mycoplasma fermentans

Summary

Summary: A species of the genus MYCOPLASMA, originally isolated infrequently from the lower genital tract of humans, and possessing uncertain pathogenicity. The incognitus strain of M. fermentans has been identified in necrotizing lesions of multiple organs from AIDS and non-AIDS patients dying of an acute influenza-like disease.

Top Publications

  1. Yavlovich A, Katzenell A, Tarshis M, Higazi A, Rottem S. Mycoplasma fermentans binds to and invades HeLa cells: involvement of plasminogen and urokinase. Infect Immun. 2004;72:5004-11 pubmed
    Adherence of Mycoplasma fermentans to HeLa cells followed saturation kinetics, required a divalent cation, and was enhanced by preincubation of the organism at 37 degrees C for 1 h in a low-osmolarity solution...
  2. Hu W, Yang C. IS1550 from Mycoplasma fermentans is transposable in Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2001;198:159-64 pubmed
    An insertion sequence (IS)-like element (ISMil) was previously isolated from the incognitus strain of Mycoplasma fermentans. With polymerase chain reaction primers corresponding to the left and right terminal inverted repeats of ISMil, a ..
  3. Zahringer U, Wagner F, Rietschel E, Ben Menachem G, Deutsch J, Rottem S. Primary structure of a new phosphocholine-containing glycoglycerolipid of Mycoplasma fermentans. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:26262-70 pubmed
    ..of a novel phosphocholine-containing glycoglycerolipid, the major polar lipid in the cell membrane of Mycoplasma fermentans PG18, was investigated by chemical analyses, gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, matrix-assisted ..
  4. Zhang S, Tsai S, Wu T, Li B, Shih J, Lo S. Mycoplasma fermentans infection promotes immortalization of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in culture. Blood. 2004;104:4252-9 pubmed
    ..We examined effects of Mycoplasma fermentans infection on the continuing survival and immortality of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) ..
  5. Kaufmann A, Muhlradt P, Gemsa D, Sprenger H. Induction of cytokines and chemokines in human monocytes by Mycoplasma fermentans-derived lipoprotein MALP-2. Infect Immun. 1999;67:6303-8 pubmed
    ..We investigated the induction of cytokines and chemokines in human monocytes exposed to the Mycoplasma fermentans-derived membrane component MALP-2 (macrophage-activating lipopeptide 2) by dose response and kinetic ..
  6. Calcutt M, Lavrrar J, Wise K. IS1630 of Mycoplasma fermentans, a novel IS30-type insertion element that targets and duplicates inverted repeats of variable length and sequence during insertion. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:7597-607 pubmed
    A new insertion sequence (IS) of Mycoplasma fermentans is described. This element, designated IS1630, is 1,377 bp long and has 27-bp inverted repeats at the termini...
  7. Matsuda K, Ishizuka I, Kasama T, Handa S, Yamamoto N, Taki T. Structure of a novel phosphocholine-containing aminoglycoglycerolipid of Mycoplasma fermentans. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1997;1349:1-12 pubmed
    b>Mycoplasma fermentans is thought to be a pathogen of rheumatoid arthritis or a cofactor of AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome)...
  8. Schaeverbeke T, Clerc M, Lequen L, Charron A, de Barbeyrac B, Bannwarth B, et al. Genotypic characterization of seven strains of Mycoplasma fermentans isolated from synovial fluids of patients with arthritis. J Clin Microbiol. 1998;36:1226-31 pubmed
    We performed a genotypic characterization of seven strains of Mycoplasma fermentans which have been isolated from the synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (n = 2), spondyloarthropathy (n = 1), and unclassified arthritis (..
  9. Zouboulis C, Turnbull J, Muhlradt P. Association of Mycoplasma fermentans with Adamantiades-Behçet's disease. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2003;528:191-4 pubmed

More Information

Publications69

  1. Gerlic M, Horowitz J, Horowitz S. Mycoplasma fermentans inhibits tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis in the human myelomonocytic U937 cell line. Cell Death Differ. 2004;11:1204-12 pubmed
    b>Mycoplasma fermentans (M. fermentans) was shown to be involved in the alteration of several eukaryotic cell functions (i.e...
