mycoplasma gallisepticum

Summary

Summary: A species of gram-negative bacteria causing chronic respiratory disease in POULTRY.

Top Publications

  1. Gates A, Frasca S, Nyaoke A, Gorton T, Silbart L, Geary S. Comparative assessment of a metabolically attenuated Mycoplasma gallisepticum mutant as a live vaccine for the prevention of avian respiratory mycoplasmosis. Vaccine. 2008;26:2010-9 pubmed publisher
    ..attenuated mutants induced varying levels of protection against intratracheal challenge with virulent Mycoplasma gallisepticum strain R(low)...
  2. May M, Papazisi L, Gorton T, Geary S. Identification of fibronectin-binding proteins in Mycoplasma gallisepticum strain R. Infect Immun. 2006;74:1777-85 pubmed publisher
    We have determined that virulent Mycoplasma gallisepticum strain Rlow is capable of binding the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin. Fibronectin was found to be present in M...
  3. Tulman E, Liao X, Szczepanek S, Ley D, Kutish G, Geary S. Extensive variation in surface lipoprotein gene content and genomic changes associated with virulence during evolution of a novel North American house finch epizootic strain of Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Microbiology. 2012;158:2073-88 pubmed publisher
    b>Mycoplasma gallisepticum, a significant respiratory and reproductive pathogen of domestic poultry, has since 1994 been recognized as an emergent pathogen of the American house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus)...
  4. Shil P, Kanci A, Browning G, Marenda M, Noormohammadi A, Markham P. GapA+ Mycoplasma gallisepticum ts-11 has improved vaccine characteristics. Microbiology. 2011;157:1740-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is an important poultry pathogen that causes respiratory disease and loss of production worldwide, and is currently controlled with live attenuated vaccines...
  5. Ferguson N, Hepp D, Sun S, Ikuta N, Levisohn S, Kleven S, et al. Use of molecular diversity of Mycoplasma gallisepticum by gene-targeted sequencing (GTS) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis for epidemiological studies. Microbiology. 2005;151:1883-93 pubmed
    A total of 67 Mycoplasma gallisepticum field isolates from the USA, Israel and Australia, and 10 reference strains, were characterized by gene-targeted sequencing (GTS) analysis of portions of the putative cytadhesin pvpA gene, the ..
  6. Szczepanek S, Frasca S, Schumacher V, Liao X, Padula M, Djordjevic S, et al. Identification of lipoprotein MslA as a neoteric virulence factor of Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Infect Immun. 2010;78:3475-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Homologues of family 2 lipoproteins are Mycoplasma specific and include the lipoprotein of Mycoplasma gallisepticum, encoded by the MGA0674 gene. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of the M...
  7. Hosseini P, Dhondt A, Dobson A. Spatial spread of an emerging infectious disease: conjunctivitis in House Finches. Ecology. 2006;87:3037-46 pubmed
    In this paper we quantify the rate of spread of the newly emerged pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum of the House Finch, Carpodacus mexicanus, in its introduced range...
  8. Gerchman I, Lysnyansky I, Perk S, Levisohn S. In vitro susceptibilities to fluoroquinolones in current and archived Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae isolates from meat-type turkeys. Vet Microbiol. 2008;131:266-76 pubmed publisher
    ..study compared in vitro susceptibility to enrofloxacin and difloxacin in recent (2005-2006) isolates of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae from meat-type turkey flocks with archived (1997-2003) isolates and reference ..
  9. Wang Z, Farmer K, Hill G, Edwards S. A cDNA macroarray approach to parasite-induced gene expression changes in a songbird host: genetic response of house finches to experimental infection by Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Mol Ecol. 2006;15:1263-73 pubmed
    In 1994, the bacterial parasite Mycoplasma gallisepticum expanded its host range and swept through populations of a novel host--eastern US populations of the house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus)...

More Information

Publications72

  1. Nolan P, Roberts S, Hill G. Effects of Mycoplasma gallisepticum on reproductive success in house finches. Avian Dis. 2004;48:879-85 pubmed
    Long known as a pathogen of poultry, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) was first detected in house finches in 1994...
