, et al. High prevalence of antibodies to Mycoplasma penetrans in human immunodeficiency virus-seronegative and -seropositive populations in Brazzaville, Congo. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1997;4:787-8 pubmed
    In industrialized countries, the prevalence of antibodies to Mycoplasma penetrans is higher among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive homosexuals than other HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative groups...
  23. Jurkovic D, Hughes M, Balish M. Analysis of energy sources for Mycoplasma penetrans gliding motility. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2013;338:39-45 pubmed publisher
    b>Mycoplasma penetrans, a potential human pathogen found mainly in HIV-infected individuals, uses a tip structure for both adherence and gliding motility. To improve our understanding of the molecular mechanism of M...
  24. Vujanovic L, Mandic M, Olson W, Kirkwood J, Storkus W. A mycoplasma peptide elicits heteroclitic CD4+ T cell responses against tumor antigen MAGE-A6. Clin Cancer Res. 2007;13:6796-806 pubmed
    ..The identification of tumor antigenic epitopes presented promiscuously by many HLA-DR alleles would extend the clinical utility of these peptides in vaccines and for the immunomonitoring of cancer patients...
  25. Grau O, Slizewicz B, Tuppin P, Launay V, Bourgeois E, Sagot N, et al. Association of Mycoplasma penetrans with human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Infect Dis. 1995;172:672-81 pubmed
    A cross-sectional study was done to determine the seroprevalence of Mycoplasma penetrans in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-seropositive and -seronegative persons recruited in France...
  26. Salman M, Borovsky Zp6 -, Rottem S. Mycoplasma penetrans infection of Molt-3 lymphocytes induces changes in the lipid composition of host cells. Microbiology. 1998;144 ( Pt 12):3447-54 pubmed
    The AIDS-associated Mycoplasma penetrans is capable of inducing its own uptake by non-phagocytic cells. The ability of M...
  27. Sasaki Y, Blanchard A, Watson H, Garcia S, Dulioust A, Montagnier L, et al. In vitro influence of Mycoplasma penetrans on activation of peripheral T lymphocytes from healthy donors or human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals. Infect Immun. 1995;63:4277-83 pubmed
    b>Mycoplasma penetrans is a mycoplasma species newly isolated from the urine of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals and presents the only case in which an association has been found between antibodies against a ..
  28. Cuccuru M, Cottoni F, Fiori P, Masala M, Cerimele D. PCR analysis of Mycoplasma fermentans and M. penetrans in classic Kaposi's sarcoma. Acta Derm Venereol. 2005;85:459-60 pubmed
  29. Hayes M, Foo H, Timenetsky J, Lo S. In vitro antibiotic susceptibility testing of clinical isolates of Mycoplasma penetrans from patients with AIDS. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1995;39:1386-7 pubmed
    In vitro susceptibilities of Mycoplasma penetrans were determined. MICs and MBCs were determined. The MICs at which 50% of the isolates are inhibited (micrograms per milliliter) for broth dilution testing were as follows: azithromycin, 0...
  30. Grau O, Tuppin P, Slizewicz B, Launay V, Goujard C, Bahraoui E, et al. A longitudinal study of seroreactivity against Mycoplasma penetrans in HIV-infected homosexual men: association with disease progression. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1998;14:661-7 pubmed
    We investigated the relationships between a putative cofactor of HIV infection, Mycoplasma penetrans, and the evolution of HIV disease. The evolution of titers of anti-M...
  31. Blanchard A. Mycoplasmas and HIV infection, a possible interaction through immune activation. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 1997;109:590-3 pubmed
    ..b>Mycoplasma penetrans was shown to be associated with HIV infection and recent data have indicated the capacity of this ..
  32. Zhang S, Wear D, Lo S. Mycoplasmal infections alter gene expression in cultured human prostatic and cervical epithelial cells. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2000;27:43-50 pubmed
    ..Prolonged gene expression changes induced by chronic mycoplasmal infection may gradually alter important biological properties in the infected mammalian cells and produce a unique form of disease process...