  2. Gao F, Barchowsky A, Nemec A, Fabisiak J. Microbial stimulation by Mycoplasma fermentans synergistically amplifies IL-6 release by human lung fibroblasts in response to residual oil fly ash (ROFA) and nickel. Toxicol Sci. 2004;81:467-79 pubmed
  3. Afriat R, Horowitz S, Priel E. Mycoplasma fermentans inhibits the activity of cellular DNA topoisomerase I by activation of PARP1 and alters the efficacy of its anti-cancer inhibitor. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e72377 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we investigated the mechanism by which infection of human tumor cells with Mycoplasma fermentans affects the activity and expression of cellular Topo I, and the anti-cancer efficacy of CPT...
  4. Balbo M, Barel M, Lottin Divoux S, Jean D, Frade R. Infection of human B lymphoma cells by Mycoplasma fermentans induces interaction of its elongation factor with the intracytoplasmic domain of Epstein-Barr virus receptor (gp140, EBV/C3dR, CR2, CD21). FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2005;249:359-66 pubmed
    Human cell lines are often infected by mycoplama strains. We have demonstrated that when infected by Mycoplasma fermentans, human B lymphoma cell proliferation increased strongly...
  5. Into T, Okada K, Inoue N, Yasuda M, Shibata K. Extracellular ATP regulates cell death of lymphocytes and monocytes induced by membrane-bound lipoproteins of Mycoplasma fermentans and Mycoplasma salivarium. Microbiol Immunol. 2002;46:667-75 pubmed
    The cytotoxicities of lipoproteins of Mycoplasma fermentans and Mycoplasma salivarium to a lymphocytic cell line, MOLT-4, and a monocytic cell line, HL-60, was upregulated by ATP added extracellularly in a dose-dependent manner...
  6. Gilroy C, Keat A, Taylor Robinson D. The prevalence of Mycoplasma fermentans in patients with inflammatory arthritides. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2001;40:1355-8 pubmed
    To search for evidence that Mycoplasma fermentans is involved in the pathogenesis of some forms of human arthritis by testing for the presence of mycoplasmal DNA in joint material.
  7. Liu Y, Lin I, Chung W, Hu W, Ng W, Lu C, et al. Proteomics characterization of cytoplasmic and lipid-associated membrane proteins of human pathogen Mycoplasma fermentans M64. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e35304 pubmed publisher
    b>Mycoplasma fermentans is a potent human pathogen which has been implicated in several diseases...
  8. R ske K, Calcutt M, Wise K. The Mycoplasma fermentans prophage phiMFV1: genome organization, mobility and variable expression of an encoded surface protein. Mol Microbiol. 2004;52:1703-20 pubmed publisher
    The approximately 16 kb genome of the Mycoplasma fermentans phiMFV1 prophage is described, and its mobility, replication and effect on the mycoplasma surface phenotype are demonstrated. In various M...
  9. Johnson S, Sidebottom D, Bruckner F, Collins D. Identification of Mycoplasma fermentans in synovial fluid samples from arthritis patients with inflammatory disease. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:90-3 pubmed
    Since 1970 Mycoplasma fermentans has been suspected of being associated with rheumatoid arthritis. However, this association has been difficult to prove, and this has been our goal. The distribution of M...
  10. Romero F, Moreno E, Ruiz Bravo A, Jimenez Valera M. In vivo immunomodulation by Mycoplasma fermentans membrane lipoprotein. Curr Microbiol. 2004;48:237-9 pubmed
    The immunomodulatory effects of Mycoplasma fermentans-derived membrane lipoprotein (LAMPf) in BALB/c mice were examined...
  11. Into T, Kiura K, Yasuda M, Kataoka H, Inoue N, Hasebe A, et al. Stimulation of human Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR6 with membrane lipoproteins of Mycoplasma fermentans induces apoptotic cell death after NF-kappa B activation. Cell Microbiol. 2004;6:187-99 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to clarify the apoptotic machineries. Mycoplasma fermentans lipoproteins and a synthetic lipopeptide, MALP-2, showed cytocidal activity towards HEK293 cells ..
