spiroplasma

Summary

Summary: A genus of gram-negative, helical bacteria, in the family SPIROPLASMATACEAE, order Entomoplasmatales, causing disease in PLANTS. It has been isolated from TICKS; INSECTS; and PLANTS.

Top Publications

  1. Renaudin J, Pascarel M, Bov J. Spiroplasma virus 4: nucleotide sequence of the viral DNA, regulatory signals, and proposed genome organization. J Bacteriol. 1987;169:4950-61 pubmed
    The replicative form (RF) of spiroplasma virus 4 (SpV4) has been cloned in Escherichia coli, and the cloned RF has been shown to be infectious by transfection (M. C. Pascarel-Devilder, J. Renaudin, and J.-M...
  2. Gasparich G, Whitcomb R, Dodge D, French F, Glass J, Williamson D. The genus Spiroplasma and its non-helical descendants: phylogenetic classification, correlation with phenotype and roots of the Mycoplasma mycoides clade. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2004;54:893-918 pubmed
    The genus Spiroplasma (helical mollicutes: Bacteria: Firmicutes: Mollicutes: Entomoplasmatales: Spiroplasmataceae) is associated primarily with insects. The Mycoplasma mycoides cluster (sensu Weisburg et al...
  3. Joshi B, Berg M, Rogers J, Fletcher J, Melcher U. Sequence comparisons of plasmids pBJS-O of Spiroplasma citri and pSKU146 of S. kunkelii: implications for plasmid evolution. BMC Genomics. 2005;6:175 pubmed
    b>Spiroplasma citri BR3-3X and S. kunkelii CR2-3X cause serious diseases worldwide on citrus and maize species, respectively. S...
  4. Bi K, Huang H, Gu W, Wang J, Wang W. Phylogenetic analysis of Spiroplasmas from three freshwater crustaceans (Eriocheir sinensis, Procambarus clarkia and Penaeus vannamei) in China. J Invertebr Pathol. 2008;99:57-65 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Spiroplasma was identified as a lethal pathogen of the above three freshwater crustaceans in previous studies...
  5. Wang W, Gu W, Gasparich G, Bi K, Ou J, Meng Q, et al. Spiroplasma eriocheiris sp. nov., associated with mortality in the Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2011;61:703-8 pubmed publisher
    ..sequence analysis, the strain was phylogenetically distinct from other spiroplasmas but was closely related to Spiroplasma mirum ATCC 29335(T)...
  6. Renaudin J, Aullo P, Vignault J, Bov J. Complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of Spiroplasma citri virus SpV1-R8A2 B. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990;18:1293 pubmed
  7. Jaenike J, Unckless R, Cockburn S, Boelio L, Perlman S. Adaptation via symbiosis: recent spread of a Drosophila defensive symbiont. Science. 2010;329:212-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate that a maternally transmitted bacterium, Spiroplasma, protects Drosophila neotestacea against the sterilizing effects of a parasitic nematode, both in the ..
  8. Anbutsu H, Fukatsu T. Evasion, suppression and tolerance of Drosophila innate immunity by a male-killing Spiroplasma endosymbiont. Insect Mol Biol. 2010;19:481-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The male-killing spiroplasma tended to reduce constitutive expression levels of some antimicrobial peptide genes, while the non-male-killing ..
  9. Veneti Z, Bentley J, Koana T, Braig H, Hurst G. A functional dosage compensation complex required for male killing in Drosophila. Science. 2005;307:1461-3 pubmed
    ..We tested the ability of Spiroplasma poulsonii to kill Drosophila melanogaster males carrying mutations in genes that encode the dosage compensation ..

More Information

Publications84

  1. Hurst G, Anbutsu H, Kutsukake M, Fukatsu T. Hidden from the host: Spiroplasma bacteria infecting Drosophila do not cause an immune response, but are suppressed by ectopic immune activation. Insect Mol Biol. 2003;12:93-7 pubmed
    ..We investigated the interaction between one member of this clade, a relative of Spiroplasma poulsonii, and the immune system of its Drosophila host...