  2. Bonneaud C, Balenger S, Zhang J, Edwards S, Hill G. Innate immunity and the evolution of resistance to an emerging infectious disease in a wild bird. Mol Ecol. 2012;21:2628-39 pubmed publisher
    ..mexicanus) in the eastern United States subject to a recent outbreak of conjunctivitis-causing bacterium (Mycoplasma gallisepticum-MG)...
  3. Sydenstricker K, Dhondt A, Hawley D, Jennelle C, Kollias H, Kollias G. Characterization of experimental Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in captive house finch flocks. Avian Dis. 2006;50:39-44 pubmed
    ..For that reason, we characterized in 2002, horizontal transmission of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) in two flocks of 11 wild-caught house finches housed in outdoor aviaries over a 6-mo period...
  4. Muneta Y, Panicker I, Kanci A, Craick D, Noormohammadi A, Bean A, et al. Development and immunogenicity of recombinant Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine strain ts-11 expressing chicken IFN-gamma. Vaccine. 2008;26:5449-54 pubmed publisher
    b>Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is a poultry pathogen that causes respiratory disease and loss of egg production worldwide. A live attenuated vaccine, ts-11, has been used for the control of MG in several countries...
  5. Dhondt A, Dhondt K, Hochachka W, Schat K. Can American goldfinches function as reservoirs for Mycoplasma gallisepticum?. J Wildl Dis. 2013;49:49-54 pubmed publisher
    ..performed experiments to test if American Goldfinches (Spinus tristis) could be a competent reservoir for Mycoplasma gallisepticum and play a role in the epidemic spread of mycoplasmal conjunctivitis among House Finches (Carpodacus ..
  6. Landman W, Corbanie E, Feberwee A, van Eck J. Aerosolization of Mycoplasma synoviae compared with Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Enterococcus faecalis. Avian Pathol. 2004;33:210-5 pubmed
    ..3 m3) to assess the yield and viability of M. synoviae with time compared with Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Enterococcus faecalis...
  7. Lee S, Browning G, Markham P. Development of a replicable oriC plasmid for Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma imitans, and gene disruption through homologous recombination in M. gallisepticum. Microbiology. 2008;154:2571-80 pubmed publisher
    The genome of Mycoplasma gallisepticum strain R(low) has been sequenced completely, but subsequent genetic studies have been limited by the lack of a replicable vector system. In this study, replicable plasmids were constructed for M...
  8. Grodio J, Hawley D, Osnas E, Ley D, Dhondt K, Dhondt A, et al. Pathogenicity and immunogenicity of three Mycoplasma gallisepticum isolates in house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus). Vet Microbiol. 2012;155:53-61 pubmed publisher
    b>Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) has become a common cause of conjunctivitis in free-living house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) since its emergence in the early 1990s...
  9. Delaney N, Balenger S, Bonneaud C, Marx C, Hill G, Ferguson Noel N, et al. Ultrafast evolution and loss of CRISPRs following a host shift in a novel wildlife pathogen, Mycoplasma gallisepticum. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002511 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is a pathogenic bacterium that has evolved predominantly in poultry and recently jumped to wild ..
  10. Dhondt A, Dhondt K, McCleery B. Comparative infectiousness of three passerine bird species after experimental inoculation with Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Avian Pathol. 2008;37:635-40 pubmed publisher
    b>Mycoplasma gallisepticum has been isolated from various species of free-living birds, and we therefore tested the hypothesis that bird species other than the main host, the house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus), could play a role in the ..
  11. Jenkins C, Geary S, Gladd M, Djordjevic S. The Mycoplasma gallisepticum OsmC-like protein MG1142 resides on the cell surface and binds heparin. Microbiology. 2007;153:1455-63 pubmed
    b>Mycoplasma gallisepticum is an avian pathogen that causes a chronic respiratory disease of chickens and results in significant economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide...