  12. Vojdani A, Choppa P, Tagle C, Andrin R, Samimi B, Lapp C. Detection of Mycoplasma genus and Mycoplasma fermentans by PCR in patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 1998;22:355-65 pubmed
    b>Mycoplasma fermentans and other Mycoplasma species are colonizers of human mucosal surfaces and may be associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection...
  13. Schaeverbeke T, Gilroy C, Bebear C, Dehais J, Taylor Robinson D. Mycoplasma fermentans, but not M penetrans, detected by PCR assays in synovium from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic disorders. J Clin Pathol. 1996;49:824-8 pubmed
    Mycoplasmas, especially Mycoplasma fermentans, were suggested more than 20 years ago as a possible cause of rheumatoid arthritis but this hypothesis was never substantiated...
  14. Nir Paz R, Prevost M, Nicolas P, Blanchard A, Wróblewski H. Susceptibilities of Mycoplasma fermentans and Mycoplasma hyorhinis to membrane-active peptides and enrofloxacin in human tissue cell cultures. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002;46:1218-25 pubmed
    ..In the present work, we investigated the susceptibilities of Mycoplasma fermentans and Mycoplasma hyorhinis to the membrane-active peptides alamethicin, dermaseptin B2, gramicidin S, and ..
  15. Gerlic M, Horowitz J, Farkash S, Horowitz S. The inhibitory effect of Mycoplasma fermentans on tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-induced apoptosis resides in the membrane lipoproteins. Cell Microbiol. 2007;9:142-53 pubmed
    ..We have previously reported that infection of human myelomonocytic U937 cell line with live Mycoplasma fermentans (M. fermentans) inhibited tumour necrosis factor (TNF-alpha)-induced apoptosis...
  16. Pereyre S, Gonzalez P, de Barbeyrac B, Darnige A, Renaudin H, Charron A, et al. Mutations in 23S rRNA account for intrinsic resistance to macrolides in Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma fermentans and for acquired resistance to macrolides in M. hominis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002;46:3142-50 pubmed
    ..hominis to 14- and 15-membered macrolides and the first description of mycoplasma clinical isolates resistant to macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin antibiotics harboring a mutation at position 2611 in the 23S rRNA...
  17. Ishida N, Irikura D, Matsuda K, Sato S, Sone T, Tanaka M, et al. Enzymatic synthesis of Mycoplasma fermentans specific glycoglycerophospholipid from 1,2-dipalmitoylglycerol. J Biosci Bioeng. 2010;109:341-5 pubmed publisher
    ..mf3, encoding glycosyltransferase in glycoglycerophospholipid (GGPL; GGPL-I and GGPL-III) biosynthesis in Mycoplasma fermentans PG18 was identified by genomic analysis, cloned, modified codon usage, and expressed in Escherichia coli...
  18. Krausse Opatz B, Schmidt C, Fendrich U, Bialowons A, Kaever V, Zeidler H, et al. Production of prostaglandin E2 in monocytes stimulated in vitro by Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and Mycoplasma fermentans. Microb Pathog. 2004;37:155-61 pubmed
    ..b>Mycoplasma fermentans (MF) also stimulated PGE(2) production...
  19. Shu H, Liu T, Chan H, Liu Y, Wu K, Shu H, et al. Genome sequence of the repetitive-sequence-rich Mycoplasma fermentans strain M64. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:4302-3 pubmed publisher
    b>Mycoplasma fermentans is a microorganism commonly found in the genitourinary and respiratory tracts of healthy individuals and AIDS patients. The complete genome of the repetitive-sequence-rich M. fermentans strain M64 is reported here...
  20. Tsai S, Wear D, Shih J, Lo S. Mycoplasmas and oncogenesis: persistent infection and multistage malignant transformation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:10197-201 pubmed
    Oncogenic potential of human mycoplasmas was studied using cultured mouse embryo cells, C3H/10T1/2 (C3H). Mycoplasma fermentans and Mycoplasma penetrans, mycoplasmas found in unusually high frequencies among patients with AIDS, were ..