  2. Enigl M, Schausberger P. Incidence of the endosymbionts Wolbachia, Cardinium and Spiroplasma in phytoseiid mites and associated prey. Exp Appl Acarol. 2007;42:75-85 pubmed
    ..12 agriculturally relevant herbivorous and predatory mite species for infection with Wolbachia, Cardinium and Spiroplasma by the use of PCR. The majority of specimens originated from Austria and were field collected or mass-reared...
  3. Trachtenberg S. Shaping and moving a spiroplasma. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2004;7:78-87 pubmed
    The Mollicutes (Spiroplasma, Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma) are the most minimal cells known to exist, being the smallest and simplest free-living and self-replicating forms of life...
  4. Meng Q, Ou J, Ji H, Jiang X, Gu W, Wang W. Identification and characterization of spiralin-like protein SLP25 from Spiroplasma eriocheiris. Vet Microbiol. 2010;144:473-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Spiroplasma eriocheiris causes tremor disease (TD) of Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis, but little is known about the molecular characterization of this pathogen...
  5. Montenegro H, Solferini V, Klaczko L, Hurst G. Male-killing Spiroplasma naturally infecting Drosophila melanogaster. Insect Mol Biol. 2005;14:281-7 pubmed
    ..3% of flies from Recife, Brazil, and was uniquely associated with the presence of Spiroplasma infection...
  6. Bastian F, Sanders D, Forbes W, Hagius S, Walker J, Henk W, et al. Spiroplasma spp. from transmissible spongiform encephalopathy brains or ticks induce spongiform encephalopathy in ruminants. J Med Microbiol. 2007;56:1235-42 pubmed
    b>Spiroplasma, small motile wall-less bacteria, are linked by molecular and serological studies to the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), which include scrapie in sheep, chronic wasting disease (CWD) in deer and Creutzfeldt-..
  7. Ozbek E, Miller S, Meulia T, Hogenhout S. Infection and replication sites of Spiroplasma kunkelii (Class: Mollicutes) in midgut and Malpighian tubules of the leafhopper Dalbulus maidis. J Invertebr Pathol. 2003;82:167-75 pubmed
    b>Spiroplasma kunkelii distribution and infection mechanisms in the intestines and Malpighian tubules of Dalbulus maidis were investigated by transmission electron microscopy...
  8. Watts T, Haselkorn T, Moran N, Markow T. Variable incidence of Spiroplasma infections in natural populations of Drosophila species. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5703 pubmed publisher
    b>Spiroplasma is widespread as a heritable bacterial symbiont in insects and some other invertebrates, in which it sometimes acts as a male-killer and causes female-biased sex ratios in hosts...
  9. v d Schulenburg J, Hurst G, Tetzlaff D, Booth G, Zakharov I, Majerus M. History of infection with different male-killing bacteria in the two-spot ladybird beetle Adalia bipunctata revealed through mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis. Genetics. 2002;160:1075-86 pubmed
    ..bacteria that kill male hosts during embryogenesis: one each of the genus Rickettsia (alpha-Proteobacteria) and Spiroplasma (Mollicutes) and two distinct strains of Wolbachia (alpha-Proteobacteria)...
  10. Gasparich G. Spiroplasmas and phytoplasmas: microbes associated with plant hosts. Biologicals. 2010;38:193-203 pubmed publisher
    This review will focus on two distinct genera, Spiroplasma and 'Candidatus Phytoplasma,' within the class Mollicutes (which also includes the genus Mycoplasma, a concern for animal-based cell culture)...
  11. Kürner J, Frangakis A, Baumeister W. Cryo-electron tomography reveals the cytoskeletal structure of Spiroplasma melliferum. Science. 2005;307:436-8 pubmed
    ..We used cryo-electron tomography to study the three-dimensional structure of Spiroplasma melliferum cells in a close-to-native state at approximately 4-nanometer resolution...
  12. Łukasik P, van Asch M, Guo H, Ferrari J, Godfray H. Unrelated facultative endosymbionts protect aphids against a fungal pathogen. Ecol Lett. 2013;16:214-8 pubmed publisher
    ..conferred by strains of four distantly related symbionts (in the genera Regiella, Rickettsia, Rickettsiella and Spiroplasma)...