  12. Lysnyansky I, Gerchman I, Perk S, Levisohn S. Molecular characterization and typing of enrofloxacin-resistant clinical isolates of Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Avian Dis. 2008;52:685-9 pubmed
    ..The quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of these genes were characterized in 25 Mycoplasma gallisepticum strains isolated from commercial poultry flocks during 1997-2007, which exhibited different levels of ..
  13. Cherry J, Ley D, Altizer S. Genotypic analyses of Mycoplasma gallisepticum isolates from songbirds by random amplification of polymorphic DNA and amplified-fragment length polymorphism. J Wildl Dis. 2006;42:421-8 pubmed
    b>Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) conjunctivitis emerged in 1994 as a disease of free-ranging house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) in North America and has also been isolated from other songbirds with conjunctivitis...
  14. Sprygin A, Andreychuk D, Kolotilov A, Volkov M, Runina I, Mudrak N, et al. Development of a duplex real-time TaqMan PCR assay with an internal control for the detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae in clinical samples from commercial and backyard poultry. Avian Pathol. 2010;39:99-109 pubmed publisher
    ..chain reaction (PCR) assay with an internal control using TaqMan-labelled probes for the detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae (duplex MGMS PCR)...
  15. Hess C, Wang Z, Edwards S. Evolutionary genetics of Carpodacus mexicanus, a recently colonized host of a bacterial pathogen, Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Genetica. 2007;129:217-25 pubmed
    ..These results will be further expanded using experimental studies as well as examination of evolution of the pathogen genome itself...
  16. Masukagami Y, Tivendale K, Mardani K, Ben Barak I, Markham P, Browning G. The Mycoplasma gallisepticum virulence factor lipoprotein MslA is a novel polynucleotide binding protein. Infect Immun. 2013;81:3220-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The gene encoding the lipoprotein MslA in Mycoplasma gallisepticum has recently been shown to be required for virulence, but the biochemical function of this gene is not ..
  17. Garcia M, Ikuta N, Levisohn S, Kleven S. Evaluation and comparison of various PCR methods for detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in chickens. Avian Dis. 2005;49:125-32 pubmed
    Four genetic Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) (16s rRNA PCR, three newly developed PCR methods that target surface protein genes [mgc2, LP (nested) and gapA (nested)]) were compared for analytical ..
  18. Feberwee A, Dijkstra J, von Banniseht Wysmuller T, Gielkens A, Wagenaar J. Genotyping of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and M. synoviae by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) analysis and digitalized Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Vet Microbiol. 2005;111:125-31 pubmed
    b>Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) and M. synoviae (MS) are the cause of considerable economic losses in the poultry industry...
  19. Grodio J, Dhondt K, O Connell P, Schat K. Detection and quantification of Mycoplasma gallisepticum genome load in conjunctival samples of experimentally infected house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Avian Pathol. 2008;37:385-91 pubmed publisher
    ..quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay utilizing the mgc2 gene was developed to detect Mycoplasma gallisepticum in conjunctival swabs of experimentally infected house finches...
  20. Dhondt A, Altizer S, Cooch E, Davis A, Dobson A, Driscoll M, et al. Dynamics of a novel pathogen in an avian host: Mycoplasmal conjunctivitis in house finches. Acta Trop. 2005;94:77-93 pubmed
    In early 1994, a novel strain of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG)--a poultry pathogen with a world-wide distribution--emerged in wild house finches and within 3 years had reached epidemic proportions across their eastern North American range...
  21. Mohammed J, Frasca S, Cecchini K, Rood D, Nyaoke A, Geary S, et al. Chemokine and cytokine gene expression profiles in chickens inoculated with Mycoplasma gallisepticum strains Rlow or GT5. Vaccine. 2007;25:8611-21 pubmed
    b>Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in chickens leads to tracheitis, airsacculitis, poor feed conversion and reduced egg production, resulting in considerable economic hardship on the poultry industry...