  21. Calcutt M, Lewis M, Wise K. Molecular genetic analysis of ICEF, an integrative conjugal element that is present as a repetitive sequence in the chromosome of Mycoplasma fermentans PG18. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:6929-41 pubmed
    ..a large ( approximately 23-kb) genetic element with unique features that is present in four copies in the Mycoplasma fermentans PG18 chromosome, accounting for approximately 8% of the genome...
  22. Yavlovich A, Rottem S. Binding of host extracellular matrix proteins to Mycoplasma fermentans and its effect on adherence to, and invasion of HeLa cells. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2007;266:158-62 pubmed
    In the present study, we show that intact Mycoplasma fermentans cells have a wealth of adhesive interactions with components of the extracellular matrix...
  23. Kraft M, Cassell G, Henson J, Watson H, Williamson J, Marmion B, et al. Detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in the airways of adults with chronic asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1998;158:998-1001 pubmed
    ..pneumoniae (p = 0.05). M. pneumoniae was present in the lower airways of chronic, stable asthmatics with greater frequency than control subjects, and may play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic asthma...
  24. Kawahito Y, Ichinose S, Sano H, Tsubouchi Y, Kohno M, Yoshikawa T, et al. Mycoplasma fermentans glycolipid-antigen as a pathogen of rheumatoid arthritis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;369:561-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Mycoplasma fermentans has been suspected as one of the causative pathogenic microorganisms of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) however, the pathogenic mechanism is still unclear...
  25. Ma X, You X, Zeng Y, He J, Liu L, Deng Z, et al. Mycoplasma fermentans MALP-2 induces heme oxygenase-1 expression via mitogen-activated protein kinases and Nrf2 pathways to modulate cyclooxygenase 2 expression in human monocytes. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2013;20:827-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that MALP-2 induces HO-1 expression via MAPKs and Nrf2 pathways and, furthermore, that MALP-2-induced COX-2 expression was modulated by HO-1 in THP-1 cells...
  26. Reyes L, Davidson M, Thomas L, Davis J. Effects of Mycoplasma fermentans incognitus on differentiation of THP-1 cells. Infect Immun. 1999;67:3188-92 pubmed
    b>Mycoplasma fermentans incognitus has been isolated from human tissue in patients both with and without AIDS who died of systemic infection. M. fermentans incognitus and other strains of M...
  27. Fabisiak J, Gao F, Thomson R, Strieter R, Watkins S, Dauber J. Mycoplasma fermentans and TNF-beta interact to amplify immune-modulating cytokines in human lung fibroblasts. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2006;291:L781-93 pubmed
    ..We developed an experimental model in which lung cells are deliberately infected with Mycoplasma fermentans. Human lung fibroblasts (HLF) were exposed to live M...
  28. Shibata K, Watanabe T. Mycoplasma fermentans enhances concanavalin A-induced apoptosis of mouse splenic T cells. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 1997;17:103-9 pubmed
    b>Mycoplasma fermentans, an AIDS-associated mycoplasma, possessed the activity of enhancing concanavalin A-induced apoptosis of T cells purified from mouse spleen by a nylon wool column, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha played an important ..
  29. Ishida N, Irikura D, Matsuda K, Sato S, Sone T, Tanaka M, et al. Molecular cloning and expression of a novel cholinephosphotransferase involved in glycoglycerophospholipid biosynthesis of Mycoplasma fermentans. Curr Microbiol. 2009;58:535-40 pubmed publisher
    A gene, mf1, encoding a novel cholinephosphotransferase in glycoglycerophospholipid (GGPL) biosynthesis of Mycoplasma fermentans PG18 was identified by genomic analysis, cloned, and expressed in Escherichia coli...