  13. Anbutsu H, Goto S, Fukatsu T. High and low temperatures differently affect infection density and vertical transmission of male-killing Spiroplasma symbionts in Drosophila hosts. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:6053-9 pubmed publisher
    We investigated the vertical transmission, reproductive phenotype, and infection density of a male-killing Spiroplasma symbiont in two Drosophila species under physiological high and low temperatures through successive host generations...
  14. Tsuchida T, Koga R, Shibao H, Matsumoto T, Fukatsu T. Diversity and geographic distribution of secondary endosymbiotic bacteria in natural populations of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Mol Ecol. 2002;11:2123-35 pubmed
    ..pisum using a specific PCR detection technique. Five S-symbionts of A. pisum, PASS, PAUS, PABS, Rickettsia and Spiroplasma, and two facultative endosymbionts universally found in various insects, Wolbachia and Arsenophonus, were ..
  15. Jaenike J, Stahlhut J, Boelio L, Unckless R. Association between Wolbachia and Spiroplasma within Drosophila neotestacea: an emerging symbiotic mutualism?. Mol Ecol. 2010;19:414-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Drosophila neotestacea is infected with maternally transmitted Wolbachia and Spiroplasma, which are cotransmitted at high frequency in natural populations...
  16. Jaenike J, Brekke T. Defensive endosymbionts: a cryptic trophic level in community ecology. Ecol Lett. 2011;14:150-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent discoveries show that some endosymbionts protect their hosts from pathogens or parasites. Spiroplasma, an endosymbiont of Drosophila neotestacea, protects female hosts from the sterilizing effects of parasitism by ..
  17. Williamson D, Adams J, Whitcomb R, Tully J, Carle P, Konai M, et al. Spiroplasma platyhelix sp. nov., a new mollicute with unusual morphology and genome size from the dragonfly Pachydiplax longipennis. Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1997;47:763-6 pubmed
    b>Spiroplasma strain PALS-1T from the gut of the dragonfly Pachydiplax longipennis was shown to be distinct from other species, groups, and subgroups of the genus Spiroplasma as determined by reciprocal serological metabolism inhibition ..
  18. Regassa L, Gasparich G. Spiroplasmas: evolutionary relationships and biodiversity. Front Biosci. 2006;11:2983-3002 pubmed
    ..Co-evolution with their insect hosts may account for the highly speciose nature of the genus Spiroplasma, with many spiroplasmas existing in obligate insect/plant transmission cycles...
  19. Liang T, Ji H, Lian L, Wu T, Gu W, Wang W. A rapid assay for simultaneous detection of Spiroplasma eriocheiris and white spot syndrome virus in Procambarus clarkii by multiplex PCR. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2010;51:532-8 pubmed publisher
    To establish a multiplex PCR method for simultaneous and rapid detection of Spiroplasma eriocheiris and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in Procambarus clarkii with recommendations for application to other crustacea.
  20. Lo W, Ku C, Chen L, Chang T, Kuo C. Comparison of metabolic capacities and inference of gene content evolution in mosquito-associated Spiroplasma diminutum and S. taiwanense. Genome Biol Evol. 2013;5:1512-23 pubmed publisher
    Mosquitoes are hosts of several Spiroplasma species that belong to different serogroups...
  21. Carpane P, Melcher U, Wayadande A, de la Paz Gimenez Pecci M, Laguna G, Dolezal W, et al. An analysis of the genomic variability of the phytopathogenic mollicute Spiroplasma kunkelii. Phytopathology. 2013;103:129-34 pubmed publisher
    ..that could affect the stability of host resistance, we assessed the genome variability of the etiologic agent, Spiroplasma kunkelii...
  22. Haselkorn T. The Spiroplasma heritable bacterial endosymbiont of Drosophila. Fly (Austin). 2010;4:80-7 pubmed
    Since the discovery of the small, gram-positive bacteria, Spiroplasma, as a sex-ratio distorting agent in Drosophila over 50 years ago, substantial progress has been made in understanding the relationship of this bacteria with its insect ..