  33. Lo S, Wang R, Grandinetti T, Zou N, Hayes M, Shih J, et al. Mycoplasma penetrans infections and seroconversion in patients with AIDS: identification of major mycoplasmal antigens targeted by host antibody response. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2005;44:277-82 pubmed
    We examined Mycoplasma penetrans-specific antibodies in sera of five male homosexual AIDS patients from whom M. penetrans was isolated during the disease process...
  34. Jiang X, Lv Y, Zhang J, Shi Y, Xu F. Mycoplasma penetrans infection is a potential cause of immunoglobulin A nephropathy: a new animal model. J Nephrol. 2013;26:470-5 pubmed publisher
    A new animal model of immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) was made by infecting mice with Mycoplasma penetrans (Mpe)...
  35. Zhang B, Tsai S, Shih J, Wear D, Lo S. Absence of mycoplasmal gene in malignant mammalian cells transformed by chronic persistent infection of mycoplasmas. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1998;218:83-9 pubmed
  36. Yanez A, Cedillo L, Neyrolles O, Alonso E, Prevost M, Rojas J, et al. Mycoplasma penetrans bacteremia and primary antiphospholipid syndrome. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5:164-7 pubmed
    b>Mycoplasma penetrans, a rare bacterium so far only found in HIV-infected persons, was isolated in the blood and throat of a non-HIV-infected patient with primary antiphospholipid syndrome (whose etiology and pathogenesis are unknown).
  37. Rivera Tapia J. [Antigenic variation in Mycoplasmas]. Gac Med Mex. 2002;138:289-90 pubmed
  38. Iyama K. [Induction of tumor necrosis factor alpha by Mycoplasma penetrans isolated from patients with AIDS]. Kansenshogaku Zasshi. 1996;70:11-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the component possess mannoside and glucoside active site...
  39. Ainsworth J, Hourshid S, Easterbrook P, Gilroy C, Weber J, Taylor obinson D. Mycoplasma species in rapid and slow HIV progressors. Int J STD AIDS. 2000;11:76-9 pubmed
    We determined the relationship between the presence of Mycoplasma fermentans and Mycoplasma penetrans and the rate of progression of HIV-associated disease in a nested case-control study based on a cohort of 159 HIV-infected patients with ..
  40. Schaeverbeke T, Gilroy C, Bebear C, Dehais J, Taylor Robinson D. Mycoplasma fermentans, but not M penetrans, detected by PCR assays in synovium from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic disorders. J Clin Pathol. 1996;49:824-8 pubmed
    ..In view of the superior sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay over culture, the aim was to use this method to seek M fermentans and M penetrans in synovial samples from patients with various arthritides...
  41. Rosa I, Einicker Lamas M, Bernardo R, Benchimol M. Cardiolipin, a lipid found in mitochondria, hydrogenosomes and bacteria was not detected in Giardia lamblia. Exp Parasitol. 2008;120:215-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Cardiolipin synthase was searched in the Giardia genome, using Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Mycoplasma penetrans sequences as bait. However, a good match to G. lamblia related proteins was not found...
  42. Zeiman E, Tarshis M, Rottem S. Mycoplasma penetrans under nutritional stress: influence on lipid and lipoprotein profiles and on the binding to and invasion of HeLa cells. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2008;287:243-9 pubmed publisher
    By serial passages through media containing decreasing concentrations of horse serum, the sterol-requiring Mycoplasma penetrans strain HF-2 was adapted to grow in a serum-free medium supplemented with bovine serum albumin, cholesterol and ..
  43. Celamkoti S, Kundeti S, Purkayastha A, Mazumder R, Buck C, Seto D. GeneOrder3.0: software for comparing the order of genes in pairs of small bacterial genomes. BMC Bioinformatics. 2004;5:52 pubmed
    ..It was originally developed for comparing virus, mitochondrion and chloroplast genomes. This is now extended to small bacterial genomes of sizes less than 2 Mb...
  44. Cao S, Shen D, Wang Y, Li L, Zhou L, Wang Y. Potential malignant transformation in the gastric mucosa of immunodeficient mice with persistent Mycoplasma penetrans infection. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0180514 pubmed publisher
    ..mouse model was established using cyclophosphamide and mice gastric mucosal cells were infected with Mycoplasma penetrans (Mpe)...