  22. Vogl G, Plaickner A, Szathmary S, Stipkovits L, Rosengarten R, Szostak M. Mycoplasma gallisepticum invades chicken erythrocytes during infection. Infect Immun. 2008;76:71-7 pubmed
    Recently, it was demonstrated using in vitro assays that the avian pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum is able to invade nonphagocytic cells...
  23. Sydenstricker K, Dhondt A, Ley D, Kollias G. Re-exposure of captive house finches that recovered from Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection. J Wildl Dis. 2005;41:326-33 pubmed
    Fourteen house finches were reinoculated (re-exposed) with 0.05 ml (3.24x10(5) colony forming units/ml) of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) in the conjunctival sac of each eye...
  24. Demina I, Serebryakova M, Ladygina V, Rogova M, Zgoda V, Korzhenevskyi D, et al. Proteome of the bacterium Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2009;74:165-74 pubmed
    ..the products of gene expression and posttranslational modifications of proteins of the bacterium Mycoplasma gallisepticum S6...
  25. Hess M, Neubauer C, Hackl R. Interlaboratory comparison of ability to detect nucleic acid of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae by polymerase chain reaction. Avian Pathol. 2007;36:127-33 pubmed
    ..polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays have become widely used as methods to confirm the presence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae in poultry flocks, but there has been limited standardization of the protocols ..
  26. Kollias G, Sydenstricker K, Kollias H, Ley D, Hosseini P, Connolly V, et al. Experimental infection of house finches with Mycoplasma gallisepticum. J Wildl Dis. 2004;40:79-86 pubmed
    b>Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) has caused an endemic upper respiratory and ocular infection in the eastern house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) after the epidemic first described in 1994...
  27. Hill G, Farmer K, Beck M. The effect of mycoplasmosis on carotenoid plumage coloration in male house finches. J Exp Biol. 2004;207:2095-9 pubmed
    ..MG targets upper respiratory and ocular tissue. Our observations show that a pathogen that does not directly disrupt carotenoid absorption or transportation can still have a significant effect on carotenoid utilization...
  28. Chernov V, Chernova O, Mouzykantov A, Ponomareva A, Trushin M, Gorshkov O, et al. Phytopathogenicity of avian mycoplasma Mycoplasma gallisepticum S6: morphologic and ultracytostructural changes in plants infected with the vegetative forms and the viable but nonculturable forms of the bacterium. Microbiol Res. 2010;165:346-50 pubmed publisher
    The data obtained in this study proved that Mycoplasma gallisepticum S6 known as avian pathogen had a phytopathogenic potential...
  29. Kleven S, Fulton R, Garcia M, Ikuta V, Leiting V, Liu T, et al. Molecular characterization of Mycoplasma gallisepticum isolates from turkeys. Avian Dis. 2004;48:562-9 pubmed
    b>Mycoplasma gallisepticum was isolated from several turkey flocks at different locations in the United States that were clinically affected with respiratory disease...
  30. Ghorashi S, Noormohammadi A, Markham P. Differentiation of Mycoplasma gallisepticum strains using PCR and high-resolution melting curve analysis. Microbiology. 2010;156:1019-29 pubmed publisher
    b>Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is an economically important pathogen of poultry worldwide, causing chronic respiratory disease in chickens and turkeys...
  31. Pennycott T, Dare C, Yavari C, Bradbury J. Mycoplasma sturni and Mycoplasma gallisepticum in wild birds in Scotland. Vet Rec. 2005;156:513-5 pubmed
  32. Gaunson J, Philip C, Whithear K, Browning G. The cellular immune response in the tracheal mucosa to Mycoplasma gallisepticum in vaccinated and unvaccinated chickens in the acute and chronic stages of disease. Vaccine. 2006;24:2627-33 pubmed
    b>Mycoplasma gallisepticum causes a lymphoproliferative response in the tracheal mucosa of infected birds...
  33. Feberwee A, Mekkes D, de Wit J, Hartman E, Pijpers A. Comparison of culture, PCR, and different serologic tests for detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae infections. Avian Dis. 2005;49:260-8 pubmed
    ..pathogen-free layers that were infected at 66 wk of age with recent Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) and Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) field strains, MS and MG ATCC strains, and Mycoplasma imitans (MIM), respectively...