  23. Chipman P, Agbandje McKenna M, Renaudin J, Baker T, McKenna R. Structural analysis of the Spiroplasma virus, SpV4: implications for evolutionary variation to obtain host diversity among the Microviridae. Structure. 1998;6:135-45 pubmed
    b>Spiroplasma virus, SpV4, is a small, non-enveloped virus that infects the helical mollicute Spiroplasma melliferum. SpV4 exhibits several similarities to the Chlamydia phage, Chp1, and the Coliphages alpha 3, phi K, G4 and phi X174...
  24. Williamson D, Sakaguchi B, Hackett K, Whitcomb R, Tully J, Carle P, et al. Spiroplasma poulsonii sp. nov., a new species associated with male-lethality in Drosophila willistoni, a neotropical species of fruit fly. Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1999;49 Pt 2:611-8 pubmed
    ..In 1979, the SR organisms were designated as group II in the informal spiroplasma classification system...
  25. Davis R, Dally E, Jomantiene R, Zhao Y, Roe B, Lin S, et al. Cryptic plasmid pSKU146 from the wall-less plant pathogen Spiroplasma kunkelii encodes an adhesin and components of a type IV translocation-related conjugation system. Plasmid. 2005;53:179-90 pubmed publisher
    A cryptic plasmid of the wall-less plant pathogenic mollicute, Spiroplasma kunkelii CR2-3X, was cloned and its sequence analyzed...
  26. Fukatsu T, Tsuchida T, Nikoh N, Koga R. Spiroplasma symbiont of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Insecta: Homoptera). Appl Environ Microbiol. 2001;67:1284-91 pubmed
    ..Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on 16S ribosomal DNA revealed that the bacterium is a member of the genus Spiroplasma. The Spiroplasma organism showed stable vertical transmission through successive generations of the host...
  27. Osaka R, Nomura M, Watada M, Kageyama D. Negative effects of low temperatures on the vertical transmission and infection density of a spiroplasma endosymbiont in Drosophila hydei. Curr Microbiol. 2008;57:335-9 pubmed publisher
    Maternally transmitted endosymbionts of the genus Spiroplasma infecting several species of Drosophila are known to cause selective death of male offspring (male killing)...
  28. Bai X, Fazzolari T, Hogenhout S. Identification and characterization of traE genes of Spiroplasma kunkelii. Gene. 2004;336:81-91 pubmed publisher
    ..and traE4, were identified and amplified from the genome of the leafhopper-transmitted corn stunt pathogen Spiroplasma kunkelii and were predicted to encode membrane-bound adenine tri-phosphatases (ATPases)...
  29. Jaenike J, Polak M, Fiskin A, Helou M, Minhas M. Interspecific transmission of endosymbiotic Spiroplasma by mites. Biol Lett. 2007;3:23-5 pubmed
    ..whether ectoparasitic mites, which feed on insect haemolymph, can serve as interspecific vectors of Spiroplasma poulsonii, a male-killing endosymbiont of Drosophila...
  30. Trachtenberg S, Andrews S, Leapman R. Mass distribution and spatial organization of the linear bacterial motor of Spiroplasma citri R8A2. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:1987-94 pubmed
    In the simple, helical, wall-less bacterial genus Spiroplasma, chemotaxis and motility are effected by a linear, contractile motor arranged as a flat cytoskeletal ribbon attached to the inner side of the membrane along the shortest ..
  31. Melcher U, Sha Y, Ye F, Fletcher J. Mechanisms of spiroplasma genome variation associated with SpV1-like viral DNA inferred from sequence comparisons. Microb Comp Genomics. 1999;4:29-46 pubmed
    Genomes of Spiroplasma citri strains have rearranged frequently during their evolution, partly due to multiple integrated sequences of spiroplasma viruses...
  32. Taroura S, Shimada Y, Sakata Y, Miyama T, Hiraoka H, Watanabe M, et al. Detection of DNA of 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' and Spiroplasma sp. in unfed ticks collected from vegetation in Japan. J Vet Med Sci. 2005;67:1277-9 pubmed
    ..This finding suggests that ixodid tick is a possible vector of 'C. Mycoplasma haemominutum'. Spiroplasma DNA was also detected from unfed I. ovatus in Hokkaido, Fukushima and Yamaguchi Prefectures...