  45. Wang B, Wu J, Guo H, Yang H, Ai J, Hui M, et al. The prevalence of six species of Mycoplasmataceae in an HIV/AIDS population in Jiangsu Province, China. Int J STD AIDS. 2012;23:e7-10 pubmed publisher
    ..the prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma fermentans, Mycoplasma penetrans and Mycoplasma pirum in 210 HIV/AIDS patients, 455 sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic attendees ..
  46. Shimizu T, Kida Y, Kuwano K. Lipid-associated membrane proteins of Mycoplasma fermentans and M. penetrans activate human immunodeficiency virus long-terminal repeats through Toll-like receptors. Immunology. 2004;113:121-9 pubmed
    ..penetrans LAMPs (LPMp) was able to activate NF-kappaB through TLR1 and TLR2. On the other hand, the activation of NF-kappaB by purified lipoprotein of M. fermentans LAMPs (LPMf) was mediated through TLR2 and TLR6, but not TLR1...
  47. Ferris S, Watson H, Neyrolles O, Montagnier L, Blanchard A. Characterization of a major Mycoplasma penetrans lipoprotein and of its gene. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1995;130:313-9 pubmed
    A novel mycoplasmal species designated as Mycoplasma penetrans has been isolated recently from patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus...
  48. Neyrolles O, Brenner C, Prevost M, Fontaine T, Montagnier L, Blanchard A. Identification of two glycosylated components of Mycoplasma penetrans: a surface-exposed capsular polysaccharide and a glycolipid fraction. Microbiology. 1998;144 ( Pt 5):1247-55 pubmed
    ..Among the wall-less mycoplasmas only a few species have been identified with a capsule at their cell surface. Mycoplasma penetrans is a recently identified mycoplasma with unique morphology, isolated from HIV-infected patients...
  49. da Cunha R, Takei K, Vaz A, Rosenthal C. Detection of mycoplasmas in urethral swabs from HIV-1 infected patients and control individuals using culture techniques and polymerase chain reaction. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 1998;40:1-5 pubmed
    ..e., Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma penetrans, in urethral swabs from HIV-1 infected patients compared to swabs from a control group...
  50. Feng S, Lo S. Lipid extract of Mycoplasma penetrans proteinase K-digested lipid-associated membrane proteins rapidly activates NF-kappaB and activator protein 1. Infect Immun. 1999;67:2951-6 pubmed
    Lipid-associated membrane proteins (LAMPs) of Mycoplasma penetrans rapidly induced macrophages to produce proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha)...
  51. de Cordova C, Takei K, Rosenthal C, Miranda M, Vaz A, da Cunha R. Evaluation of IgG, IgM, and IgA antibodies to mycoplasma penetrans detected by ELISA and immunoblot in HIV-1-infected and STD patients, in São Paulo, Prazil. Microbes Infect. 1999;1:1095-101 pubmed
    The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of IgG, IgA, and IgM antibodies to Mycoplasma penetrans in HIV-1-infected patients and in patients with sexually transmitted diseases...
  52. Jones T, Brown C, Geslain R, Alexander R, Ribas De Pouplana L. An operational RNA code for faithful assignment of AUG triplets to methionine. Mol Cell. 2008;29:401-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We have unveiled a strategy for the discrimination among tRNAs containing CAU (AUG-decoding) anticodons. Mycoplasma penetrans methionyl-tRNA synthetase can directly differentiate between tRNA(Ile)(CAU) and tRNA(Met)(CAU) transcripts (..
  53. Ren M, Zhao J, Li H. [New type pathogenic mycoplasmas isolated from female patients with genital infection in Nanjing, China]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2001;81:1516-8 pubmed
    To study if infection of new type pathogenic mycoplasmas, Mycoplasma penetrans (Mpe), Mycoplasma fermentans (Mf), and Mycoplasma pirum (Mpi), exists in the genital tract of gynecologic patients with genital infection in China so as to ..
  54. Zeng Y, Wu Y, Zhang W, Yu M, Zhu C, Tan L. Activation of nuclear factor kappaB and induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase by lipid-associated membrane proteins isolated from Mycoplasma penetrans. Chin Med J (Engl). 2004;117:997-1001 pubmed
    This study was designed to investigate the potential pathogenicity of Mycoplasma penetrans (M...