  34. Farmer K, Hill G, Roberts S. Susceptibility of wild songbirds to the house finch strain of Mycoplasma gallisepticum. J Wildl Dis. 2005;41:317-25 pubmed
    Conjunctivitis in house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus), caused by Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), was first reported in 1994 and, since this time, has become endemic in house finch populations throughout eastern North America...
  35. Javed M, Frasca S, Rood D, Cecchini K, Gladd M, Geary S, et al. Correlates of immune protection in chickens vaccinated with Mycoplasma gallisepticum strain GT5 following challenge with pathogenic M. gallisepticum strain R(low). Infect Immun. 2005;73:5410-9 pubmed
    Colonization of the avian respiratory tract with Mycoplasma gallisepticum results in a profound inflammatory response in the trachea, air sacs, conjunctiva, and lungs. A live attenuated M...
  36. Dhondt A, Dhondt K, Hawley D, Jennelle C. Experimental evidence for transmission of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in house finches by fomites. Avian Pathol. 2007;36:205-8 pubmed
    Ever since Mycoplasma gallisepticum emerged among house finches in North America, it has been suggested that bird aggregations at feeders are an important cause of the epidemic of mycoplasmal conjunctivitis because diseased birds could ..
  37. Panicker I, Kanci A, Chiu C, Veith P, Glew M, Browning G, et al. A novel transposon construct expressing PhoA with potential for studying protein expression and translocation in Mycoplasma gallisepticum. BMC Microbiol. 2012;12:138 pubmed publisher
    b>Mycoplasma gallisepticum is a major poultry pathogen and causes severe economic loss to the poultry industry...
  38. Hudson P, Gorton T, Papazisi L, Cecchini K, Frasca S, Geary S. Identification of a virulence-associated determinant, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (lpd), in Mycoplasma gallisepticum through in vivo screening of transposon mutants. Infect Immun. 2006;74:931-9 pubmed publisher
    To effectively analyze Mycoplasma gallisepticum for virulence-associated determinants, the ability to create stable genetic mutations is essential. Global M. gallisepticum mutagenesis is currently limited to the use of transposons...
  39. Shil P, Kanci A, Browning G, Markham P. Development and immunogenicity of recombinant GapA(+) Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine strain ts-11 expressing infectious bronchitis virus-S1 glycoprotein and chicken interleukin-6. Vaccine. 2011;29:3197-205 pubmed publisher
    b>Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is a major pathogen of poultry that causes chronic respiratory disease in chickens and infectious sinusitis in turkeys...
  40. Kamashev D, Oberto J, Serebryakova M, Gorbachev A, Zhukova Y, Levitskii S, et al. Mycoplasma gallisepticum produces a histone-like protein that recognizes base mismatches in DNA. Biochemistry. 2011;50:8692-702 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the histone-like protein encoded by the himA/hup_2 gene of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (mgHU) recognizes typical MMR substrates, in contrast to homologues from other species...
  41. Hawley D, Dhondt K, Dobson A, Grodio J, Hochachka W, Ley D, et al. Common garden experiment reveals pathogen isolate but no host genetic diversity effect on the dynamics of an emerging wildlife disease. J Evol Biol. 2010;23:1680-8 pubmed publisher
    ..in native North American house finch populations results from greater resistance to the causative agent, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), than introduced, recently-bottlenecked populations that lack genetic diversity...
  42. Stipkovits L, Egyed L, Palfi V, Beres A, Pitlik E, Somogyi M, et al. Effect of low-pathogenicity influenza virus H3N8 infection on Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection of chickens. Avian Pathol. 2012;41:51-7 pubmed publisher
    ..to investigate the infection of LPAI virus H3N8 (A/mallard/Hungary/19616/07) in chickens challenged with Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Two groups of chickens were aerosol challenged with M. gallisepticum...