  30. Rawadi G, Garcia J, Lemercier B, Roman Roman S. Signal transduction pathways involved in the activation of NF-kappa B, AP-1, and c-fos by Mycoplasma fermentans membrane lipoproteins in macrophages. J Immunol. 1999;162:2193-203 pubmed
    b>Mycoplasma fermentans-derived membrane lipoproteins (LAMPf) have been demonstrated to stimulate monocytic cells and to induce the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by a mechanism involving the triggering of protein tyrosine kinase ..
  31. Yirmiya R, Weidenfeld J, Barak O, Avitsur R, Pollak Y, Gallily R, et al. The role of brain cytokines in mediating the behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of intracerebral mycoplasma fermentans. Brain Res. 1999;829:28-38 pubmed
    Intracerebral administration of Mycoplasma fermentans (MF), a small microorganism that has been found in the brain of some AIDS patients, induces behavioral and neuroendocrine alterations in rats...
  32. Luhrmann A, Deiters U, Skokowa J, Hanke M, Gessner J, Muhlradt P, et al. In vivo effects of a synthetic 2-kilodalton macrophage-activating lipopeptide of Mycoplasma fermentans after pulmonary application. Infect Immun. 2002;70:3785-92 pubmed
    ..The primary target cells are likely to be the alveolar macrophages liberating chemokines, which attract further leukocytes...
  33. Nishiguchi M, Matsumoto M, Takao T, Hoshino M, Shimonishi Y, Tsuji S, et al. Mycoplasma fermentans lipoprotein M161Ag-induced cell activation is mediated by Toll-like receptor 2: role of N-terminal hydrophobic portion in its multiple functions. J Immunol. 2001;166:2610-6 pubmed
    M161Ag is a 43-kDa surface lipoprotein of Mycoplasma fermentans, serving as a potent cytokine inducer for monocytes/macrophages, maturing dendritic cells (DCs), and activating host complement on affected cells...
  34. Yavlovich A, Rechnitzer H, Rottem S. Alpha-enolase resides on the cell surface of Mycoplasma fermentans and binds plasminogen. Infect Immun. 2007;75:5716-9 pubmed
    Plasminogen (Plg) binding to the cell surface of Mycoplasma fermentans results in a marked increase in the maximal adherence of the organism to HeLa cells, enhanced Plg activation by the urokinase-type Plg activator, and the induction of ..
  35. Brandenburg K, Wagner F, Muller M, Heine H, Andrä J, Koch M, et al. Physicochemical characterization and biological activity of a glycoglycerolipid from Mycoplasma fermentans. Eur J Biochem. 2003;270:3271-9 pubmed
    We report a comprehensive physicochemical characterization of a glycoglycerolipid from Mycoplasma fermentans, MfGl-II, in relation to its bioactivity and compared this with the respective behaviors of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and a ..
  36. Rechnitzer H, Rottem S. Reconstituted proteolipid vesicles prepared from Mycoplasma fermentans membranes are able to bind and fuse with Molt-3 cells. Curr Microbiol. 2006;53:293-7 pubmed
    We describe and characterize reconstituted proteolipid vesicles (rPLV) prepared from solubilized Mycoplasma fermentans membranes and studied their binding to and fusion with host Molt-3 cells...
  37. Leigh S, Wise K. Identification and functional mapping of the Mycoplasma fermentans P29 adhesin. Infect Immun. 2002;70:4925-35 pubmed
    ..that a soluble recombinant fusion protein (FP29), representing the abundant P29 surface lipoprotein of Mycoplasma fermentans, binds human HeLa cells and inhibits M...
  38. Rechnitzer H, Brzuszkiewicz E, Strittmatter A, Liesegang H, Lysnyansky I, Daniel R, et al. Genomic features and insights into the biology of Mycoplasma fermentans. Microbiology. 2011;157:760-73 pubmed publisher
    We present the complete genomic sequence of Mycoplasma fermentans, an organism suggested to be associated with the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis in humans. The genome is composed of 977,524 bp and has a mean G+C content of 26...