  33. Meeus I, Vercruysse V, Smagghe G. Molecular detection of Spiroplasma apis and Spiroplasma melliferum in bees. J Invertebr Pathol. 2012;109:172-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Spiroplasma apis and Spiroplasma melliferum are known as honey bee pathogens and are detected by unspecific methodologies like culturing or dark field microscopy...
  34. Nunan L, Pantoja C, Salazar M, Aranguren F, Lightner D. Characterization and molecular methods for detection of a novel spiroplasma pathogenic to Penaeus vannamei. Dis Aquat Organ. 2004;62:255-64 pubmed
    Traditionally, Spiroplasma spp. have only been isolated from the surfaces of flowers and other plant parts, from the guts and hemolymph of various insects, and from vascular plant fluids (phloem sap) and insects that feed on these fluids...
  35. Sha Y, Melcher U, Davis R, Fletcher J. Common elements of spiroplasma plectroviruses revealed by nucleotide sequence of SVTS2. Virus Genes. 2000;20:47-56 pubmed
    DNA of SpV1-like spiroplasma plectroviruses (rods with single-stranded circular DNA) is scattered in the genome of the phytopathogen Spiroplasma citri and has significant consequences for evolution of the S. citri genome...
  36. Jiggins F, Hurst G, Jiggins C, v d Schulenburg J, Majerus M. The butterfly Danaus chrysippus is infected by a male-killing Spiroplasma bacterium. Parasitology. 2000;120 ( Pt 5):439-46 pubmed
    ..Using diagnostic PCR and rDNA sequence, the bacterium was identified as a Spiroplasma closely related to 2 ladybird beetle male-killers and the tick symbiont Spiroplasma ixodetis...
  37. Martins A, Ventura I, Klaczko L. Spiroplasma infection in Drosophila melanogaster: what is the advantage of killing males?. J Invertebr Pathol. 2010;105:145-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Fitness effects conditioned by the host genetic background are pointed out as a possible explanation for this difference between wild and laboratory flies. Our findings are discussed in the context of the resource advantage hypothesis...
  38. Pool J, Wong A, Aquadro C. Finding of male-killing Spiroplasma infecting Drosophila melanogaster in Africa implies transatlantic migration of this endosymbiont. Heredity (Edinb). 2006;97:27-32 pubmed
    We report the identification of male-killing Spiroplasma in a wild-caught female Drosophila melanogaster from Uganda, the first such infection to be found in this species outside of South America...
  39. Gilad R, Porat A, Trachtenberg S. Motility modes of Spiroplasma melliferum BC3: a helical, wall-less bacterium driven by a linear motor. Mol Microbiol. 2003;47:657-69 pubmed
    b>Spiroplasma are members of the Mollicutes (Mycoplasma, Acholeplasma and Spiroplasma) - the simplest, minimal, free-living and self-replicating forms of life...
  40. Hutchence K, Padé R, Swift H, Bennett D, Hurst G. Phenotype and transmission efficiency of artificial and natural male-killing Spiroplasma infections in Drosophila melanogaster. J Invertebr Pathol. 2012;109:243-7 pubmed publisher
    Many insect species carry inherited Spiroplasma bacteria which act as important partners and antagonists...
  41. Bai X, Zhang J, Holford I, Hogenhout S. Comparative genomics identifies genes shared by distantly related insect-transmitted plant pathogenic mollicutes. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2004;235:249-58 pubmed
    ..Genome sequencing projects of phytoplasma strain Aster Yellows-Witches' Broom (AY-WB) and Spiroplasma kunkelii are near completion...
  42. Zhao Y, Hammond R, Jomantiene R, Dally E, Lee I, Jia H, et al. Gene content and organization of an 85-kb DNA segment from the genome of the phytopathogenic mollicute Spiroplasma kunkelii. Mol Genet Genomics. 2003;269:592-602 pubmed
    b>Spiroplasma kunkelii, the causative agent of corn stunt disease in maize (Zea maysL.), is a helical, cell wall-less prokaryote assigned to the class Mollicutes. As part of a project to sequence the entire S...