  43. Bearson S, Collier S, Bearson B, Branton S. Induction of a mycoplasma gallisepticum pMGA gene in the chicken tracheal ring organ culture model. Avian Dis. 2003;47:745-9 pubmed
    Genetic and molecular methods to investigate the pathogenesis of the poultry respiratory pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum are quite limited...
  44. Szczepanek S, Tulman E, Gorton T, Liao X, Lu Z, Zinski J, et al. Comparative genomic analyses of attenuated strains of Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Infect Immun. 2010;78:1760-71 pubmed publisher
    b>Mycoplasma gallisepticum is a significant respiratory and reproductive pathogen of domestic poultry. While the complete genomic sequence of the virulent, low-passage M...
  45. Pillai S, Mays H, Ley D, Luttrell P, Panangala V, Farmer K, et al. Molecular variability of house finch Mycoplasma gallisepticum isolates as revealed by sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the pvpA gene. Avian Dis. 2003;47:640-8 pubmed
    b>Mycoplasma gallisepticum, a major pathogen of chickens and turkeys, has caused significant declines in house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) populations in the eastern United States since it was first observed in this species in 1994...
  46. Dusanic D, Bercic R, Cizelj I, Salmic S, Narat M, Bencina D. Mycoplasma synoviae invades non-phagocytic chicken cells in vitro. Vet Microbiol. 2009;138:114-9 pubmed publisher
    Mycoplasma synoviae and Mycoplasma gallisepticum are major poultry pathogens, but their strains differ significantly in invasiveness and pathogenicity. Recent studies have demonstrated that M...
  47. Mardassi B, Mohamed R, Gueriri I, Boughattas S, Mlik B. Duplex PCR to differentiate between Mycoplasma synoviae and Mycoplasma gallisepticum on the basis of conserved species-specific sequences of their hemagglutinin genes. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:948-58 pubmed
    ..PCR assay targeting the hemagglutinin multigene families, vlhA and pMGA, of Mycoplasma synoviae and Mycoplasma gallisepticum, respectively...
  48. Liu M, Guo S, Hu S, Xiao Y, Xu Q, Li Z, et al. Displaying the protein of Mycoplasma gallisepticum agglutinin on the cell surface of Bacillus thuringiensis with the S-layer protein. Vet Microbiol. 2008;130:99-106 pubmed publisher
    ..system of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) was used to test the possibility of displaying the protein of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) agglutinin (pMGA) on the Bt cell surface. By fusing part of pmga1.2 (pmga1...
  49. Darbro J, Dhondt A, Vermeylen F, Harrington L. Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) affects mosquito blood feeding patterns. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;77:488-94 pubmed
    ..mexicanus) to mosquitoes (Culex pipiens pipiens), repeated the experiment after inoculating finches with Mycoplasma gallisepticum, and then repeated the experiment with the same birds after curing their infections...
  50. Feberwee A, Mekkes D, Klinkenberg D, Vernooij J, Gielkens A, Stegeman J. An experimental model to quantify horizontal transmission of Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Avian Pathol. 2005;34:355-61 pubmed
    Before interventions to control horizontal transmission of Mycoplasma gallisepticum can be tested, a suitable experimental model should be available...
  51. Li B, Shen J, Cao X, Wang Y, Dai L, Huang S, et al. Mutations in 23S rRNA gene associated with decreased susceptibility to tiamulin and valnemulin in Mycoplasma gallisepticum. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2010;308:144-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Mycoplasma gallisepticum is a major etiological agent of chronic respiratory disease (CRD) in chickens and sinusitis in turkeys. The pleuromutilin antibiotics tiamulin and valnemulin are currently used in the treatment of M...
  52. F├╝rnkranz U, Siebert Gulle K, Rosengarten R, Szostak M. Factors influencing the cell adhesion and invasion capacity of Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Acta Vet Scand. 2013;55:63 pubmed publisher
    The cell invasiveness of Mycoplasma gallisepticum, the causative agent of respiratory disease in chickens and infectious sinusitis in turkeys, may be a substantial factor in the well-known chronicity of these diseases and in the systemic ..