  39. Shankar E, Kumarasamy N, Rajan R, Balakrishnan P, Solomon S, Devaleenol B, et al. Aspergillus fumigatus, Pneumocystis jiroveci, Klebsiella pneumoniae & Mycoplasma fermentans co-infection in a HIV infected patient with respiratory conditions from Southern India. Indian J Med Res. 2006;123:181-4 pubmed
  40. Shimizu T, Kida Y, Kuwano K. Lipid-associated membrane proteins of Mycoplasma fermentans and M. penetrans activate human immunodeficiency virus long-terminal repeats through Toll-like receptors. Immunology. 2004;113:121-9 pubmed
    ..Lipid-associated membrane proteins (LAMPs) from two species of mycoplasma (Mycoplasma fermentans and M...
  41. Seya T, Matsumoto M. A lipoprotein family from Mycoplasma fermentans confers host immune activation through Toll-like receptor 2. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2002;34:901-6 pubmed
    ..Here, we summarize the functional properties of this family of proteins, namely pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) and discuss its relationship to the reported pathogenesis of latent mycoplasma infection...
  42. Ben Menachem G, Mousa A, Brenner T, Pinto F, Zahringer U, Rottem S. Choline deficiency induced by Mycoplasma fermentans enhances apoptosis of rat astrocytes. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2001;201:157-62 pubmed
    A choline uptake system accumulating free choline in an energy-dependent process is described in Mycoplasma fermentans. The uptake system has a K(m) of 2.2x10(-5) M and a V(max) of 0...
  43. Yavlovich A, Higazi A, Rottem S. Plasminogen binding and activation by Mycoplasma fermentans. Infect Immun. 2001;69:1977-82 pubmed
    The binding of plasminogen to Mycoplasma fermentans was studied by an immunoblot analysis and by a binding assay using iodine-labeled plasminogen...
  44. Pitcher D, Hilbocus J. Variability in the distribution and composition of insertion sequence-like elements in strains of Mycoplasma fermentans. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1998;160:101-9 pubmed
    b>Mycoplasma fermentans has been reported to be pathogenic for man. All fourteen strains tested contain an insertion sequence-like element (ISLE) which may be present in multiple copies...
  45. Shu H, Liu T, Chan H, Liu Y, Wu K, Shu H, et al. Complexity of the Mycoplasma fermentans M64 genome and metabolic essentiality and diversity among mycoplasmas. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32940 pubmed publisher
    Recently, the genomes of two Mycoplasma fermentans strains, namely M64 and JER, have been completely sequenced...
  46. Gil C, Rivera A, Bañuelos D, Salinas S, Garcia Latorre E, Cedillo L. Presence of Mycoplasma fermentans in the bloodstream of Mexican patients with rheumatoid arthritis and IgM and IgG antibodies against whole microorganism. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2009;10:97 pubmed publisher
    Increasing evidence incriminates bacteria, especially Mycoplasma fermentans, as possible arthritogenic agents in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate M. fermentans in the bloodstream of patients with rheumatoid arthritis...
  47. Hu W, Wang R, Shih J, Lo S. Identification of a putative infC-rpmI-rplT operon flanked by long inverted repeats in Mycoplasma fermentans (incognitus strain). Gene. 1993;127:79-85 pubmed
    A specific 1542-bp DNA fragment was amplified from Mycoplasma fermentans (incognitus strain) using a unique 23-nucleotide (nt) synthetic deoxyribonucleotide (oligo) (5'-TCCAAAAAGTCCGGAATTTGGGG) as the primer pair in the polymerase chain ..
  48. Rivera Tapia J. [Molecular diagnostic of Mycoplasma fermentans in arthritic patients]. Gac Med Mex. 2003;139:85-6 pubmed
  49. Hall R, Agarwal S, Kestler D. Induction of leukemia cell differentiation and apoptosis by recombinant P48, a modulin derived from Mycoplasma fermentans. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000;269:284-9 pubmed
    ..in the conditioned medium of the Reh and other leukemia cell lines and has recently been shown to be a Mycoplasma fermentans gene product...
  50. Zhang S, Wear D, Lo S. Mycoplasmal infections alter gene expression in cultured human prostatic and cervical epithelial cells. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2000;27:43-50 pubmed
    ..Prolonged gene expression changes induced by chronic mycoplasmal infection may gradually alter important biological properties in the infected mammalian cells and produce a unique form of disease process...