  43. Henning K, Greiner Fischer S, Hotzel H, Ebsen M, Theegarten D. Isolation of Spiroplasma sp. from an Ixodes tick. Int J Med Microbiol. 2006;296 Suppl 40:157-61 pubmed
    Spiroplasmas are helical mycoplasmas which are found in plants and arthropods, also in ticks. Some Spiroplasma species are incriminated as potential pathogens for vertebrates...
  44. Duret S, Berho N, Danet J, Garnier M, Renaudin J. Spiralin is not essential for helicity, motility, or pathogenicity but is required for efficient transmission of Spiroplasma citri by its leafhopper vector Circulifer haematoceps. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003;69:6225-34 pubmed
    Spiralin is the most abundant protein at the surface of the plant pathogenic mollicute Spiroplasma citri and hence might play a role in the interactions of the spiroplasma with its host plant and/or its insect vector...
  45. Kageyama D, Anbutsu H, Shimada M, Fukatsu T. Effects of host genotype against the expression of spiroplasma-induced male killing in Drosophila melanogaster. Heredity (Edinb). 2009;102:475-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we examined the intensity of spiroplasma-induced male killing in various wild-type stocks of Drosophila melanogaster to clarify the genetic basis of the ..
  46. Nunan L, Lightner D, Oduori M, Gasparich G. Spiroplasma penaei sp. nov., associated with mortalities in Penaeus vannamei, Pacific white shrimp. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2005;55:2317-22 pubmed
    ..The G+C content of the DNA was 29 +/-1 mol%. Strain SHRIMP(T) (=ATCC BAA-1082T=CAIM 1252T) is designated the type strain of a novel species, Spiroplasma penaei sp. nov., which represents a new subgroup (I-9) of the group I spiroplasmas.
  47. Kageyama D, Anbutsu H, Watada M, Hosokawa T, Shimada M, Fukatsu T. Prevalence of a non-male-killing spiroplasma in natural populations of Drosophila hydei. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:6667-73 pubmed
    ..In several species of Drosophila, male-killing endosymbionts of the genus Spiroplasma have been found at low frequencies (0.1 to 3%)...
  48. Lo W, Chen L, Chung W, Gasparich G, Kuo C. Comparative genome analysis of Spiroplasma melliferum IPMB4A, a honeybee-associated bacterium. BMC Genomics. 2013;14:22 pubmed publisher
    The genus Spiroplasma contains a group of helical, motile, and wall-less bacteria in the class Mollicutes...
  49. Goto S, Anbutsu H, Fukatsu T. Asymmetrical interactions between Wolbachia and Spiroplasma endosymbionts coexisting in the same insect host. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:4805-10 pubmed
    We investigated the interactions between the endosymbionts Wolbachia pipientis strain wMel and Spiroplasma sp. strain NSRO coinfecting the host insect Drosophila melanogaster...
  50. Shaevitz J, Lee J, Fletcher D. Spiroplasma swim by a processive change in body helicity. Cell. 2005;122:941-5 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that Spiroplasma, tiny helical bacteria that infect plants and insects, use a very different approach...
  51. Kageyama D, Anbutsu H, Shimada M, Fukatsu T. Spiroplasma infection causes either early or late male killing in Drosophila, depending on maternal host age. Naturwissenschaften. 2007;94:333-7 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila species, endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Spiroplasma have been known to cause early male killing...
  52. Montenegro H, Petherwick A, Hurst G, Klaczko L. Fitness effects of Wolbachia and Spiroplasma in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetica. 2006;127:207-15 pubmed
    ..This species carries a cytoplasmic incompatibility inducing Wolbachia and a male-killing Spiroplasma, occurring as single or double (co-) infections in natural populations...
  53. Diblasi E, Morse S, Mayberry J, Avila L, Morando M, Dittmar K. New Spiroplasma in parasitic Leptus mites and their Agathemera walking stick hosts from Argentina. J Invertebr Pathol. 2011;107:225-8 pubmed publisher
    Here we report the presence of Spiroplasma 16S rRNA in populations of two parasitic Leptus mites (Leptus sayi; Leptus lomani) and their Agathemera walking stick hosts...