  53. Adelman J, Kirkpatrick L, Grodio J, Hawley D. House finch populations differ in early inflammatory signaling and pathogen tolerance at the peak of Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection. Am Nat. 2013;181:674-89 pubmed publisher
    ..finches (Haemorhous [formerly Carpodacus] mexicanus) with different histories with the bacterial pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG)...
  54. Indikov I, Much P, Stipkovits L, Siebert Gulle K, Szostak M, Rosengarten R, et al. Role of the GapA and CrmA cytadhesins of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in promoting virulence and host colonization. Infect Immun. 2013;81:1618-24 pubmed publisher
    b>Mycoplasma gallisepticum is an important avian pathogen that commonly induces chronic respiratory disease in chicken...
  55. Mekkes D, Feberwee A. Real-time polymerase chain reaction for the qualitative and quantitative detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Avian Pathol. 2005;34:348-54 pubmed
    ..a real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) developed for the qualitative and quantitative detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum. No cross-reactivity was observed with DNA from other important avian mycoplasmas, including Mycoplasma ..
  56. Callison S, Riblet S, Sun S, Ikuta N, Hilt D, Leiting V, et al. Development and validation of a real-time Taqman polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in naturally infected birds. Avian Dis. 2006;50:537-44 pubmed
    ..of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using a Taqman-labeled probe for the detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MGLP assay)...
  57. Gerchman I, Levisohn S, Mikula I, Manso Silvan L, Lysnyansky I. Characterization of in vivo-acquired resistance to macrolides of Mycoplasma gallisepticum strains isolated from poultry. Vet Res. 2011;42:90 pubmed publisher
    ..Indeed, all isolates with MIC ? 0.63 ?g/mL to tylosin and with MIC ? 1.25 ?g/mL to tilmicosin possess one of these mutations, suggesting an essential role in decreased susceptibility of M. gallisepticum to 16-membered macrolides...
  58. Vitula F, Peckova L, Bandouchova H, Pohanka M, Novotny L, Jira D, et al. Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in the grey partridge Perdix perdix: outbreak description, histopathology, biochemistry and antioxidant parameters. BMC Vet Res. 2011;7:34 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to describe the outbreak, pathology, and blood and tissue biochemical responses in a flock of grey partridges naturally infected with Mycoplasma gallisepticum.
  59. Chen H, Yu S, Shen X, Chen D, Qiu X, Song C, et al. The Mycoplasma gallisepticum ?-enolase is cell surface-exposed and mediates adherence by binding to chicken plasminogen. Microb Pathog. 2011;51:285-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The ?-enolase protein is reported to be an adhesin in several pathogenic bacterial species, but its role in Mycoplasma gallisepticum is unknown. In this study, the M...
  60. Jarquin R, Schultz J, Hanning I, Ricke S. Development of a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for the simultaneous detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae under industry conditions. Avian Dis. 2009;53:73-7 pubmed
    In this research we developed a real-time SYBR green assay to detect both Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) in a single reaction...
  61. Zhang G, Zhang R, Zhao H, Wang X, Zhang S, Li X, et al. A safety assessment of a fowlpox-vectored Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine in chickens. Poult Sci. 2010;89:1301-6 pubmed publisher
    A recombinant fowlpox virus vaccine expressing key protective Mycoplasma gallisepticum antigens could facilitate in the prevention both of fowlpox virus and M. gallisepticum infections...
  62. Pakpinyo S, Sasipreeyajan J. Molecular characterization and determination of antimicrobial resistance of Mycoplasma gallisepticum isolated from chickens. Vet Microbiol. 2007;125:59-65 pubmed
    ..characterization, determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and antimicrobial tested on Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) isolated from chicken farms were investigated...
  63. Jenkins C, Samudrala R, Geary S, Djordjevic S. Structural and functional characterization of an organic hydroperoxide resistance protein from Mycoplasma gallisepticum. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:2206-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we characterize a homolog of the ohr (organic hydroperoxide resistance) family from Mycoplasma gallisepticum (encoding MGA1142)...