  51. Lien E, Sellati T, Yoshimura A, Flo T, Rawadi G, Finberg R, et al. Toll-like receptor 2 functions as a pattern recognition receptor for diverse bacterial products. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:33419-25 pubmed
    ..We observed that membrane lipoproteins/lipopeptides from Borrelia burgdorferi, Treponema pallidum, and Mycoplasma fermentans activated cells heterologously expressing TLR2 but not those expressing TLR1 or TLR4...
  52. Furneri P, Paolino D, Saija A, Marino A, Bisignano G. In vitro antimycoplasmal activity of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2006;58:706-7 pubmed
  53. Liu W, Shou C. Mycoplasma hyorhinis and Mycoplasma fermentans induce cell apoptosis and changes in gene expression profiles of 32D cells. Biol Res. 2011;44:383-91 pubmed publisher
    ..While Mycoplasma hyorhinis and Mycoplasma fermentans have been detected in gastric adenocarcinomas, the mechanisms underlyine the pathogenesis are unknown...
  54. Matsuda K, Li J, Ichinose S, Harasawa R, Saito M, Yamamoto N. Monoclonal antibody against Mycoplasma fermentans-specific aminoglycoglycerolipid. Microbiol Immunol. 2000;44:695-702 pubmed
    Previously, we reported that Mycoplasma fermentans has specific antigens (phosphocholine-containing glycoglycerolipids: GGPL-I and GGPL-III) and discussed the possibility of their pathogenic role...
  55. Yáñez A, Martínez Ramos A, Calixto T, González Matus F, Rivera Tapia J, Giono S, et al. Animal model of Mycoplasma fermentans respiratory infection. BMC Res Notes. 2013;6:9 pubmed publisher
    b>Mycoplasma fermentans has been associated with respiratory, genitourinary tract infections and rheumatoid diseases but its role as pathogen is controversial...
  56. Cheng Q, Wu L, Tu R, Wu J, Kang W, Su T, et al. Mycoplasma fermentans deacetylase promotes mammalian cell stress tolerance. Microbiol Res. 2017;201:1-11 pubmed publisher
    b>Mycoplasma fermentans is a pathogenic bacterium that infects humans and has potential pathogenic roles in respiratory, genital and rheumatoid diseases...
  57. Podbielska M, Dasgupta S, Levery S, Tourtellotte W, Annuk H, Moran A, et al. Novel myelin penta- and hexa-acetyl-galactosyl-ceramides: structural characterization and immunoreactivity in cerebrospinal fluid. J Lipid Res. 2010;51:1394-406 pubmed publisher
    ..patients had increased reactivity with the hydrophobic FMCs and with glycoglycerophospholipid MfGL-II from Mycoplasma fermentans. The cross-reactivity of highly acetylated GalCer with microbial acyl-glycolipid raises the possibility ..
  58. Sato N, Oizumi T, Kinbara M, Sato T, Funayama H, Sato S, et al. Promotion of arthritis and allergy in mice by aminoglycoglycerophospholipid, a membrane antigen specific to Mycoplasma fermentans. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2010;59:33-41 pubmed publisher
    ..a unique phosphocholine-containing aminoglycoglycerophospholipid, is a major specific antigen of Mycoplasma fermentans, and has been detected in 38% of RA patients...
  59. Barski L, Nevzorov R, Horowitz J, Horowitz S. Antibodies to various mycoplasmas in patients with coronary heart disease. Isr Med Assoc J. 2010;12:396-9 pubmed
    ..The role of infectious pathogens in the development and rupture of atherosclerotic plaques remains elusive but an association between Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and CHD has been reported previously...
  60. Zouboulis C. HLA-independent antibacterial host response toward Th1 immunity mediated by IL-12: a new concept for the pathogenesis of Adamantiades-Behçet's disease. J Invest Dermatol. 2006;126:1444-7 pubmed
    ..The authors provide evidence for an antibacterial host response toward T-helper type 1 immunity mediated by IL-12 in patients with ABD, which is HLA independent...