  54. Trachtenberg S, Gilad R, Geffen N. The bacterial linear motor of Spiroplasma melliferum BC3: from single molecules to swimming cells. Mol Microbiol. 2003;47:671-97 pubmed
    b>Spiroplasma melliferum BC3 are wall-less bacteria with internal cytoskeletons...
  55. Mateos M, Castrezana S, Nankivell B, Estes A, Markow T, Moran N. Heritable endosymbionts of Drosophila. Genetics. 2006;174:363-76 pubmed
    ..Only Wolbachia and Spiroplasma, both widespread in insects, were confirmed as symbionts...
  56. Xie J, Vilchez I, Mateos M. Spiroplasma bacteria enhance survival of Drosophila hydei attacked by the parasitic wasp Leptopilina heterotoma. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12149 pubmed publisher
  57. Tabata J, Hattori Y, Sakamoto H, Yukuhiro F, Fujii T, Kugimiya S, et al. Male killing and incomplete inheritance of a novel spiroplasma in the moth Ostrinia zaguliaevi. Microb Ecol. 2011;61:254-63 pubmed publisher
    Bacteria of the genus Spiroplasma are widely found in plants and arthropods. Some of the maternally transmitted Spiroplasma endosymbionts in arthropods are known to kill young male hosts (male killing)...
  58. Zhao Y, Davis R, Lee I. Phylogenetic positions of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris' and Spiroplasma kunkelii as inferred from multiple sets of concatenated core housekeeping proteins. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2005;55:2131-41 pubmed
    ..The availability of the first complete phytoplasma and several partial spiroplasma and phytoplasma genome sequences made possible an investigation of evolutionary relationships between ..
  59. Hurst G, Graf von der Schulenburg J, Majerus T, Bertrand D, Zakharov I, Baungaard J, et al. Invasion of one insect species, Adalia bipunctata, by two different male-killing bacteria. Insect Mol Biol. 1999;8:133-9 pubmed
    ..Rather, 16S rDNA sequence analysis suggests male-killing is associated with a member of the genus Spiroplasma. We discuss this conclusion in relation to the evolutionary genetics of male-killing bacteria, and the ..
  60. Saillard C, Carle P, Duret Nurbel S, Henri R, Killiny N, Carrère S, et al. The abundant extrachromosomal DNA content of the Spiroplasma citri GII3-3X genome. BMC Genomics. 2008;9:195 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to characterize candidate genes potentially involved in spiroplasma transmission and pathogenicity, the genome of S. citri strain GII3-3X is currently being deciphered.
  61. Cohen Krausz S, Cabahug P, Trachtenberg S. The monomeric, tetrameric, and fibrillar organization of Fib: the dynamic building block of the bacterial linear motor of Spiroplasma melliferum BC3. J Mol Biol. 2011;410:194-213 pubmed publisher
    ..Fib, we determined the overall molecular organization of the Fib monomer, tetramer, fibril, and linear motor of Spiroplasma melliferum BC3 that underlies cell geometry and motility...
  62. Wolgemuth C, Charon N. The kinky propulsion of Spiroplasma. Cell. 2005;122:827-8 pubmed
    ..In this issue of Cell, Shaevitz et al. (2005) describe the swimming movement of a helical bacterium called Spiroplasma. They discover that Spiroplasma propels itself by generating two temporally distinct kinks that travel the ..
  63. Trachtenberg S. The cytoskeleton of spiroplasma: a complex linear motor. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2006;11:265-83 pubmed
    b>Spiroplasma are wall-less, helical bacteria from the class Mollicutes...
  64. Trachtenberg S, Gilad R. A bacterial linear motor: cellular and molecular organization of the contractile cytoskeleton of the helical bacterium Spiroplasma melliferum BC3. Mol Microbiol. 2001;41:827-48 pubmed
    The Mollicutes (Mycoplasma, Acholeplasma, and Spiroplasma) are the smallest, simplest and most primitive free-living and self-replicating known cells...
  65. Dally E, Barros T, Zhao Y, Lin S, Roe B, Davis R. Physical and genetic map of the Spiroplasma kunkelii CR2-3x chromosome. Can J Microbiol. 2006;52:857-67 pubmed
    b>Spiroplasma kunkelii (class Mollicutes) is the characteristically helical, wall-less bacterium that causes corn stunt disease...
  66. Bastian F, Boudreaux C, Hagius S, Bulgin M, Sorensen Melson S, Enright F, et al. Spiroplasma found in the eyes of scrapie affected sheep. Vet Ophthalmol. 2011;14:10-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we set out to demonstrate similar retinal changes in our ruminant spiroplasmosis TSE model...
  67. Lartigue C, Duret S, Garnier M, Renaudin J. New plasmid vectors for specific gene targeting in Spiroplasma citri. Plasmid. 2002;48:149-59 pubmed
    In Spiroplasma citri gene inactivation through homologous recombination has been achieved by using the replicative, oriC plasmid pBOT1 as the disruption vector...
  68. Herren J, Lemaitre B. Spiroplasma and host immunity: activation of humoral immune responses increases endosymbiont load and susceptibility to certain Gram-negative bacterial pathogens in Drosophila melanogaster. Cell Microbiol. 2011;13:1385-96 pubmed publisher
    b>Spiroplasma poulsonii and its relatives are facultative, vertically transmitted endosymbionts harboured by several Drosophila species...
  69. Alexeev D, Kostrjukova E, Aliper A, Popenko A, Bazaleev N, Tyakht A, et al. Application of Spiroplasma melliferum proteogenomic profiling for the discovery of virulence factors and pathogenicity mechanisms in host-associated spiroplasmas. J Proteome Res. 2012;11:224-36 pubmed publisher
    To date, no genome of any of the species from the genus Spiroplasma has been completely sequenced. Long repetitive sequences similar to mobile units present a major obstacle for current genome sequencing technologies...
  70. Heres A, Lightner D. Phylogenetic analysis of the pathogenic bacteria Spiroplasma penaei based on multilocus sequence analysis. J Invertebr Pathol. 2010;103:30-5 pubmed publisher
    A pathogenic Spiroplasma penaei strain was isolated from the hemolymph of moribund Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei...
  71. Wang W, Wen B, Gasparich G, Zhu N, Rong L, Chen J, et al. A spiroplasma associated with tremor disease in the Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis). Microbiology. 2004;150:3035-40 pubmed
    ..Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene found it to have 98 % identity with that of Spiroplasma mirum...
  72. Ku C, Lo W, Chen L, Kuo C. Complete genomes of two dipteran-associated spiroplasmas provided insights into the origin, dynamics, and impacts of viral invasion in spiroplasma. Genome Biol Evol. 2013;5:1151-64 pubmed publisher
    b>Spiroplasma is a genus of wall-less, low-GC, Gram-positive bacteria with helical morphology...
  73. Weinert L, Tinsley M, Temperley M, Jiggins F. Are we underestimating the diversity and incidence of insect bacterial symbionts? A case study in ladybird beetles. Biol Lett. 2007;3:678-81 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, 11 out of the 17 symbionts discovered by us were either in the genus Rickettsia or Spiroplasma, which are rarely sampled...
  74. Goodacre S, Martin O, Bonte D, Hutchings L, Woolley C, Ibrahim K, et al. Microbial modification of host long-distance dispersal capacity. BMC Biol. 2009;7:32 pubmed publisher
    ..This spider persists in heterogeneous environments because of its ability to recolonise areas through active long-distance airborne dispersal using silk as a sail, in a process termed 'ballooning'...
  75. Haselkorn T, Markow T, Moran N. Multiple introductions of the Spiroplasma bacterial endosymbiont into Drosophila. Mol Ecol. 2009;18:1294-305 pubmed publisher
    ..So far, the only heritable symbionts found in Drosophila have been Wolbachia and Spiroplasma. While the incidence and effects of Wolbachia have been studied extensively, the prevalence and significance of ..